Geotechnical investigation and testing - Sampling methods and groundwater measurements - Part 1: Technical principles for the sampling of soil, rock and groundwater (ISO 22475-1:2021)

This document deals with principles of sampling of soil, rock and groundwater as part of the programme
of geotechnical investigation and testing.
NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirements for sampling of soil, rock and groundwater, and groundwater
measurements as part of the programme of geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and
EN 1997-2.
The aims of such ground investigations are:
a) to recover soil, rock and water samples of a quality appropriate to assess the general suitability of a
site for geotechnical engineering purposes and to determine the required ground characteristics in
the laboratory;
b) to obtain information on the sequence, thickness and orientation of strata and discontinuities;
c) to establish the type, composition and condition of strata;
d) to obtain information on groundwater conditions and recover water samples for assessment of the
interaction of groundwater, soil, rock and construction material.
Soil sampling for the purposes of agricultural and environmental soil investigation is not covered.
NOTE 2 Guidance on soil sampling for these purposes including of contaminated or potentially contaminated
sites is provided in the ISO 18400 series. ISO 18400-204 provides in addition guidance on sampling and
measurement of soil (ground) gas.
NOTE 3 The sampling methods, presented in this document may not be suitable for all types of soil e.g. peat
with strong fibrous structure.
NOTE 4 Some of the sampling methods presented in this document are suitable for both soil and rock.
Water sampling for the purposes of quality control, quality characterisation and identification of
sources of pollution of water, including bottom deposits and sludges, is not covered.
NOTE 5 Water sampling for these purposes can be found in the ISO 5667 series

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Probenentnahmeverfahren und Grundwassermessungen - Teil 1: Technische Grundlagen für die Probenentnahme von Boden, Fels und Grundwasser (ISO 22475-1:2021)

Dieses Dokument behandelt die Grundlagen für die Entnahme von Proben von Boden, Fels und Grundwasser als Teil des Programms zur geotechnischen Erkundung und Untersuchung.
ANMERKUNG 1 Dieses Dokument erfüllt die Anforderungen an die Entnahme von Proben von Boden, Fels und Grundwasser sowie an Grundwassermessungen als Teil des Programms zur geotechnischen Erkundung und Untersuchung nach EN 1997 1 und EN 1997 2.
Diese Erkundungen dienen:
a) der Gewinnung von Boden-, Fels- und Wasserproben in einer Qualität, die es erlaubt, die allgemeine Eignung des Baugrundes für geotechnische Zwecke zu beurteilen und die geforderten Baugrundeigenschaften im Labor zu bestimmen;
b) der Feststellung von Folge, Dicke und räumlicher Lage der Schichten und Trennflächen;
c) der Feststellung von Art, Zusammensetzung und Zustand der einzelnen Schichten;
d) der Feststellung der Grundwasserverhältnisse im Baugrund, Entnahme von Wasserproben für die Beurteilung der Wechselwirkung zwischen Grundwasser, Boden, Fels und Baustoffen.
Die Gewinnung von Bodenproben für landwirtschaftliche und umweltbezogene Bodenuntersuchungen wird nicht behandelt.
ANMERKUNG 2 Eine Anleitung zur Entnahme von Bodenproben für diese Zwecke einschließlich kontaminierter oder potentiell kontaminierter Untersuchungsstellen kann der Normenreihe ISO 18400 entnommen werden. In ISO 18400 204 ist zudem eine Anleitung zur Probenentnahme und Messung von Bodengas angegeben.
ANMERKUNG 3 Die in diesem Dokument angegebenen Verfahren der Probenentnahme sind möglicherweise nicht für alle Bodenarten geeignet, z. B. Torf mit einer starken Faserstruktur.
ANMERKUNG 4 Einige der in diesem Dokument angegebenen Probenentnahmeverfahren sind sowohl für Boden und für Fels geeignet.
Die Norm gilt auch nicht für die Gewinnung von Wasserproben zur Kontrolle der Eignung, Beschaffenheit und Erkennung von Wasserverunreinigungsquellen, einschließlich Ablagerung und Schlämmen.
ANMERKUNG 5 Die Gewinnung von Wasserproben für diese Zwecke wird in der Normenreihe ISO 5667 behandelt.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Méthodes de prélèvement et mesurages piézométriques - Partie 1: Principes techniques pour le prélèvement des sols, des roches et des eaux souterraines (ISO 22475-1:2021)

Le présent document traite des principes de prélèvement d’échantillons de sol, de roche et d’eau souterraine dans le cadre du programme de reconnaissance et d’essais géotechniques.
NOTE 1   Le présent document remplit les exigences relatives aux méthodes de prélèvement d’échantillons de sol, de roche et d’eau souterraine et aux mesurages piézométriques dans le cadre du programme de reconnaissance et d’essais géotechniques selon l’EN 1997-1 et l’EN 1997-2.
Ces reconnaissances ont pour objectifs:
a) de prélever des échantillons de sol, de roche et d’eau d’une qualité appropriée pour évaluer le caractère adéquat d’un site à des fins d’ingénierie géotechnique et pour déterminer en laboratoire les caractéristiques requises concernant le terrain;
b) d’obtenir des informations relatives à la succession, à l’épaisseur et à l’orientation des couches et des discontinuités;
c) d’établir le type, la composition et la nature de la succession de couches;
d) d’obtenir des informations sur l’état de l’eau souterraine et de prélever des échantillons d’eau en vue d’évaluer l’interaction entre l’eau souterraine, le sol, la roche et le matériau de construction.
Le prélèvement de sol en vue d’une reconnaissance agricole et environnementale n’est pas couvert par le présent document.
NOTE 2   Des directives sur le prélèvement de sol à ces fins incluant les sites contaminés ou potentiellement contaminés sont contenues dans la série ISO 18400. La norme ISO 18400-204 donne en outre des indications sur le prélèvement et la mesure du gaz du sol (terrain).
NOTE 3   Les méthodes de prélèvement décrites dans le présent document peuvent ne pas convenir à tous les types de sol, par exemple la tourbe à structure fibreuse forte.
NOTE 4   Certaines des méthodes de prélèvement décrites dans le présent document peuvent convenir au sol et à la roche.
Le prélèvement de l’eau à des fins de contrôle de la qualité, de caractérisation de la qualité et d’identification des sources de pollution de l’eau, y compris les sédiments et les boues, n’est pas couvert par le présent document.
NOTE 5   Le prélèvement de l’eau à ces fins est traité par la série ISO 5667.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Metode vzorčenja in merjenje podzemne vode - 1. del: Tehnična načela za vzorčenje zemlje, skal in podzemne vode (ISO 22475-1:2021)

Ta dokument opisuje načela vzorčenja zemlje, skal in podzemne vode v okviru programa geotehničnega preiskovanja oziroma preskušanja.
OPOMBA 1: Ta dokument izpolnjuje zahteve za vzorčenje zemlje, skal in podzemne vode ter merjenje podzemne vode v okviru programa geotehničnega preiskovanja oziroma preskušanja v skladu s standardoma EN 1997-1 in EN 1997-2.
Cilj tovrstnih preiskav tal je:
a) pridobiti vzorce zemlje, skal in vode ustrezne kakovosti za oceno splošne primernosti
območja za geotehnične namene v gradbeništvu in za laboratorijsko določitev zahtevanih lastnosti tal;
b) pridobiti informacije o sosledju, debelini ter legi oziroma usmerjenosti plasti in nezveznosti;
c) določiti vrsto, sestavo in stanje plasti;
d) pridobiti informacije o stanju podzemne vode in vzorce vode, da se izvede ocena medsebojnega vplivanja podzemne vode, zemlje, skal in gradbenega materiala.
Vzorčenje zemlje za namene kmetijske in okoljske preiskave zemlje ni zajeto.
OPOMBA 2: Smernice za vzorčenje zemlje za te namene, vključno z onesnaženimi oziroma potencialno onesnaženimi območji, so podane v skupini standardov ISO 18400. Standard ISO 18400-204 podaja tudi smernice za vzorčenje in merjenje plinov iz zemlje (tal).
OPOMBA 3: Metode vzorčenja, predstavljene v tem dokumentu, morda niso primerne za vse vrste zemlje (npr. šoto z močno vlaknasto strukturo).
OPOMBA 4: Nekatere metode vzorčenja, predstavljene v tem dokumentu, so primerne tako za zemljo kot skale.
Vzorčenje vode za namene nadzora kakovosti, opredelitve kakovosti in določitve virov onesnaževanja vode, vključno z usedlinami in blatom na dnu, ni zajeto.
OPOMBA 5: Vzorčenje vode za te namene je na voljo v skupini standardov ISO 5667.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Jan-2019
Publication Date
14-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
15-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
01-marec-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2007
Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Metode vzorčenja in merjenje
podzemne vode - 1. del: Tehnična načela za vzorčenje zemlje, skal in podzemne
vode (ISO 22475-1:2021)
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Sampling methods and groundwater
measurements - Part 1: Technical principles for the sampling of soil, rock and
groundwater (ISO 22475-1:2021)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Probenentnahmeverfahren und
Grundwassermessungen - Teil 1: Technische Grundlagen für die Probenentnahme von
Boden, Fels und Grundwasser (ISO 22475-1:2021)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Méthodes de prélèvement et mesurages

piézométriques - Partie 1: Principes techniques pour le prélèvement des sols, des

roches et des eaux souterraines (ISO 22475-1:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22475-1:2021
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
EN ISO 22475-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.020 Supersedes EN ISO 22475-1:2006
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Sampling methods
and groundwater measurements - Part 1: Technical
principles for the sampling of soil, rock and groundwater
(ISO 22475-1:2021)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Méthodes de Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

prélèvement et mesurages piézométriques - Partie 1: Probenentnahmeverfahren für Boden, Fels und

Principes techniques pour le prélèvement des sols, des Grundwasser - Teil 1: Technische Grundlagen (ISO

roches et des eaux souterraines (ISO 22475-1:2021) 22475-1:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 September 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22475-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
EN ISO 22475-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
EN ISO 22475-1:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 22475-1:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

"Geotechnics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2022, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 22475-1:2006.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22475-1:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22475-1:2021 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22475-1
Second edition
2021-10
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Sampling methods and
groundwater measurements —
Part 1:
Technical principles for the sampling
of soil, rock and groundwater
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Méthodes de prélèvement
et mesurages piézométriques —
Partie 1: Principes techniques pour le prélèvement des sols, des roches
et des eaux souterraines
Reference number
ISO 22475-1:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
ISO 22475-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
ISO 22475-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Ground investigation methods ................................................................................................................................................. 2

3.2 Drilling rigs and equipment ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.3 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Rock and soil properties ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

3.5 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1 Requirements for the drilling rigs and equipment ............................................................................................. 10

4.2 Drilling parameters ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.3 Safety and special requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 10

5 Procedures ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 General requirements for sampling .................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Selection of techniques and methods .............................................................................................................................. 11

5.3 Sampling categories for soil ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.3.2 Sample disturbance ...................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.3.3 Category A sampling ....................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.4 Category B sampling .................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.5 Category C sampling ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.6 Category D sampling .................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.7 Category E sampling..................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.4 Sampling categories for rock .................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.4.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.4.2 Sampling disturbance ................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.4.3 Category A sampling .................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.4.4 Category B sampling .................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.4.5 Category C sampling ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.4.6 Category D sampling .................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.4.7 Category E sampling..................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.5 Sampling in trial pits, other excavations, headings and shafts ................................................................ 15

5.6 Requirements for ground investigation sites and points .............................................................................. 15

5.7 Preliminary information needed before starting sampling ....................................................................... 16

5.8 Backfilling and site reinstatement ..................................................................................................................................... 16

6 Soil sampling methods ........................................................................................................................................... .....................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17

6.2 Sampling by drilling (continuous sampling) ............................................................................................................. 17

6.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.2.2 Sampling by rotary drilling ................................................................................................................................... 26

6.2.3 Sampling by use of hammer driving methods ......................................................................................28

6.2.4 Sampling by cable percussion drilling .........................................................................................................28

6.2.5 Sampling by hollow stem auger drilling .....................................................................................................28

6.2.6 Sampling by grab drilling ........................................................................................................................................28

6.2.7 Soil sampling by small diameter drilling ...................................................................................................29

6.2.8 Sampling by resonance drilling .........................................................................................................................29

6.3 Sampling using samplers ............................................................................................................................................................ 29

6.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................29

6.3.2 Sampling using the open-tube sampler and the piston sampler ...........................................33

6.3.3 Sampling using the standard penetration test sampler ...............................................................38

6.3.4 Sampling by using the window sampler .....................................................................................................38

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
ISO 22475-1:2021(E)

6.3.5 Sampling using the windowless sampler ..................................................................................................38

6.4 Block sampling .....................................................................................................................................................................................38

6.4.1 Sampling from trial pits ............................................................................................................................................38

6.4.2 Sampling using large samplers ........................................................................................................................... 39

7 Rock sampling methods ............................................................................................................................................................................39

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................39

7.2 Sampling by drilling ........................................................................................................................................................................ 43

7.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

7.2.2 Sampling by rotary dry core drilling ............................................................................................................ 43

7.2.3 Sampling by rotary core drilling ....................................................................................................................... 43

7.2.4 Sampling by wireline core drilling ..................................................................................................................44

7.2.5 Sampling of cuttings by rotary open hole drilling ............................................................................44

7.3 Block sampling .....................................................................................................................................................................................44

8 Groundwater sampling methods for geotechnical purposes ........................................................................... 44

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.2 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 45

8.3 Techniques of groundwater sampling ............................................................................................................................ 45

8.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 45

8.3.2 Extraction by pumping .............................................................................................................................................. 45

8.3.3 Extraction by water sampler ................................................................................................................................46

8.3.4 Extraction by vacuum bottles .............................................................................................................................46

9 Preservation, labelling, transport and storage of samples .................................................................................46

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.2 Preservation of samples ..............................................................................................................................................................46

9.3 Labelling of samples ....................................................................................................................................................................... 47

9.4 Transport and storage of samples ......................................................................................................................................48

9.4.1 General considerations ..............................................................................................................................................48

9.4.2 Sampling category A ....................................................................................................................................................48

9.4.3 Sampling category B to E .........................................................................................................................................49

9.4.4 Transport of water samples ..................................................................................................................................49

10 Report ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................50

10.1 Field report .............................................................................................................................................................................................50

10.1.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................50

10.1.2 Summary log ....................................................................................................................................................................... 50

10.1.3 Drilling record ................................................................................................................................................................... 51

10.1.4 Sampling record ............................................................................................................................................................... 51

10.1.5 Record of identification and description of soil and rock ........................................................... 52

10.1.6 Backfilling record ........................................................................................................................................................... 53

10.1.7 Record of groundwater measurements during drilling and sampling ...........................53

10.1.8 Daily record ......................................................................................................................................................................... 53

10.2 Report of the results .......................................................................................................................................................................53

Annex A (informative) Example of a form for the preliminary information on the intended

sampling .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

Annex B (informative) Field reports .................................................................................................................................................................57

Annex C (informative) Drilling and sampling equipment for soil and rock ............................................................65

Annex D (informative) Examples of commonly used samplers and sample types ...................................... 127

Annex E (informative) Vacuum bottles for groundwater sampling ............................................................................ 130

Annex F (informative) Sealing and securing samples ................................................................................................................ 132

Annex G (informative) Sampling of coarse soils by drilling ................................................................................................ 133

Annex H (informative) Sample quality ....................................................................................................................................................... 134

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................141

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
ISO 22475-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical

Investigation and Testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 22475-1:2006), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— clauses on groundwater measurement will be part of ISO 18674-4;
— new sampling categories for soils have been added;
— editorial updates have been made.
A list of all parts in the ISO 22475 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
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SIST EN ISO 22475-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22475-1:2021(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling
methods and groundwater measurements —
Part 1:
Technical principles for the sampling of soil, rock and
groundwater
1 Scope

This document deals with principles of sampling of soil, rock and groundwater as part of the programme

of geotechnical investigation and testing.

NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirements for sampling of soil, rock and groundwater, and groundwater

measurements as part of the programme of geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and

EN 1997-2.
The aims of such ground investigations are:

a) to recover soil, rock and water samples of a quality appropriate to assess the general suitability of a

site for geotechnical engineering purposes and to determine the required ground characteristics in

the laboratory;

b) to obtain information on the sequence, thickness and orientation of strata and discontinuities;

c) to establish the type, composition and condition of strata;

d) to obtain information on groundwater conditions and recover water samples for assessment of the

interaction of groundwater, soil, rock and construction material.

Soil sampling for the purposes of agricultural and environmental soil investigation is not covered.

NOTE 2 Guidance on soil sampling
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 22475-1:2019
01-januar-2019
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YRGHGHO7HKQLþQDQDþHOD ,62',6

Geotechnical investigation and testing - Sampling of soil, rock and groundwater - Part 1:

Technical principles (ISO/DIS 22475-1:2018)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Probenentnahmeverfahren und
Grundwassermessungen - Teil 1: Technische Grundlagen der Ausführung (ISO/DIS
22475-1:2018)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Prélèvements d'échantillons de sol, roche et

d'eau souterraine - Partie 1: Principes techniques (ISO/DIS 22475-1:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 22475-1
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
oSIST prEN ISO 22475-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 22475-1:2019
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oSIST prEN ISO 22475-1:2019
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 22475-1
ISO/TC 182 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2018-11-01 2019-01-24
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling of soil,
rock and groundwater —
Part 1:
Technical principles

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Prélèvements d'échantillons de sol, roche et d'eau souterraine —

Partie 1: Principes techniques
ICS: 93.020
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 22475-1:2018(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2018
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oSIST prEN ISO 22475-1:2019
ISO/DIS 22475-1
ISO/DIS 22475-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................9

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................9

3 Terms and definitions .........................................................................................................................10

3.1 Ground investigation methods ..........................................................................................................10

3.2 Drilling rigs and equipment................................................................................................................10

3.3 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................11

3.4 Abbreviations and Symbols ...............................................................................................................14

4 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................14

4.1 Requirements for the drilling rigs and equipment...........................................................................14

4.2 Drilling parameters..............................................................................................................................14

4.3 Safety and special requirements .......................................................................................................15

5 Procedures...........................................................................................................................................15

5.1 General requirements for sampling...................................................................................................15

5.2 Selection of techniques and methods...............................................................................................15

5.3 Sampling categories for soil ..............................................................................................................16

5.4 Sampling categories for rock.............................................................................................................18

5.5 Sampling in trial pits, other excavations, headings and shafts .....................................................19

5.6 Requirements for ground investigation sites and points ...............................................................20

5.7 Preliminary information needed before starting sampling and groundwater

measurements .....................................................................................................................................20

5.8 Backfilling and site reinstatement .....................................................................................................21

6 Soil sampling methods .......................................................................................................................21

6.1 General .................................................................................................................................................21

6.2 Categories of soil sampling methods ...............................................................................................21

6.3 Sampling by drilling (continuous sampling) ....................................................................................21

6.4 Sampling using samplers...................................................................................................................28

6.5 Block sampling ....................................................................................................................................35

7 Rock sampling methods.....................................................................................................................36

7.1 General .................................................................................................................................................36

7.2 Categories for rock sampling methods.............................................................................................36

7.3 Sampling by drilling ............................................................................................................................38

7.4 Block sampling ....................................................................................................................................39

8 Groundwater sampling methods for geotechnical purposes.........................................................39

8.1 General .................................................................................................................................................39

8.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................39

8.3 Techniques of groundwater sampling ..............................................................................................40

9 Preservation, labelling, transport and storage of samples.............................................................40

9.1 General .................................................................................................................................................40

9.2 Preservation of samples.....................................................................................................................41

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

9.3 Labelling of samples ...........................................................................................................................42

© ISO 2018

9.4 Transport and storage of samples ....................................................................................................42

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

10 Report ...................................................................................................................................................43

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

10.1 Field report...........................................................................................................................................43

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. 10.2 Report of the results ...........................................................................................................................48

ISO copyright office

Annex A (informative) Example of a form for the preliminary information on the intended

CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8

sampling and groundwater measurements....................................................................................49

CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11

Annex B (informative) Field reports ................................................................................................................51

Fax: +41 22 749 09 47

B.1 Summary log........................................................................................................................................51

Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/DIS 22475-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 9

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Ground investigation methods .......................................................................................................... 10

3.2 Drilling rigs and equipment ................................................................................................................ 10

3.3 Sampling............................................................................................................................................... 11

3.4 Abbreviations and Symbols ............................................................................................................... 14

4 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................ 14

4.1 Requirements for the drilling rigs and equipment ........................................................................... 14

4.2 Drilling parameters .............................................................................................................................. 14

4.3 Safety and special requirements ....................................................................................................... 15

5 Procedures ........................................................................................................................................... 15

5.1 General requirements for sampling ................................................................................................... 15

5.2 Selection of techniques and methods ............................................................................................... 15

5.3 Sampling categories for soil .............................................................................................................. 16

5.4 Sampling categories for rock ............................................................................................................. 18

5.5 Sampling in trial pits, other excavations, headings and shafts ..................................................... 19

5.6 Requirements for ground investigation sites and points ............................................................... 20

5.7 Preliminary information needed before starting sampling and groundwater

measurements ..................................................................................................................................... 20

5.8 Backfilling and site reinstatement ..................................................................................................... 21

6 Soil sampling methods ....................................................................................................................... 21

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 21

6.2 Categories of soil sampling methods ............................................................................................... 21

6.3 Sampling by drilling (continuous sampling) .................................................................................... 21

6.4 Sampling using samplers ................................................................................................................... 28

6.5 Block sampling .................................................................................................................................... 35

7 Rock sampling methods ..................................................................................................................... 36

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 36

7.2 Categories for rock sampling methods ............................................................................................. 36

7.3 Sampling by drilling ............................................................................................................................ 38

7.4 Block sampling .................................................................................................................................... 39

8 Groundwater sampling methods for geotechnical purposes ......................................................... 39

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 39

8.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................ 39

8.3 Techniques of groundwater sampling .............................................................................................. 40

9 Preservation, labelling, transport and storage of samples ............................................................. 40

9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 40

9.2 Preservation of samples ..................................................................................................................... 41

9.3 Labelling of samples ........................................................................................................................... 42

9.4 Transport and storage of samples .................................................................................................... 42

10 Report ................................................................................................................................................... 43

10.1 Field report ........................................................................................................................................... 43

10.2 Report of the results ........................................................................................................................... 48

Annex A (informative) Example of a form for the preliminary information on the intended

sampling and groundwater measurements .................................................................................... 49

Annex B (informative) Field reports ................................................................................................................ 51

B.1 Summary log ........................................................................................................................................ 51

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B.2 Drilling record ..................................................................................................................................... 52

B.3 Sampling record.................................................................................................................................. 53

B.4 Record of identification and description of soil and rock .............................................................. 54

B.5 Backfilling record................................................................................................................................ 56

B.6 Record of groundwater measurements ............................................................................................ 57

B.7 Daily report .......................................................................................................................................... 58

Annex C (informative) Drilling and sampling equipment for soil and rock .............................................. 59

C.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 59

C.2 Drill rods and casing .......................................................................................................................... 59

C.3 Corebarrel data ................................................................................................................................... 62

C.4 Schematic illustrations of single and double-tube corebarrels ..................................................... 67

C.5 Schematic illustrations of wireline and geotechnical wireline corebarrels .................................. 71

C.6 Water-well casing................................................................................................................................ 75

C.7 Bit selection chart ............................................................................................................................... 76

C.8 Core bit profiles .................................................................................................................................. 77

C.9 Rock bit types and sizes .................................................................................................................... 78

C.10 Examples of core lifter and sample retainer design ....................................................................... 79

C.11 Sampling equipment .......................................................................................................................... 80

C.12 Cable percussion drilling tools ......................................................................................................... 89

C.13 Types of augers .................................................................................................................................. 92

C.14 Method of recovering samples from trial pits .................................................................................. 95

C.15 Method of sampling using a large sampler ...................................................................................... 99

C.16 Evaluation of soil sample quality .................................................................................................... 108

C.17 Sampling methods with respect to the sampling category in different soil ............................... 109

Annex D (informative) Examples of commonly used samplers and sample types ................................. 110

Annex E (informative) Vacuum bottles for groundwater sampling ........................................................... 112

Annex F (informative) Sealing and securing samples ................................................................................ 113

Annex G (informative) Sample quality .......................................................................................................... 114

Figures

Figure 1 — Definitions of the diameters D , D , D and D ........................................................................... 13

1 2 3 4

Figure 2 — Lengths of core run and sample ................................................................................................ 13

Figure 3 — Examples of open-tube sampler for recovering samples from boreholes (OS) .................... 32

Figure 4 — Schematic thin-walled stationary piston sampler for sampling from borehole bottom

(PS) ....................................................................................................................................................... 34

Figure C.1 — Drill rods and casing ................................................................................................................ 59

Figure C.2 — Drill rods taper threaded 'Y' series ......................................................................................... 61

Figure C.3 — Drill rods taper threaded 'J' series.......................................................................................... 62

Figure C.4 — Corebarrels 'metric' series according to ISO 3552-1 ............................................................ 67

Figure C.5 — Corebarrels 'W' series according to ISO 3551-1 .................................................................... 69

Figure C.6 — Corebarrels 'W' series according to ISO 3551-1 .................................................................... 70

Figure C.7 —Wireline corebarrel assembly .................................................................................................. 71

Figure C.8 — Geotechnical wireline corebarrel (inner and outer tube assembly) .................................... 73

Figure C.9 — Water-well casing with flush butt joints according to BS 879 ............................................. 75

Figure C.10 — Water-well casing with screwed and socketed joints according to BS 879 ..................... 75

Figure C.11 — Three-cone milled tooth rock bit ........................................................................................... 78

Figure C.12 — Tungsten carbide button bit .................................................................................................. 78

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Figure C.13 — Typical corebarrel lifters ........................................................................................................ 79

Figure C.14 — Typical sampler retainers ....................................................................................................... 80

Figure C.15 — Thin wall sampler (Shelby Tube) ........................................................................................... 80

Figure C.16 — Hydraulic piston sampler ....................................................................................................... 81

Figure C.17 — Stationary piston sampler with a liner of 50 mm diameter for taking samples in

soft to stiff fine soils and silts (sampling category A) ..................................................................... 82

Figure C.18 — Stationary piston sampler with liner 50 mm – Parts (dimensions in millimetres) ............ 83

Figure C.19 — Stationary piston sampler with a liner of 50 mm diameter for taking samples in

soft to stiff fine soils and silts (sampling category A and B) .......................................................... 84

Figure C.20 — U100 Sampler........................................................................................................................... 85

Figure C.21 — Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Samplers .......................................................................... 86

Figure C.22 — Typical automatic trip hammer .............................................................................................. 87

Figure C.23 — Window and windowless samplers ....................................................................................... 88

Figure C.24 — Clay cutter and shell (bailer) .................................................................................................. 89

Figure C.25 — Sectional shell ......................................................................................................................... 90

Figure C.26 — Chisels and stubber ................................................................................................................ 91

Figure C.27 — Continuous flight auger .......................................................................................................... 92

Figure C.28 — Augers with diameters between 36 mm and 100 mm for taking samples in

cohesive soils and coarse soils above groundwater level (sampling category C) ...................... 93

Figure C.29 — Hollow stem auger .................................................................................................................. 94

Figure C.30 — Examples of sampling from trial pits .................................................................................... 95

Figure C.31 — Examples of recovering samples from trial pits .................................................................. 96

Figure C.32 — Example for a thin-walled open-tube sampler ..................................................................... 97

Figure C.33 — Example for a thick-walled open-tube sampler .................................................................... 98

Figure C.34 — Example of sampling from borehole bottom using a large sampler (Sherbrooke

block sampler) ..................................................................................................................................... 99

Figure C.35 — Example (a) Sherbrooke block sampler, (b) schematic view of a block sample

being carved, (c) waxed sample, (d) schematic view of a sliced sample, (ç) a block sample

slice and (f) a piece of clay from a block sample ........................................................................... 100

Figure C.35 — Method of sampling using a Laval Sampler ....................................................................... 102

Figure C.37 - Details Deltares Large Diameter Sampler ............................................................................ 104

Figure C.38 – Examples of gel push sampling devices .............................................................................. 106

Figure C.39 — Details of el push sampling .................................................................................................. 107

Figure E.1 — Equipment for vacuum bottle sampling ................................................................................ 112

Figure F.1 — Examples of sealing and securing samples ......................................................................... 113

Tables

Table 1 — Quality classes of soil samples for laboratory testing and sampling categories to be

used ...................................................................................................................................................... 17

Table 2 — Quality classes of rock samples for laboratory tests and sampling categories to be

used ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

Table 3 — Sampling by drilling in soils .......................................................................................................... 23

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Table 4 — Tube and block samplers .............................................................................................................. 29

Table 5 — Sampling by rotary drilling in rock .............................................................................................. 37

Table C.1 — Drill rods and casing 'W'-series according to ISO 3551-1 (in Millimetres) ........................... 60

Table C.2 — Drill rods and casing 'metric' series according to ISO 3552-1 (in Millimetres) .................... 61

Table C.3 — Drill rods taper threaded 'Y' series ........................................................................................... 62

Table C.4 — Drill rods taper threaded 'J' series .....................................................

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

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