Earthworks - Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive waste

This European Standard gives general guidelines for the hydraulic placement of extractive wastes applicable, in particular, to the extractive industries.
The scope of this European Standard includes any dam, confining embankment or other structure serving to contain, retain, confine or otherwise support such wastes on surface in a terrestrial environment.  
This standard therefore addresses the characterisation of the extractive waste for the purposes of hydraulic placement in the MWF both as part of the confining embankment and for safe storage, and in addition:
- specifies minimum requirements for the data to be acquired before the design and execution stage of a hydraulic fill project;
- provides guidelines for the selection of the type of confining embankment appropriate for the selected site;
- provides guidelines for the selection and characterisation of the construction materials;
- establishes general principles on how to design and execute the hydraulic fill project from pre deposition through operation to closure and rehabilitation;
- provides guidelines for monitoring and quality control of all stages of the hydraulic fill project to ensure long-term safety and stability.

Erdarbeiten - Teil 7: Hydraulische Einbringung von mineralischen Abfällen

Dieses Dokument gibt Empfehlungen für die hydraulische Einbringung von mineralischen Nebenprodukten und Abfällen und kann wie folgt anwendbar sein:
- bei allen Interessenvertretern im Bereich der Deponierung mineralischer Nebenprodukte und Abfälle mit hydraulischer Einbringungstechnik in Bezug auf geotechnische und geochemische Aspekte der Untersuchung, der Bemessung, des Baus und des Betriebs einer Feststoffdeponie und aller damit zusammenhängenden Überwachungsmaßnahmen;
- auf mineralgewinnende Industriebetriebe, in denen feine partikelförmige Nebenprodukte anfallen, die im Rahmen der industriellen Verarbeitung an einem sicheren, stabilen und umweltverträglichen Ort gelagert werden müssen;
- auf Fachkräfte in nicht mineralgewinnenden Industriebetrieben aus Branchen, in denen ähnliche Techniken eingesetzt werden können und für die keine anderen europäischen Richtlinien bestehen.
Der Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments umfasst alle Aspekte eines Damms, einer Dammaufschüttung oder eines anderen Bauwerks zur Aufnahme, Lagerung, Eindämmung oder anderweitigen Handhabung solcher Abfälle auf einer Bodenoberfläche. Die Grundstruktur für die Norm und für alle Phasen eines Projekts für Aufspülmaterialien ist in Bild 3 dargestellt.
Dieses Dokument behandelt die Charakterisierung der mineralischen Nebenprodukte und Abfälle zum Zweck der hydraulischen Einbringung in die MWF als Teil der Dammaufschüttung und zur sicheren Lagerung. Zusätzlich empfiehlt die Norm Folgendes:
- Mindestanforderungen an die vor der Bemessungs- und Ausführungsphase eines Projekts für Aufspül¬materialien erfassten Daten;
- Leitlinien für die Auswahl des für den ausgewählten Standort geeigneten Typs der Dammaufschüttung;
- Leitlinien für die Auswahl und Charakterisierung der Baustoffe;
- allgemeine Grundsätze für die Bemessung und Ausführung eines Projekts für Aufspülmaterialien von den Vorbereitungen für die Deponierung über den Betrieb bis zur Stilllegung und Rehabilitation;
- Leitlinien für die Überwachung und Qualitätskontrolle aller Phasen des Projekts für Aufspülmaterialien zur Sicherstellung der langfristigen Sicherheit und Stabilität.
In diesem Dokument wird betrachtet, wie bestimmte Materialien, die aus einem vorgeschalteten Prozess stammen, sicher gelagert werden. Es enthält keine Definitionen, Festlegungen oder Beschreibungen von Elementen für die Bemessung eines Projekts für Aufspülmaterialien, sondern allgemeine Empfehlungen, um gesetzlichen Vorschriften und den Regeln der Technik zu entsprechen. Das Dokument berücksichtigt, dass ähnliche Techniken für die hydraulische Einbringung von Material in nicht mineralgewinnenden Industrie¬betrieben angewendet werden dürfen, für die keine anderen europäischen Richtlinien bestehen.
Dieses Dokument behandelt nicht die Bemessung von Erdbauwerken in Bezug auf Sicherheit und Gebrauchs¬tauglichkeit. Diese sind nach der Normenreihe EN 1997 (Eurocode) und anderen relevanten Normen geregelt. Dieses Dokument geht davon aus, dass die Erdbauwerke ordnungsgemäß bemessen wurden.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht für Deponien, Nassbaggerung oder Aspekte des hydraulischen Einbaus beim Verpressen anwendbar.
[Bild 3]

Terrassements - Partie 7 : Placement hydraulique d'excédents miniers

Le présent document donne des recommandations pour le placement hydraulique de déchets miniers. Il s’applique :
—   à toutes les parties prenantes engagées dans la mise en dépôt de déchets miniers faisant appel à des techniques de placement hydraulique du point de vue des aspects géotechniques et géochimiques de l’enquête, de la conception technique, de la construction et du fonctionnement d’une installation de déchets miniers et de toutes les activités de surveillance associées ;
—   aux industries extractives qui impliquent la production de déchets sous forme de particules fines qui, au cours du traitement industriel, exigent d’être stockés en lieu sûr, stable et acceptable au point de vue environnemental ;
—   aux praticiens des industries non extractives dans des domaines où il est possible de faire appel à des techniques semblables et pour lesquels il n’existe pas de lignes directrices au plan européen.
Le domaine d’application du présent document comprend tous les aspects d’un barrage, d’un remblai de confinement ou de toute autre structure servant à contenir, retenir, confiner ou soutenir d’une manière ou d’une autre de tels déchets en surface dans un environnement terrestre. Le cadre général de la présente norme et de chaque stade d’un projet de remblai hydraulique est présenté à la Figure 3. Ce document concerne la caractérisation des déchets miniers dans l’intérêt du placement hydraulique dans l’installation de déchets miniers, à la fois en tant qu’élément du remblai de confinement et pour un stockage sûr. De plus, la norme recommande :
—   des exigences minimales applicables aux données à recueillir avant le stade de la conception et de l’exécution d’un projet de remblai hydraulique ;
—   des lignes directrices pour la sélection du type de remblai de confinement approprié pour le site sélectionné ;
—   des lignes directrices pour la sélection et la caractérisation des matériaux de construction ;
—   des principes généraux sur la conception et l’exécution d’un projet de remblai hydraulique à partir du dépôt préliminaire jusqu’à l’exploitation, la fermeture et la réhabilitation ;
—   des lignes directrices pour la surveillance et le contrôle qualité de tous les stades du projet de remblai hydraulique, afin d’assurer la sécurité et la stabilité à long terme.
Le présent document s’intéresse à la manière de stocker en toute sécurité un matériau donné provenant d’un processus précédent.  Il ne définit pas, n’établit pas et ne spécifie pas les éléments détaillés de conception d’un projet de remblai hydraulique, mais fournit des recommandations afin de respecter les bonnes pratiques réglementaires et techniques. Ce document admet que des techniques semblables peuvent être appliquées au placement hydraulique de matériaux dans le cadre des industries non extractives pour lesquelles il n’existe pas de ligne directrice au plan européen.
Ce document ne prend pas en compte la conception des ouvrages en terre en termes de sécurité et de fonctionnement. Celles-ci sont régies par la série EN 1997 (Eurocode) et d'autres normes applicables. Ce document suppose que les ouvrages en terre ont été correctement conçus.
Ce document ne s'applique pas aux remblais, aux dragages ni aux aspects des remblaiements hydrauliques liés aux injections de joints d’étanchéité.
[Figure 3]

Zemeljska dela - 7. del: Hidravlično odlaganje mineralnih odpadkov

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-May-2019
Publication Date
19-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
29-Jul-2021
Due Date
03-Oct-2021
Completion Date
20-Aug-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16907-7:2021
01-september-2021
Zemeljska dela - 7. del: Hidravlično odlaganje mineralnih odpadkov
Earthworks - Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive waste
Erdarbeiten - Teil 7: Hydraulische Einbringung von mineralischen Abfällen
Terrassements - Partie 7 : Placement hydraulique d'excédents miniers
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16907-7:2021
ICS:
13.030.40 Naprave in oprema za Installations and equipment
odstranjevanje in obdelavo for waste disposal and
odpadkov treatment
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN 16907-7:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.020
English Version
Earthworks - Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive
waste

Terrassements - Partie 7 : Placement hydraulique Erdarbeiten - Teil 7: Hydraulische Einbringung von

d'excédents miniers mineralischen Abfällen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 June 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16907-7:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 15

5 Development of hydraulic placement projects ................................................................................. 15

6 Mine Waste Facility Characterization ................................................................................................... 17

7 Site and material characterization ........................................................................................................ 17

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

7.2 Stages of the characterization process ................................................................................................. 18

7.3 Geotechnical characterization................................................................................................................. 20

7.4 Geochemical characterization ................................................................................................................. 23

8 Extractive Waste Management Plan ...................................................................................................... 28

9 Mine Waste Facility design, construction, operation and closure .............................................. 28

9.1 Design objectives .......................................................................................................................................... 28

9.2 Site selection .................................................................................................................................................. 29

9.3 Design elements ............................................................................................................................................ 31

9.4 Design parameters ....................................................................................................................................... 32

9.5 Risk management ......................................................................................................................................... 32

9.6 Selection of confining embankment section ...................................................................................... 32

9.7 Construction of confining embankments ............................................................................................ 34

9.8 Earth-structure design considerations ................................................................................................ 36

9.9 Seepage management considerations .................................................................................................. 36

9.10 Design of hydraulic deposition systems .............................................................................................. 37

9.11 Water management ..................................................................................................................................... 39

9.12 Operation, Maintenance and Surveillance (OMS) Manual............................................................. 41

9.13 Emergency planning ................................................................................................................................... 42

9.14 Closure ............................................................................................................................................................. 42

10 Construction quality control .................................................................................................................... 44

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 44

10.2 Confining embankment Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) ................................................ 44

10.3 Disposal quality control ............................................................................................................................. 45

11 Instrumentation and monitoring ........................................................................................................... 45

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 45

11.2 Performance monitoring ........................................................................................................................... 47

12 Inspection regimes ...................................................................................................................................... 48

12.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 48

12.2 Competence .................................................................................................................................................... 49

12.3 Background data for inspection and reporting ................................................................................. 49

12.4 Technical inspections ................................................................................................................................. 49

12.5 Independent inspection regimes ............................................................................................................ 52

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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)

Annex A (informative) Non-standardized geotechnical tests on hydraulic fill ................................... 54

Annex B (informative) MWF phases .................................................................................................................... 71

Annex C (informative) Procedures for the construction of a MWF embankment .............................. 73

Annex D (informative) Earth-structure design considerations ................................................................ 74

Annex E (informative) Water reclaim options ................................................................................................ 78

Annex F (informative) Contents of typical OMS manual .............................................................................. 80

Annex G (informative) Confining embankment CQA - Recommended testing frequency ............... 81

Annex H (informative) QCA monitoring of hydraulic fill deposits ........................................................... 82

Annex I (informative) Instrumentation for a MWF ....................................................................................... 84

Annex J (informative) Technical inspection frequency for a MWF .......................................................... 87

Annex K (informative) Daily technical inspections ....................................................................................... 88

Annex L (informative) Weekly technical inspections ................................................................................... 92

Annex M (informative) Programme for technical inspection and reporting ....................................... 93

Annex N (informative) Contents of a technical inspection report ........................................................... 94

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 96

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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16907-7:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396

“Earthworks”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document is one of the European Standards within the framework series of EN 16907 on Earthworks.

The set of standards prepared by CEN/TC 396 is divided into several parts, which correspond to different

steps of the planning, execution and control of earthworks and should be considered collectively as a

group of standards for executing earthworks. The full set of Parts is as follows:

— EN 16907-1, Earthworks — Part 1: Principles and general rules;
— EN 16907-2, Earthworks — Part 2: Classification of materials;
— EN 16907-3, Earthworks — Part 3: Construction procedures;

— EN 16907-4, Earthworks — Part 4: Soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders;

— EN 16907-5, Earthworks — Part 5: Quality control;

— EN 16907-6, Earthworks — Part 6: Land reclamation earthworks using dredged hydraulic fill;

— EN 16907-7, Earthworks — Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive waste (this document).

Within this document, references to specific parts of the standard are written by reference to the full

reference (e.g. “EN 16907-2”).

These “Earthworks standards” do not apply to the environmental planning and geotechnical design that

determines the required form and properties of the earth-structure that is to be constructed. They apply

to the design of the earthworks materials, execution, monitoring and checking of earthworks

construction processes to ensure that the completed earth-structure satisfies the geotechnical design.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
Introduction

European Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the

management of waste from the extractive industries states that the preparation of a waste management

plan is required for certain mine waste facilities (MWFs). One of the objectives of the waste management

plan is to ensure both short- and long-term safe disposal of the extractive waste by choosing a design

which achieves geotechnical and geochemical stability of any hydraulic fill placed above a pre-existing

ground surface. By inference this requires that suitable features are incorporated into the design,

construction, operation and maintenance, closure and after-closure of a MWF to prevent major accidents

and to limit any adverse consequences for human health and/or the environment. This document

addresses all technical stages of the development of a hydraulic fill project in the context of the Extractive

Waste Directive (EWD), with an emphasis on waste and facility characterization and on earthworks

procedures.

All sectors of the extractive industry are likely to produce a residue which, during mineral processing,

will have been physically, and sometimes chemically, altered due to both the comminution and

concentration processes employed. These residues (extractive waste/tailings) comprise fine particulate

materials which are generally discharged from the process plant in slurry form as a hydraulic fill, noting

that coarse particles are generally neither transported nor deposited by hydraulic means. Such extractive

wastes, regardless of their consistency and general characteristics, need to be placed in a secure

containment facility unless they are to be immediately recycled. The metal mining industry tends to refer

to these facilities as “tailings management facilities” (Figure 1), the aggregates and industrial minerals

sectors as “silt lagoons” (Figure 2), and the energy sector as “ash lagoons”. Within this standard, all three

are referred to as mine waste facilities (MWFs).

NOTE Definitions of some of the less familiar terms used in this document can be found in Clause 3.

Key

1 seepage recycle to MWF or return water dam 8 process water/excess runoff via decant

2 emergency spillway 9 plant site runoff
3 stage-raised confining embankment 10 perimeter runoff diversion system

4 tailings discharge pipeline 11 return pipeline to process plant or return water dam

5 tailings beach 12 pre-deposition embankment
6 fine tailings/slimes 13 seepage control drain
7 supernatant pond/reservoir 14 seepage return pump
Figure 1 — Typical section — tailings management facility
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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
Key
1 emergency overflow/spillway 6 lagoon
2 earthfill confining embankment 7 site runoff
3 edge protection 8 silt discharge pipeline
4 floating lagoon level pump control system 9 drainage control channel
5 return to clean water lagoon 10 unconsolidated silt deposit
Figure 2 — Typical section — silt lagoon

When deposited using hydraulic filling techniques, the MWF for such fine particulate wastes comprises

an engineered facility impounding or containing both the extractive waste and a proportion of free water

derived from processing operations, from other site waters and from rainfall. This process requires the

design and construction of a dam, confining embankment or other structure serving to contain, retain,

confine or otherwise support such wastes on surface in a terrestrial environment, together with the

appurtenant infrastructure.

Numerous techniques are available for the execution, operation and rehabilitation of a MWF, some of

which are standardized and have a long history of application to the extractive industry. It is therefore

recognized that no standard can prescribe or recommend specific engineering or environmental

elements of the design of a complex hydraulic fill structure such as a MWF, which is site-specific and

determined by the climate, geology, topography, hydrology, seismology and environmental setting.

However, of importance is that hydraulic placement of extractive waste can only be managed properly if

sufficient knowledge of its geochemical, physical and geotechnical properties and behaviour is available.

Such knowledge may be obtained through detailed characterization of the waste and of the waste facility

and its subsequent consequence classification. The different regional situations in geology and climate

result in national differences in the earthwork procedures, and therefore this standard identifies the

general principles and systems for the execution, operation and rehabilitation of a MWF as they relate to

earthworks.

This document is part of a European Standard on Earthworks, it having been decided by CEN/TC 396 to

establish a stand-alone document on the hydraulic placement of extractive wastes relating to earthworks.

This document provides the geotechnical and geochemical standards necessary to meet the requirements

of Directive 2006/21/EC and presents a unified approach for all stakeholders involved in the

development of hydraulic fill projects and in the extension of existing mine waste facilities, together with

a framework for project initiation and implementation.

This document is generic in content, and much of the text is synoptic as it is recognized that the range of

extractive operations is broad and that the precise characteristics of each waste and its depositional

properties will be dependent on the geology, the extraction and mineral processing techniques adopted,

and on the type and location of the MWF. For more detail, reference is made to textbooks and other

documents included in the Bibliography, particularly “The hydraulic transport and storage of extractive

waste, Guidelines to European Practice”.
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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document gives recommendations for the hydraulic placement of extractive wastes and may be

applicable to the following:

— all stakeholders engaged in the deposition of extractive wastes using hydraulic placement techniques

with respect to geotechnical and geochemical aspects of the investigation, engineering design,

construction and operation of a mine waste facility and all associated monitoring activities;

— those extractive industries involving the production of fine particulate wastes which, in the course

of industrial processing, require to be stored in a safe, stable and environmentally acceptable

location;

— practitioners in non-extractive industries in fields where similar techniques may be applicable and

for which no other European guidance exists.

The scope of this document includes all aspects of a dam, confining embankment or other structure

serving to contain, retain, confine or otherwise support such wastes on surface in a terrestrial

environment. The overall framework for the standard and for each stage of a hydraulic fill project is

shown in Figure 3.

This document addresses the characterization of the extractive waste for the purposes of hydraulic

placement in the MWF, both as part of the confining embankment and for safe storage. In addition the

standard recommends:

— minimum requirements for the data to be acquired before the design and execution stage of a

hydraulic fill project;

— guidelines for the selection of the type of confining embankment appropriate for the selected site;

— guidelines for the selection and characterization of the construction materials;

— general principles on the design and execution of the hydraulic fill project from pre-deposition

through operation to closure and rehabilitation;

— guidelines for monitoring and quality control of all stages of the hydraulic fill project to ensure long-

term safety and stability.

This document considers how to store safely a given material resulting from a preceding process. It does

not define, establish or specify detailed elements of the design of a hydraulic fill project but provides

overall recommendations in order to comply with good regulatory and engineering practice. The

document recognizes that similar techniques may be applicable to the hydraulic placement of materials

in the non-extractive industries where no other European guidance exists.

This document does not consider the design of earth-structures in terms of safety and serviceability.

These are ruled by EN 1997 (series) (Eurocode) and other relevant standards. This document assumes

that the earth-structures have been properly designed.

This document is not applicable to landfill, dredging or the hydraulic filling aspects related to grouting.

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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
Figure 3 — Stages of hydraulic placement covered by this document
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1990, Eurocode - Basis of structural design
EN 1997 (series), Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
EN 1998 (series), Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

EN 14899, Characterization of waste - Sampling of waste materials - Framework for the preparation and

application of a Sampling Plan

EN 15875, Characterization of waste - Static test for determination of acid potential and neutralisation

potential of sulfidic waste
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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
EN 16907 (series), Earthworks

EN ISO 14688 (series), Geotechnical investigation and testing – Identification and classification of soil

(ISO 14688 (series))

EN ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification, description and classification of rock

(ISO 14689)

EN ISO 17892 (series), Geotechnical investigation and testing – Laboratory testing of soil (ISO 17892

(series))

EN ISO 18674 (series), Geotechnical investigation and testing – Geotechnical monitoring by field

instrumentation (ISO 18674 (series))

EN ISO 22282 (series), Geotechnical investigation and testing – Geohydraulic testing (ISO 22282 (series))

EN ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing - Sampling methods and groundwater

measurements - Part 1: Technical principles for execution (ISO 22475-1)

EN ISO 22476 (series), Geotechnical investigation and testing – Field testing (ISO 22476 (series))

CEN/TR 15310 (series), Characterization of waste – Sampling of waste materials

CEN/TS 16229, Characterization of waste - Sampling and analysis of weak acid dissociable cyanide

discharged into tailings ponds

CEN/TR 16363, Characterization of waste - Kinetic testing for assessing acid generation potential of sulfidic

waste from extractive industries

CEN/TR 16365, Characterization of waste - Sampling of waste from extractive industries

CEN/TR 16376, Characterization of waste - Overall guidance document for characterization of waste from

the extractive industries
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the following terms and definitions apply
Note 1 to entry: For additional information, see Directive 2006/21/EC.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
comminution

act of crushing, milling and grinding geomaterials in order to reduce their grain size in advance of mineral

processing
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SIST EN 16907-7:2021
EN 16907-7:2021 (E)
3.2
confining embankment

engineered dam constructed from both natural and processed geotechnical materials to retain in safety

the fine-grained hydraulic fills (extractive waste) and process water derived from a mineral-processing

plant, together with any residual natural runoff
3.3
construction material

geomaterials comprising soil, rock or suitably-sized extractive waste placed and compacted by

conventional earthmoving equipment to form the confining embankment
3.4
crest of confining embankment

top level of the dam structure or the lowest part of the top of the embankment if, or in cases where, the

upper surface undulates
3.5
critical value

value of a particular parameter, such as pore pressure or surface movement, defined in the design or by

the operating rules and which should not be exceeded
3.6
decant

engineered structure designed to facilitate recycling of process water and, as appropriate, to discharge

natural runoff

Note 1 to entry: This structure may comprise a tower, a floating/static pump or a gravity overflow system.

3.7
design criteria

parameters for the mine waste facility which define the structure and its subsequent operation

3.8
design flood

flood inflow to the reservoir which produces the maximum stillwater level the dam is required to accept

under normal conditions with no damage and with a safety margin provided by the freeboard

3.9
emergency spillway

engineered structure designed to operate only during extreme events and to pass in safety flood

surcharge water without endangering the stability of the confining embankment
3.10
extractive waste
see tailings
3.11
flood surcharge

maximum rise of stillwater level above reservoir top water level (or retention water level) during a flood

event
3.12
freeboard

vertical height from the top of the dam to top water level (or retention water level)

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3.13
hydraulic fill

material placed in a liquid form in a deliberate manner as a mixture of soil particles and water so that the

particles accumulate as a deposit, and densify as further fill is placed above to create a body of fill

3.14
hydraulic fill system

reticulation and deposition pipework and infrastructure necessary to transport and to deposit the

hydraulic fill
3.15
independent

free from any personal interest and, in particular, from family and financial interests in the outcome of a

related inspection

Note 1 to entry: Payment for inspection services is not to be considered an impairment to independence.

3.16
inspection

act of checking and monitoring performance and compliance with criteria to indicate that identified

objectives have been met and that critical values have not been exceeded
3.17
intrinsic parameters

parameters that do not change in the course of earthworks, such as particle size distribution or plasticity

3.18
Long-term
design or operating time scale generally measured in years
3.19
maximum reservoir level

maximum safe level of the supernatant pond defined in the design and operating rules for the MWF

3.20
Mine Waste Facility
MWF

engineered structure which, together with all necessary appurtenant works, is designed to retain or

confine extractive waste in safety and to temporarily store and recycle, where necessary, process and

flood waters

Note 1 to entry: These facilities are often known by the quarries/industrial minerals sector as “silt lagoons”, by

the energy sector as “ash lagoons” and by the metal mining industry as
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16907-7:2019
01-maj-2019
=HPHOMVNDGHODGHO+LGUDXOLþQDQDPHVWLWHYPLQHUDOQLKRGSDGNRY
Earthworks - Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive waste
Erdarbeiten - Teil 7: Hydraulische Einbringung von mineralischen Abfällen
Terrassements - Partie 7 : Placement hydrauliques de déchets miniers
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16907-7
ICS:
13.030.40 Naprave in oprema za Installations and equipment
odstranjevanje in obdelavo for waste disposal and
odpadkov treatment
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
oSIST prEN 16907-7:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 16907-7:2019
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oSIST prEN 16907-7:2019
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 16907-7
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2019
ICS 93.020
English Version
Earthworks - Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive
waste

Terrassements - Partie 7 : Placement hydrauliques de Erdarbeiten - Teil 7: Hydraulische Einbringung von

déchets miniers mineralischen Abfällen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 396.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 16907-7:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 11

5 Development of hydraulic placement projects ................................................................................. 12

6 Mine Waste Facility Characterization ................................................................................................... 14

7 Material characterization ......................................................................................................................... 14

8 Extractive Waste Management Plan ...................................................................................................... 26

9 Mine Waste Facility design, construction, operation and closure .............................................. 27

10 Construction quality control .................................................................................................................... 44

11 Instrumentation and monitoring ........................................................................................................... 47

12 Inspection regimes ...................................................................................................................................... 52

Annex A (normative) Non-standard geotechnical tests .............................................................................. 66

A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 66

A.2 Solids content test ........................................................................................................................................ 66

A.2.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 66

A.2.2 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 66

A.2.3 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 67

A.2.4 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 67

A.3 Particle settling velocity test .................................................................................................................... 67

A.3.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 67

A.3.2 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 68

A.3.3 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 68

A.3.4 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 68

A.4 Undrained settling test ............................................................................................................................... 68

A.4.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 68

A.4.2 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 69

A.4.3 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 69

A.4.4 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 70

A.5 Drained settling test .................................................................................................................................... 71

A.5.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 71

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A.5.2 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 71

A.5.3 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 71

A.5.4 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 72

A.6 Air-drying test ................................................................................................................................................ 74

A.6.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 74

A.6.2 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 74

A.6.3 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 74

A.6.4 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 76

A.7 Slurry consolidation test ............................................................................................................................ 77

A.7.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 77

A.7.2 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 77

A.7.3 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 77

A.7.3.1 Preparation ..................................................................................................................................................... 78

A.7.3.2 Settlement ....................................................................................................................................................... 78

A.7.3.3 Consolidation ................................................................................................................................................. 78

A.7.4 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 79

................................................................................................................. 81

A.7.4.1 Coefficient of consolidation, cv

A.7.4.2 Coefficient of compressibility, m ........................................................................................................... 81

A.7.4.3 Compression index, C ................................................................................................................................. 81

A.7.4.4 Coefficient of permeability, k .................................................................................................................. 82

Annex B (informative) Geochemical programmes and websites ............................................................. 83

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 84

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European foreword

This document (prEN 16907-7:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396

“Earthworks”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

This document is one of the European Standards within the framework series of EN 16907 on Earthworks.

The set of standards prepared by CEN/TC 396 is divided into several parts, which correspond to different

steps of the planning, execution and control of earthworks and should be considered collectively as a

group of standards for executing earthworks. The full set of Parts is as follows:

— EN 16907-1, Earthworks — Part 1: Principles and general rules (this document);
— EN 16907-2, Earthworks — Part 2: Classification of materials;
— EN 16907-3, Earthworks — Part 3: Construction procedures;

— EN 16907-4, Earthworks — Part 4: Soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders;

— EN 16907-5, Earthworks — Part 5: Quality control;

— EN 16907-6, Earthworks — Part 6: Land reclamation earthworks using dredged hydraulic fill;

— EN 16907-7, Earthworks — Part 7: Hydraulic placement of waste.

Within this standard references to specific parts of the standard are written by reference the full

reference (e.g. “EN 16907-2”).

These “Earthworks standards” do not apply to the environmental planning and geotechnical design that

determines the required form and properties of the earth-structure that is to be constructed. They apply

to the design of the earthworks materials, execution, monitoring and checking of earthworks

construction processes to ensure that the completed earth-structure satisfies the geotechnical design.

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Introduction

European Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the

management of waste from the extractive industries states that that the preparation of a waste

management plan is required for certain mine waste facilities (MWFs). One of the objectives of the waste

management plan is to ensure both short- and long-term safe disposal of the extractive waste by choosing

a design which achieves geotechnical and geochemical stability of any hydraulic fill placed above a pre-

existing ground surface. By inference this requires that suitable features are incorporated into the design,

construction, operation and maintenance, closure and after-closure of a MWF to prevent major accidents

and to limit any adverse consequences for human health and/or the environment. This Standard

addresses all technical stages of the development of a hydraulic fill project in the context of the Extractive

Waste Directive (EWD), with an emphasis on waste and facility characterization and on earthworks

procedures.

All sectors of the extractive industry are likely to produce a residue which, during mineral processing,

will have been physically, and sometimes chemically, altered due to both the comminution and

concentration processes employed. These residues (tailings) comprise fine particulate materials which

are generally discharged from the process plant in slurry form as a hydraulic fill, noting that coarse

particles are generally neither transported nor deposited by hydraulic means. Such extractive wastes,

regardless of their consistency and general characteristics, need to be placed in a secure containment

facility unless they are to be immediately recycled. The aggregates and industrial minerals sectors tend

to refer to these facilities as “silt lagoons”, the energy sector as “ash lagoons” and the metal mining

industry as “tailings management facilities”. Within this standard, all three are referred to as mine waste

facilities (MWFs) Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Key
1 Seepage recycle 8 Process water / Excess runoff via decant
2 Emergency spillway 9 Plant site runoff
3 Confining embankment 10 Diversion system
4 Tailings discharge pipeline 11 Return pipeline to process plant
5 Tailings beach 12 Seepage control drain
6 Slimes 13 Seepage return pump
7 Reservoir
Figure 1 — Typical section - tailings management facility
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Key
1 Emergency overflow 6 Lagoon
2 Homogenous earthfill confining embankment 7 Site runoff
3 Edge protection 8 Silt discharge pipeline
4 Floating pump lagoon level control system 9 Drainage control channel
5 Return to clean water lagoon 10 Unconsolitaded silt deposit
Figure 2 — Typical section — silt lagoon

When deposited using hydraulic filling techniques, the MWF for such fine particulate wastes comprises

an engineered facility impounding or containing both the extractive waste and a proportion of free water

derived from processing operations, from other site waters and from rainfall. This process requires the

design and construction of a dam, confining embankment or other structure serving to contain, retain,

confine or otherwise support such wastes on surface in a terrestrial environment together with the

appurtenant infrastructure.

Numerous techniques are available for the execution, operation and rehabilitation of a MWF, some of

which are standardized and have a long history of application to the extractive industry. It is therefore

recognized that no standard can prescribe or recommend specific engineering or environmental

elements of the design of a complex hydraulic fill structure such as a MWF, which is site-specific and

determined by the climate, geology, topography, hydrology, seismology and environmental setting.

However, of importance is that hydraulic placement of extractive waste can only be managed properly if

sufficient knowledge of its geochemical, physical and geotechnical properties and behaviour is available.

Such knowledge may be obtained through detailed characterization of the waste and of the waste facility

and its subsequent consequence classification. The different regional situations in geology and climate

result in national differences in the earthwork procedures and therefore this standard identifies the

principles and systems for the execution, operation and rehabilitation of a MWF as they relate to

earthworks.

This document is part of a European Standard on Earthworks, it having been decided by CEN/TC 396 to

establish a stand-alone document on the hydraulic placement of extractive wastes as it relates to

earthworks. This document provides geotechnical and geochemical standards necessary to meet the

requirements of Directive 2006/21/EC, presents a unified approach for all stakeholders involved in the

development of hydraulic fill projects and a framework for project initiation and implementation.

This document is generic in content, and much of the text is synoptic as it is recognized that the range of

extractive operations is broad and that the precise characteristics of each waste and its depositional

properties will be dependent on the geology, the extraction and mineral processing techniques adopted,

and on the type and location of the MWF. For more detail, reference is made to the The hydraulic transport

and storage of extractive waste, Guidelines to European Practice (Cambridge, 2018).

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Figure 3 — Stages of hydraulic placement covered by this document
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1 Scope

This document gives recommendations for the hydraulic placement of extractive wastes and may be

applicable to the following:

— all stakeholders engaged in the deposition of mineral wastes using hydraulic placement techniques

with respect to geotechnical and geochemical aspects of the investigation, engineering design,

construction and operation of a mine waste facility and all subsequent monitoring activities;

— those extractive industries involving the production of fine particulate wastes which, in the course

of industrial processing, require to be stored in a safe, stable and environmentally acceptable

location;

— practitioners in non-extractive industries in fields where similar techniques may be applicable and

for which no other European guidance exists.

The scope of this document includes all aspects of a dam, confining embankment or other structure

serving to contain, retain, confine or otherwise support such wastes on surface in a terrestrial

environment. The overall framework for the standard and for each stage of a hydraulic fill project is

shown in Figure 3. This standard therefore addresses the characterization of the extractive waste for the

purposes of hydraulic placement in the MWF both as part of the confining embankment and for safe

storage and, in addition:

— specifies minimum requirements for the data to be acquired before the design and execution stage

of a hydraulic fill project;

— provides guidelines for the selection of the type of confining embankment appropriate for the

selected site;

— provides guidelines for the selection and characterization of the construction materials;

— establishes general principles on how to design and execute the hydraulic fill project from pre-

deposition through operation to closure and rehabilitation;

— provides guidelines for monitoring and quality control of all stages of the hydraulic fill project to

ensure long-term safety and stability.

This document considers how to store safely a given material resulting from a preceding process. It does

not define, establish or specify detailed elements of the design of a hydraulic fill project but provides

overall guidelines in order to comply with good regulatory and engineering practice. he document

recognizes that similar techniques may be applicable to the hydraulic placement of materials in the non-

extractive industries where no other European guidance exists, but notes that it is not applicable to

landfill, dredging or the hydraulic filling aspects related to grouting.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 17892 (series), Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil

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3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the following terms and definitions apply

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
NOTE For further information, see Directive 2006/21/EC.
3.1
confining embankment

engineered dam constructed from both natural and processed geotechnical materials to retain in safety

the fine-grained materials (tailings) derived from a mineral-processing plant, together with excess

process water and natural runoff
3.2
decant

engineered structure designed to facilitate recycling of process water and, as appropriate, to discharge

natural runoff

Note 1 to entry: This structure may comprise a tower, a floating/static pump or gravity overflow system

3.3
emergency spillway

engineered structure designed to pass in safety an extreme flood event without endangering the stability

of the confining embankment
3.4
hydraulic fill

particulate solids, for example tailings, which are transported and placed via suspension in a fluid matrix

3.5
hydraulic fill system

reticulation and deposition pipework and infrastructure necessary to transport and to deposit the

hydraulic fill as part of the mine waste facility
3.6
independent

free from any personal interest in the planning, design and operation of the mine waste facility and, in

particular, from family and financial interests in the outcome of a related inspection

Note 1 to entry: Payment for inspection services is not to be considered as an impairment to independence

3.7
inspection

activity which entails checking and monitoring of an MWF and its compliance with design and

performance criteria in order to confirm that identified objectives have been met

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3.8
regulatory inspection

activity which entails checking and confirming compliance with relevant legislation (e.g. local, national

or international regulations or permit conditions) and/or monitoring impacts to determine whether

further action is required in order to secure such compliance (e.g. with safety, stability or environmental

provisions)

Note 1 to entry: Regulatory inspections may be carried out by any designated responsible public authority or

may be delegated, under its supervision, to independent experts acting on its behalf

3.9
technical inspection

activity which entails checking and confirming compliance with design criteria (e.g. geotechnical,

corporate, managerial, safety, or environmental) and/or monitoring performance to determine whether

further action is required to secure such compliance

Note 1 to entry: Technical inspections may be carried out by any suitably qualified “competent expert” who is

designated responsible by a public authority or by the owner/operator of a facility

3.10
mine waste facility

engineered structure which, together with all necessary appurtenant works, is designed to retain or

confine in safety the extractive waste resulting from industrial processing of naturally-occurring soil, ore

or rock and to store and recycle, where appropriate, process and flood waters

Note 1 to entry: These facilities are known by the quarries/industrial minerals sector as “silt lagoons”, by the

energy sector as “ash lagoons” and by the metal mining industry as “tailings management facilities”

3.11
mineral Processing

mechanical, physical, biological, thermal or chemical process or combination of processes carried out on

a mineral resource with the purpose of extracting the economic mineral

Note 1 to entry: This may involve size change, classification, separation and leaching, and the re-processing of

previously discarded waste, but excluding smelting, thermal manufacturing processes (other than the burning of

limestone) and metallurgical processes
3.12
monitoring

systematic surveillance of the mine waste facility including all associated operations such as geochemical

and geotechnical characterisation, physical measurements, instrumentation readings, together with their

processing, analysis and interpretation
3.13
risk assessment

overall process of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation, including the identification of all

potential hazards and the risk of occurrence
3.14
risk management

engineering design, operation and closure to achieve the agreed level of risk mitigation

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3.15
risk mitigation

process of reducing risk and consequence through risk management procedures in order to reduce the

probability and/or negative consequences of occurrence to the highest acceptable rate of death, injury or

damage
3.16
tailings

extractive waste that remains after mineral processing by separation processes (e.g. crushing, grinding,

size-sorting, flotation and other physico-chemical techniques) to remove the economic minerals from the

less valuable rock
3.17
tailings dam
see 3.10
3.18
Tailings Management Facility
TMF
see 3.10
4 Abbreviations
ABA Acid Base Accounting
ARD Acid Rock Drainage
BFS Bankable Feasibility Study
BAT Best Available Techniques
CQA Construction Quality Assurance
EWD Extractive Waste Directive (see also MWD)
ICOLD International Commission On Large Dams
IIE Independent Inspecting Engineer
MWF Mine Waste Facility (see also TMF)
MWP Mine Waste Plan
MOD Metres above Ordance (National) Datum
O&M Operation and Maintenance (see also OMS)
OMS Operation, Maintenance and Surveillance
PMF Probable Maximum Flood
TMF Tailings Management Facility (see also MWF)
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5 Development of hydraulic placement projects

This section describes the derivation and sources of the hydraulic fill and the subsequent placement of

such extractive wastes in surface MWFs as exemplified in the flow sheet Figure 4.

Figure 4 — Typical hydraulic fill flow sheet for a mining project
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All sectors of the extractive industry are likely to produce a residue which, during mineral processing,

will have been physically, and sometimes chemically, altered due to both the comminution and

concentration processes employed. These residues (tailings) comprise fine particulate materials which

are generally discharged from the process plant in slurry form as a hydraulic fill. Such extractive wastes,

regardless of their consistency a
...

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