Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure restrictions for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz)

This International Standard applies to electronic and electrical equipment for which no dedicated product- or product family standard regarding human exposure to electromagnetic fields applies.

Bewertung von elektrischen und elektronischen Einrichtungen in Bezug auf Begrenzungen der Exposition von Personen in elektromagnetischen Feldern (0 Hz - 300 GHz)

Evaluation des �quipements �lectroniques et �lectriques en relation avec les restrictions d'exposition humaine aux champs �lectromagn�tiques (0 Hz - 300 GHz)

S'applique aux appareils électroniques et électriques auxquels aucune norme concernant l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques, dédiée à un produit ou à une famille de produits, ne s'applique. La plage de fréquences couverte va de 0 Hz à 300 GHz. L'objet de la présente norme générique est de fournir des méthodes et des critères d'évaluation pour démontrer que de tels appareils satisfont aux restrictions de base ou aux niveaux de référence pour l'exposition du public aux champs électriques, magnétiques et électromagnétiques, ainsi qu'aux courants induits et de contact.

Ocena elektronske in električne opreme glede omejevanja izpostavljenosti ljudi elektromagnetnim sevanjem (0 Hz - 300 GHz) (IEC 62311:2007, spremenjen)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Jun-2008
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Feb-2008
Due Date
17-Apr-2008
Completion Date
03-Jun-2008

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62311:2008
01-julij-2008
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 50392:2004
2FHQDHOHNWURQVNHLQHOHNWULþQHRSUHPHJOHGHRPHMHYDQMDL]SRVWDYOMHQRVWLOMXGL
HOHNWURPDJQHWQLPVHYDQMHP +]*+]  ,(&VSUHPHQMHQ
Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure
restrictions for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz)
Bewertung von elektrischen und elektronischen Einrichtungen in Bezug auf

Begrenzungen der Exposition von Personen in elektromagnetischen Feldern (0 Hz - 300

GHz)

Evaluation des équipements électroniques et électriques en relation avec les restrictions

d'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques (0 Hz - 300 GHz)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62311:2008
ICS:
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
SIST EN 62311:2008 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62311
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2008
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.030 Supersedes EN 50392:2004
English version
Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment
related to human exposure restrictions
for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz)
(IEC 62311:2007, modified)
Evaluation des équipements Bewertung von elektrischen
électroniques et électriques und elektronischen Einrichtungen
en relation avec les restrictions in Bezug auf Begrenzungen
d'exposition humaine der Exposition von Personen
aux champs électromagnétiques in elektromagnetischen Feldern
(0 Hz - 300 GHz) (0 Hz - 300 GHz)
(CEI 62311:2007, modifiée) (IEC 62311:2007, modifiziert)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2007-12-04. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2008 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62311:2008 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 62311:2008 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 106/129/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62311, prepared by IEC TC 106, Methods for

the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with human exposure, was

submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote.

A draft amendment, prepared by the Technical Committee CENELEC TC 106X, Electromagnetic fields in

the human environment, was submitted to the Unique Acceptance Procedure.

The combined texts of IEC 62311:2007 and the draft amendment prAA were approved by CENELEC as

EN 62311 on 2007-12-04.
This European Standard supersedes EN 50392:2004.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2009-01-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2011-01-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 62311:2008
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62311:2007 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard with agreed common modifications as given below.
COMMON MODIFICATIONS
2 Normative references
Add:

Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public

to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), Official Journal L 199 of 30 July 1999

3 Definitions
3.4 Replace "current density" by "induced current density".
Replace the whole Clause 4 by:
4 Compliance criteria

The electronic and electrotechnical apparatus shall comply with the basic restriction as specified in

Annex II of Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC.
NOTE 1 The time averaging in the EU-Recommendation applies.

The reference levels in the Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC on public exposure to electromagnetic

fields are derived from the basic restrictions using worst-case assumptions about exposure. If the

reference levels are met, then the basic restrictions will be complied with, but if the reference levels are

exceeded, that does not necessarily mean that the basic restrictions will not be met. In some situations, it

will be necessary to show compliance with the basic restrictions directly, but it may also be possible to

derive compliance criteria that allow a simple measurement or calculation to demonstrate compliance with

the basic restriction. Often these compliance criteria can be derived using realistic assumptions about

conditions under which exposures from a device may occur, rather than the conservative assumptions

that underly the reference levels.
NOTE 2 The limit is the basic restriction.

If the technology in the apparatus is not capable of producing an E-field, H-field or contact current, at the

normal user position, at levels higher than 1/2 the limit values then the apparatus is deemed to comply

with the requirements in this standard in respect of that E-field, H-field or contact current without further

assessment.
Bibliography
Add the following note for the standard indicated:
ISO/IEC 17025 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 62311:2008 - 4 -
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-161 – International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – –
(IEV) -
Chapter 161: Electromagnetic compatibility
Undated reference.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
IEC 62311
Edition 1.0 2007-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure
restrictions for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz – 300 GHz)
Evaluation des équipements électroniques et électriques en relation avec
les restrictions d'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques
(0 Hz – 300 GHz)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 97.030 ISBN 2-8318-9269-4
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
– 2 – 62311 © IEC:2007
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4

1 Scope and object..............................................................................................................6

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................6

4 Compliance criteria.........................................................................................................10

5 Assessment methods .....................................................................................................10

6 Evaluation of compliance to limits...................................................................................11

7 Applicability of compliance assessment methods............................................................12

7.1 General .................................................................................................................12

7.2 Generic procedure for assessment of equipment ...................................................14

8 Sources with multiple frequencies ..................................................................................17

8.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................17

8.2 Frequency range from 1 Hz – 10 MHz (ICNIRP-based)..........................................17

8.2.1 Frequency domain assessment..................................................................17

8.2.2 Time domain assessment ..........................................................................19

8.3 Frequency range from 100 kHz – 300 GHz (ICNIRP-based) ..................................21

8.4 Frequency range from 0 kHz – 5 MHz (IEEE-based)..............................................22

8.4.1 Frequency domain assessment..................................................................22

8.4.2 Time domain assessment ..........................................................................22

8.5 Frequency range from 3 kHz – 300 GHz (IEEE-based) ..........................................23

9 Assessment report..........................................................................................................23

9.1 General .................................................................................................................23

9.2 Items to be recorded in the assessment report ......................................................24

9.2.1 Assessment method ..................................................................................24

9.2.2 Presentation of the results.........................................................................24

9.2.3 Equipment using external antennas ...........................................................24

10 Information to be supplied with the equipment ................................................................24

Annex A (informative) Field calculation ................................................................................25

Annex B (informative) SAR compliance assessment .............................................................30

Annex C (informative) Information for numerical modelling...................................................32

Annex D (informative) Measurements of physical properties and body currents ...................61

Annex E (informative) Specific absorption rate (SAR) ...........................................................65

Annex F (informative) Measurement of E and H field............................................................67

Annex G (informative) Source modelling .............................................................................70

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................73

Figure 1 – Assessment flowchart ..........................................................................................16

Figure 2 – Schematic of “weighting circuit”............................................................................19

Figure 3 – Dependency on frequency of the reference levels V plotted with smoothing

edges ...................................................................................................................................19

Figure 4 – Transfer function A...............................................................................................20

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
62311 © IEC:2007 – 3 –

Figure A.1 – Geometry of antenna with largest linear dimension D........................................25

Figure A.2 – Current element Idlsin(ω t) at the origin of spherical coordinate system ............26

2 2

Figure A.3 – Ratio of E , H , and E × H field components .....................................................27

Figure A.4 – Ratio of E × H field components for three typical antennas................................28

Figure A.5 – Far-field = straight line, radiated near-field = lower line & all near-fields =

other line ..............................................................................................................................

Figure C.1 – Numerical model of a homogenous ellipsoid .....................................................34

Figure C.2 – Numerical model of a homogenous cuboid........................................................35

Figure C.3a — Description of the whole body .......................................................................36

Figure C.3b — Details of the construction of the head and shoulders....................................37

Figure C.3 – Numerical model of a homogenous human body ...............................................37

Figure C.4 – Schematic of straight wire.................................................................................41

Figure C.5 – Schematic of circular coil..................................................................................42

Figure C.6 – Block diagram of the method ............................................................................43

Figure C.7 – Test situation for validation – Current loop in front of a cuboid..........................45

Figure C.8 – Distribution of the electric current density J in the planes x = + 0,20 m

(left) and y = 0,0 m (right) .....................................................................................................46

Figure C.9 – Helmholtz coils and prolate spheroid ................................................................47

Figure C.10a – Magnetic field ...............................................................................................47

Figure C.10b – Induced current density ................................................................................48

Figure C.10 – Modelling results for a 60 cm by 30 cm prolate spheroid .................................48

Figure C.11 – Induced current density ..................................................................................48

Figure C.12a – Magnetic field ...............................................................................................49

Figure C.12b – Induced current density ................................................................................49

Figure C.12 – Modelling results for a 160 cm by 80 cm prolate spheroid ...............................49

Figure C.13 – Distribution of induced electric current density................................................50

Figure C.14 – Schematic position of source Q against model K.............................................51

Figure C.15 – Position of source Q, sensor and model K.......................................................52

Figure C.16 – Hot spot..........................................................................................................54

Figure C.17 – Gradient of flux density and area G.................................................................55

Figure C.18 – Equivalent coil ................................................................................................55

Figure C.19 – Gradients of flux density and coil ....................................................................56

Figure C.20 – Measurement distance and related distances..................................................58

Table 1 – Characteristics and parameters of the equipment to be considered .......................13

Table 2 – List of possible assessment methods ....................................................................14

Table B.1 – Determining whole-body SAR implicit compliance levels .....................................30

Table C.1 – Conductivity of tissue types ...............................................................................38

Table C.2 – Relative permittivity of tissue types ....................................................................40

Table C.3 – Summary of results............................................................................................50

Table C.4 – Values G[m] of different coils with radius r and distance d .......................56

coil coil
A/m

Table C.5 – Coupling factor k at 50 Hz for the whole body.........................................57

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
– 4 – 62311 © IEC:2007
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
RELATED TO HUMAN EXPOSURE RESTRICTIONS
FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (0 Hz – 300 GHz)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62311 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 106:

Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with

human exposure.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
106/129/FDIS 106/134/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
62311 © IEC:2007 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
– 6 – 62311 © IEC:2007
ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
RELATED TO HUMAN EXPOSURE RESTRICTIONS
FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (0 Hz – 300 GHz)
1 Scope and object

This International Standard applies to electronic and electrical equipment for which no

dedicated product- or product family standard regarding human exposure to electromagnetic

fields applies.
The frequency range covered is 0 Hz to 300 GHz.

The object of this generic standard is to provide assessment methods and criteria to evaluate

such equipment against basic restrictions or reference levels on exposure of the general

public related to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields and induced and contact

current.

NOTE This standard is intended to cover both intentional and non-intentional radiators. If the equipment complies

with the requirements in another relevant standard, e.g. EN 50371 covering low power equipment, then the

requirements of this standard (IEC 62311) are considered to be met and the application of this standard to that

equipment is not necessary. See also Clause 7.2.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-161, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 161: Electromagnetic

compatibility
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions contained in IEC 60050-161 as

well as the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
averaging time
avg

appropriate time over which exposure is averaged for purposes of determining compliance

3.2
basic restriction
maximum exposure level that should not be exceeded under any conditions

NOTE Examples of basic restrictions can be found in Annex II of the Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC [6] ,

ICNIRP Guidelines [1] IEEE Std C95.6™ [2] and IEEE Std C95.1™ [3].
———————
Figures in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
62311 © IEC:2007 – 7 –
3.3
contact current

current flowing into the body resulting from contact with a conductive object in an

electromagnetic field. This is the localised current flow into the body (usually the hand, for a

light brushing contact)
3.4
current density

current per unit cross-sectional area flowing inside the human body as a result of exposure to

electromagnetic fields
3.5
duty factor
duty cycle

ratio of pulse duration to the pulse period of a periodic pulse train. Also, a measure of the

temporal transmission characteristic of an intermittently transmitting RF source such as a

paging antenna by dividing average transmission duration by the average period for

transmissions. A duty factor of 1,0 corresponds to continuous operation
3.6
electric field strength

magnitude of a field vector at a point that represents the force (F) on an infinitely small charge

(q) divided by the charge
E =
3.7
equipment under test
EUT

an electrical or electronic apparatus that is tested for compliance with exposure limits

3.8
exposure

exposure occurs whenever and wherever a person is subjected to electric, magnetic or

electromagnetic fields or to contact current other than those originating from physiological

processes in the body and other natural phenomena
3.9
exposure level
value of the quantity used to assess exposure

NOTE This may be an induced current density, SAR, power density, electric or magnetic field strength, a limb

current or a contact current.
3.10
exposure limit

value of an electric, magnetic or electromagnetic field derived from the basic restrictions using

worst-case assumption about exposure. If the exposure limit is not exceeded, then the basic

restrictions will never be exceeded
3.11
exposure, direct effect of

result of a direct interaction in the exposed human body from exposure to electromagnetic

fields
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
– 8 – 62311 © IEC:2007
3.12
exposure, indirect effect of

result of a secondary interaction between the exposed human body and an electromagnetic

field, often used to describe a contact current, shock or burn arising from contact with a

conductive object
3.13
exposure, partial-body

localised exposure of part of the body, producing a corresponding localised SAR or induced

current density, as distinct from a whole-body exposure
3.14
exposure, whole-body

exposure of the whole body (or the torso when induced current density is considered)

3.15
induced current

current induced inside the body as a result of exposure to electromagnetic fields

3.16
limb current

current flowing in an arm or a leg, either as a result of a contact current or else induced by an

external field
3.17
magnetic field strength

magnitude of a field vector in a point that results in a force (F) on a charge (q) moving with

velocity (v)
F = q()ν × μ H

(or magnetic flux density divided by permeability of the medium, see 3.18 “magnetic flux

density”)
3.18
magnetic flux density

magnitude of a field vector that is equal to the magnetic field H multiplied by the permeability

(µ) of the medium
B = μH
3.19
multiple frequency fields
superposition of two or more electromagnetic fields of differing frequency.

NOTE These may be from different sources within a device, e.g., the magnetron and the transformer of a

microwave oven, or they may be harmonics in the field of a nominally single frequency source such as a

transformer
3.20
power density

power per unit area normal to the direction of electromagnetic wave propagation. For plane

waves the power density (S), electric field strength (E) and magnetic field strength (H) are

related by the impedance of free space, i.e., 377 Ω
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
62311 © IEC:2007 – 9 –
S = = 377 H = EH
377

NOTE 1 Although many survey instruments indicate power density units, the actual quantities measured are E or

H or the square of those quantities.

E and H are expressed in units of V/m and A/m, respectively, and S in the unit of W/m .

NOTE 2 It should be noted that the value of 377 Ω is only valid for free space, far field measurement conditions.

3.21
power density, average (temporal)

instantaneous power density integrated over a source repetition period. This averaging is not

to be confused with the measurement averaging time
3.22
power density, plane-wave equivalent

commonly used term associated with any electromagnetic wave, equal in magnitude to the

power density of a plane wave having the same electric (E) or magnetic (H) field strength as

the measured field
3.23
reference levels

levels of field strength or power density derived from the basic restrictions using worst-case

assumptions about exposure. If the reference levels are met, then the basic restrictions will

be complied with, but if the reference levels are exceeded, that does not necessarily mean

that the basic restrictions will not be met
3.24
root-mean-square
r.m.s.

the effective value or the value associated with joule heating, of a periodic electromagnetic

wave. The r.m.s. value is obtained by taking the square root of the mean of the squared value

of a function
F = ()F(t) ⋅ F(t) dt (expression in time domain)
X = ()X (expression in frequency domain)
∑ n

NOTE Although many survey instruments in the high frequency range indicate r.m.s., the actual quantity

measured is root-sum-square (rss) (equivalent field strength).
3.25
root-sum-square
rss

the value rss is obtained from three individual r.m.s. field strength values, measured in three

orthogonal directions, combined disregarding the phases.
2 2 2
X = X + X + X
x y z
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
– 10 – 62311 © IEC:2007
3.2
...

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