Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers)

This European Standard establishes a common methodology for the calculation and declaration of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to any transport service (of freight, passengers or both). It specifies general principles, definitions, system boundaries, calculation methods, apportionment rules (allocation) and data recommendations, with the objective to promote standardised, accurate, credible and verifiable declarations, regarding energy consumption and GHG emissions related to any transport service quantified. It also includes examples on the application of the principles. Potential users of this standard are any person or organisation who needs to refer to a standardised methodology when communicating the results of the quantification of energy consumption and GHG emissions related to a transport service, especially: - transport service operators (freight or passengers carriers); - transport service organisers (carriers subcontracting transport operations, freight forwarders and travel agencies); - transport service users (shippers and passengers).

Methode zur Berechnung und Deklaration des Energieverbrauchs und der Treibhausgasemissionen bei Transportdienstleistungen (Güter- und Personenverkehr)

Diese Norm legt ein allgemeines Verfahren zur Berechnung, Deklaration und Berichterstattung von Energie¬verbrauch und Treibhausgasemissionen bei Transportdienstleistungen (Güter oder Personen oder beides) fest.
Sie legt Leitlinien, allgemeine Grundsätze, Definitionen, Systemgrenzen, Berechnungsverfahren, Aufteilungs¬regeln (Allokation) fest und gibt Empfehlungen zu Daten, mit dem Ziel, genormte, genaue, zuverlässige und überprüfbare Deklarationen zu fördern, in denen der Energieverbrauch und die Treibhausgasemissionen bei Transportdienstleistungen quantitativ bestimmt werden.
Potentielle Anwender dieser Norm sind alle Personen oder Organisationen, die bei der Bekanntgabe von Ergebnissen zur Quantifizierung einer Transportdienstleistung Bezug auf ein genormtes Verfahren nehmen müssen; dazu zählen insbesondere:
-   Transportdienstleister (Transporteure von Fracht oder Personen);
-   Organisatoren von Transportdienstleistungen (Transporteure die Transportvorgänge an Subunternehmer vergeben, Speditionen und Reiseveranstalter);
-               Auftraggeber bzw. Käufer von Transportdienstleistungen (Versender und Fahrgäste/Passagiere).

Méthodologie pour le calcul et la déclaration de la consommation d'énergie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) des prestations de transport (fret et passagers)

La présente norme établit une méthodologie commune pour le calcul et la déclaration de la consommation d’énergie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) associées à une prestation de transport (de passagers et/ou de marchandises).
Elle spécifie les lignes directrices, les principes généraux, les définitions, le périmètre, les méthodes de calcul, les règles de répartition (allocation) et les recommandations relatives aux données, dans le but de favoriser des déclarations normalisées, exactes, crédibles et vérifiables concernant la consommation d’énergie et les émissions de GES associés à toute prestation de transport quantifiée.
Les utilisateurs potentiels de la présente norme sont toutes les personnes ou organisations ayant besoin de se référer à une méthodologie normalisée lorsqu’elles communiquent les résultats de la quantification d'une prestation de transport, et notamment :
-   les opérateurs de prestations de transport (transporteurs de marchandises ou de passagers) ;
-   les organisateurs de prestations de transport (transporteurs sous-traitant des opérations de transport, commissionnaires de transport, transitaires et agences de voyage) ;
-   les acheteurs de prestations de transport (expéditeurs et passagers).

Metode za izračun in objavo rabe energije in izpustov toplogrednih plinov pri transportnih storitvah (transport blaga in oseb)

Ta evropski standard določa metode za izračun in objavo rabe energije in izpustov toplogrednih plinov (GHG) pri transportnih storitvah (transport blaga, oseb ali obojega). Določa splošna načela, opredelitve, meje sistema, računske metode, pravila porazdelitve in podatkovna priporočila, njegov cilj pa je spodbujati standardizirano, natančno, kredibilno in preverljivo deklariranje v zvezi s porabo energije in izpusti toplogrednih plinov pri vseh merjenih transportnih storitvah. Vključuje tudi primere uporabe načel. Potencialni uporabniki tega standarda so osebe ali organizacije, ki morajo pri sporočanju rezultatov merjenja porabe energije in izpustov toplogrednih plinov pri transportnih storitvah uporabiti standardizirano metodologijo, še posebej: – izvajalci transportnih storitev (prevozniki blaga ali oseb); – organizatorji transportnih storitev (prevozniki, ki sodelujejo s podizvajalci transportnih storitev, prenosniki blaga in potovalnimi agencijami); – uporabniki transportnih storitev (pošiljatelji in potniki).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jul-2011
Publication Date
17-Jan-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Jan-2013
Due Date
25-Mar-2013
Completion Date
18-Jan-2013

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Methode zur Berechnung und Deklaration des Energieverbrauchs und der Treibhausgasemissionen bei Transportdienstleistungen (Güter- und Personenverkehr)Méthodologie pour le calcul et la déclaration de la consommation d'énergie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) des prestations de transport (fret et passagers)Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers)13.040.50Emisije izpušnih plinov v prometuTransport exhaust emissionsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16258:2012SIST EN 16258:2013en,fr,de01-februar-2013SIST EN 16258:2013SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16258:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16258
November 2012 ICS 03.220.01 English Version

Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers)

Méthodologie pour le calcul et la déclaration de la consommation d'énergie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) des prestations de transport (passagers et fret) Methode zur Berechnung und Deklaration des Energieverbrauchs und der Treibhausgasemissionen bei Transportdienstleistungen (Güter- und Personenverkehr) This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 September 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 16258:2012: ESIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................51 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................62 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ..................................................................................................62.1 General terms .........................................................................................................................................62.2 Specific terms ........................................................................................................................................93 Units and symbols .............................................................................................................................. 113.1 Energy .................................................................................................................................................. 113.2 GHG emissions ................................................................................................................................... 114 Quantification boundaries ................................................................................................................. 124.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 124.2 Processes included ............................................................................................................................ 124.3 Processes not included ..................................................................................................................... 124.4 Greenhouse gases .............................................................................................................................. 134.5 Carbon offsetting and emissions trading ........................................................................................ 135 Principles of calculation of energy consumption and GHG emissions in transport services ................................................................................................................................................ 135.1 General objectives .............................................................................................................................. 135.2 Steps of the calculation of energy consumption and GHG emissions of one transport service .................................................................................................................................................. 145.3 Sub steps for the calculation of energy consumption and GHG emissions of one leg of one transport service ......................................................................................................................... 145.4 Categories of values used for the calculation ................................................................................. 145.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 145.4.2 Use of default values .......................................................................................................................... 156 Principles of identification of the different legs of a transport service ........................................ 157 Principles of the calculation at the vehicle operation system (VOS) level ................................... 157.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 157.2 Sub step 2.1: Establishing the VOS related to the leg .................................................................... 157.3 Sub step 2.2: Quantification of the total fuel consumption for the VOS ....................................... 167.4 Sub step 2.3: Calculation of total energy consumption and GHG emissions for the VOS ......... 168 Principles of allocation to cargo and/or passengers ...................................................................... 178.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 178.2 Basic principles .................................................................................................................................. 188.3 Allocation parameters and units ....................................................................................................... 188.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 188.3.2 Allocation for passengers .................................................................................................................. 188.3.3 Allocation for freight .......................................................................................................................... 188.3.4 Combined transport of passengers and freight .............................................................................. 198.4 Data collecting .................................................................................................................................... 209 Principles of summing the results for each leg ............................................................................... 2010 Declaration .......................................................................................................................................... 2010.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 2010.2 Possibility to make a short declaration ............................................................................................ 2110.3 Supporting information ...................................................................................................................... 2110.3.1 General statement............................................................................................................................... 21SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 3 10.3.2 Transparent description of the method ............................................................................................ 21Annex A (normative)

Energy and GHG emission factors ............................................................................. 23A.1 Transport fuels .................................................................................................................................... 23A.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 23A.1.2 Consistency between sources ........................................................................................................... 23A.1.3 Table of energy and GHG emission factors ...................................................................................... 23A.1.4 Biofuel Blends ..................................................................................................................................... 25A.1.5 Specified fuels ..................................................................................................................................... 28A.2 Electricity.............................................................................................................................................. 28A.2.1 Well-to-wheels energy factors............................................................................................................ 28A.2.2 Well-to-wheels emission factors ........................................................................................................ 28A.2.3 Tank-to-wheels energy factor............................................................................................................. 29A.2.4 Tank-to-wheels emission factor ......................................................................................................... 29Annex B (normative)

Allocation methods for ferries (maritime transport) ................................................. 30B.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 30B.2 Mass method ........................................................................................................................................ 30B.3 Area method ......................................................................................................................................... 31B.4 Default values ...................................................................................................................................... 31Annex C (informative)

Inclusion of empty trips into a VOS .......................................................................... 32C.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 32C.2 Example for a simple case.................................................................................................................. 32C.3 Example of a VOS for a distribution or collection round trip. ........................................................ 33Annex D (informative)

Template for declaration of categories of values used .......................................... 34Annex E (informative)

Example for passengers: transport service by bus ................................................ 35E.1 Description of the example................................................................................................................. 35E.2 Example with use of specific measured values ............................................................................... 36E.3 Example with use of transport operator fleet values ....................................................................... 37E.4 Example with use of default values ................................................................................................... 38E.5 Example with use of transport operator specific values ................................................................. 38E.6 Overview of the results ....................................................................................................................... 39Annex F (informative)

Examples for freight ................................................................................................... 40F.1 Transport service of freight transport by train ................................................................................. 40F.1.1 Description of the example................................................................................................................. 40F.1.2 Example with use of specific measured values ............................................................................... 41F.1.3 Example with use of transport operator specific values ................................................................. 42F.1.4 Examples with use of default values ................................................................................................. 43F.1.5 Overview of the results ....................................................................................................................... 45F.2 Transport service of freight transport by container ship ................................................................ 45F.2.1 Description of the example................................................................................................................. 45F.2.2 Example with use of specific measured values ............................................................................... 46F.2.3 Example with use of default values ................................................................................................... 47F.2.4 Overview of the results ....................................................................................................................... 48Annex G (informative)

Example for combined passenger and freight transport: ferry lines .................... 49G.1 Description of the example................................................................................................................. 49G.2 Results and comparison of the two allocation methods ................................................................. 49Annex H (informative)

Detailed sources used and calculations done for establishment of Table A.1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 51Annex I (informative)

Example of available sources of default values ....................................................... 65Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 66 SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 16258:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 320 “Transport - Logistics and services”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 5 Introduction This standard sets out the methodology and requirements for calculating and reporting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transport services. This first edition of the standard is primarily focused on energy consumption and GHG emissions associated with vehicles (used on land, water and in the air) during the operational phase of the lifecycle. However, when calculating the energy consumption and emissions associated with vehicles, account is also taken of the energy consumption and emissions associated with energy processes for fuels and/or electricity used by vehicles (including for example production and distribution of transport fuels). This ensures the standard takes a "well-to-wheel" approach when undertaking calculations, and when making declarations to transport service users. The philosophy, contents, and structure adopted in this standard seek to make it widely applicable across the transport sector (encompassing all modes impartially) and accessible to a very diverse user group. Within this sector, it is recognised that transport operations vary hugely, from multi-national organisations operating multiple transport modes to deliver transport services across the globe, through to a small local operator delivering a simple service to one user. In addition, the potential user group for this standard is similarly diverse, and the monitoring of transport energy and emissions within organisations can be at different levels of maturity and sophistication. Consequently, this first edition of the standard balances the desire for absolute precision and scientific rigour with a degree of pragmatism in order to achieve ease of use, accessibility and encourage widespread use. Use of this standard will provide a common approach and frameworks for the calculation and declaration of energy consumption and emissions for transport services irrespective of the level of complexity (e.g. a simple transport service can provide one customer with a single journey, whereas a complex system can involve several legs, multiple vehicle types, different transport modes and several companies within the transport supply chain). The standard ensures declarations have greater consistency and transparency, and that the energy and emissions are fully allocated to a vehicle’s load (passengers and/or cargo). It is anticipated that future editions of the standard will have broader quantification boundaries, to include additional aspects such as, transport terminals, transhipment activities, and other phases of the lifecycle. Users of the standard that would now like to use broader quantification boundaries, without waiting for a new edition of the standard are advised to communicate such results separately from the ones calculated according to this standard, and to give a transparent description of the methodology applied. SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard establishes a common methodology for the calculation and declaration of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to any transport service (of freight, passengers or both). It specifies general principles, definitions, system boundaries, calculation methods, apportionment rules (allocation) and data recommendations, with the objective to promote standardised, accurate, credible and verifiable declarations, regarding energy consumption and GHG emissions related to any transport service quantified. It also includes examples on the application of the principles. Potential users of this standard are any person or organisation who needs to refer to a standardised methodology when communicating the results of the quantification of energy consumption and GHG emissions related to a transport service, especially:  transport service operators (freight or passengers carriers);  transport service organisers (carriers subcontracting transport operations, freight forwarders and travel agencies);  transport service users (shippers and passengers). 2 Terms, definitions and abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 2.1 General terms 2.1.1 carbon dioxide equivalent CO2e unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a GHG to carbon dioxide Note 1 to entry: The carbon dioxide equivalent is calculated using the mass of a given GHG multiplied by its global warming potential

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006] 2.1.2 carbon offsetting mechanism for compensating for carbon emissions of a process through the prevention of the release of, reduction in, or removal of, an equivalent amount of GHG emissions outside the boundary of that process, provided such prevention, removal or reduction are quantified, permanent and additional to a business-as-usual scenario [SOURCE: adapted from ISO 14021:2010] 2.1.3 cargo collection / quantity of goods (carried on a means of transport) transported from one place to another Note 1 to entry: Cargo can consist of either liquid or solid materials or substances, without any packaging (e.g. bulk cargo), or of loose items of unpacked goods, packages, unitised goods (on pallets or in containers) or goods loaded on transport units and carried on active means of transport. [SOURCE: EN 14943:2005] SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 7 2.1.4 energy electricity, fuels, steam, heat, compressed air and other like media [SOURCE: EN ISO 50001:2011 modified] 2.1.5 energy carrier substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical or physical processes [SOURCE: ISO 13600:1997] 2.1.6 energy consumption quantity of energy applied [SOURCE: EN ISO 50001:2011] 2.1.7 energy factor factor relating activity data to energy consumption 2.1.8 energy use manner or kind of application of energy EXAMPLE Vehicle propulsion, cooling, heating. [SOURCE: EN ISO 50001:2011 modified] 2.1.9 freight goods being transported from one location to another [SOURCE: EN 14943:2005] 2.1.10 fuel consumption quantity of energy carrier used by the means of transport Note 1 to entry: For reasons of simplification, this definition includes all energy carriers, such as electricity. Note 2 to entry: For rail transport using electric traction, the fuel consumption is the total quantity of energy collected from the contact line minus any energy returned to the contact line by the vehicle. Energy is returned (to the contact line) when electric traction has regenerative braking and the energy generated during braking is made available to other consumers connected to the contact line. 2.1.11 global warming potential GWP factor describing the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit of a given green house gas relative to an equivalent unit of carbon dioxide over a period of one hundred years [SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006 modified] SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 8 2.1.12 greenhouse gas GHG gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, the atmosphere, and clouds Note 1 to entry: In this standard, GHGs are limited to, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). There are the six gases listed in Annex A of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006 modified] 2.1.13 greenhouse gas emission factor GHG emission factor factor relating activity data to GHG emissions 2.1.14 means of transport particular vessel, vehicle, or other mobile device used for the transport of passenger and/or freight [SOURCE: EN 14943:2005 modified] 2.1.15 passenger pax person carried in a vehicle, without participating in its operation Note 1 to entry: The term and its abbreviation are also used as a unit for quantity of passengers. 2.1.16 route path (to be) taken to get from one point to another point [SOURCE: EN 14943:2005 modified] 2.1.17 transport assisted movement of passenger and/or freight Note 1 to entry: The term “transport” in general is used for movement supported by means.

[SOURCE: EN 14943:2005 modified] 2.1.18 Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit TEU standard unit (6,10 m) used to express a number of containers of various lengths and for describing the capacities of container ships or terminals Note 1 to entry: One standard forty-foot ISO Series container equals 2 TEUs. [SOURCE: EN 14943:2005 modified] SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 9 2.1.19 vehicle any means of transport Note 1 to entry: Within this standard, this definition includes vessels (watercraft and aircraft like ships, boats, and planes), for reasons of simplification only. 2.2 Specific terms 2.2.1 default value external value which is not determined by the transport service operator Note 1 to entry: Guidelines related to the use of this concept are given in 5.4 of this standard. 2.2.2 empty trip section of the route of a vehicle during which no cargo or passenger is transported EXAMPLE Positioning trips are empty trips. 2.2.3 energy process operational process taking place upstream of the level of the vehicle, needed for all energy carrier used by the vehicle 2.2.4 fleet set of vehicles operated by one transport service operator 2.2.5 Great Circle Distance theoretical shortest distance between any two points on the surface of the planet measured along a path on the surface of the sphere (as opposed to going through the sphere's interior) 2.2.6 load quantity or nature of whatever is being carried by a vehicle [SOURCE: EN 14943:2005 modified] 2.2.7 leg (of a transport service) for a transport service of a cargo or a passenger, section of the route taken or to be taken within which the cargo or the passenger is carried by the vehicle 2.2.8 load factor ratio of the actual load and the maximum authorised load of one means of transport Note 1 to entry: Different dimensions are used for the measurement of the capacity, such as mass and volume. [SOURCE: EN 14943:2005 modified] SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 10 2.2.9 marginal accounting Method of allocation consisting in differentiation of entities on the basis of non-physical criteria EXAMPLE For a flight, most of the fuel consumption is allocated to passengers, and belly freight is allocated only of the extra fuel consumption corresponding to the extra weight of the plane. 2.2.10 process activity using energy and/or emitting GHG 2.2.11 specific measured value value measured for a specific aspect of the calculation being performed 2.2.12 shortest feasible distance distance actually achievable by the shortest route, with the vehicle considered 2.2.13 tank-to-wheels assessment assessment related to the vehicle processes 2.2.14 transport activity quantity of passenger, cargo or vehicles movements EXAMPLE Two thousand passenger kilometres, one thousand five hundred tonne kilometres, one hundred pallets carried, five hundred vehicle kilometres. 2.2.15 transport operator fleet value value established by the transport service operator on the basis of measurements of the transport activity of a fleet that includes the type of vehicle for which the calculation is being performed 2.2.16 transport operator specific value value established by the transport service operator on the basis of measurements, specifically for the type of vehicle or the type of route for which the calculation is being performed 2.2.17 transport service service provided to a beneficiary for the transport of a cargo or a passenger from a departure point to a destination point Note 1 to entry: The beneficiary is named “transport service user”; see definition 2.2.20 2.2.18 transport service organiser entity that provides transport services which are subcontracted to another entity (transport service operator) which operates them Note 1 to entry: A transport service organiser can be a freight forwarder, an entity organising trips/travel (e.g.: travel agency, tour operator), a local authority responsible of public passenger transport SIST EN 16258:2013

EN 16258:2012 (E) 11 2.2.19 transport service operator entity that carries out transport services Note 1 to entry: A transport service operator can be a passenger’s carrier (acting directly for passengers or as sub-contractor of a transport service organiser), a freight carrier (acting directly for

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