Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail materials

This European standard specifies the requirements when applying material to the active interface between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail and includes trainborne and track side equipment.
This technical specification only covers the equipment and application of material to the active interface.
This document defines:
- the characteristics that systems of top of rail equipment for wheel-rail interface shall achieve, together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;
- all relevant terminology which is specific to the application of top of rail materials of the wheel-rail interface.
This document only applies to the mainline railway
NOTE   This document can also be used for other railways, e. g urban rail’

Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-2: Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

Dieses Dokument beschränkt sich darauf, die Anforderungen beim Auftragen von Material auf die aktive Kontaktfläche zwischen Radlauffläche und Fahrfläche der Schiene festzulegen, und umfasst fahrzeugseitige und gleisseitige Vorrichtungen.
Dieses Dokument deckt nur die Vorrichtungen und Anwendung von Materialien auf der aktiven Kontaktfläche ab.
Dieses Dokument definiert
- die Eigenschaften, die Ausrüstungssysteme für Fahrflächenbehandlung für die Kontaktfläche zwischen Rad und Schiene erfüllen müssen, zusammen mit geeigneten Inspektions- und Prüfverfahren, die zur Verifikation durchzuführen sind,
- alle relevanten Begriffe, die spezifisch für die Anwendung von Kraftschlussmodifikatoren auf die Kontaktfläche zwischen Rad und Schiene sind.
Dieses Dokument ist nur für Vollbahnen anzuwenden.
ANMERKUNG Dieses Dokument kann auch für andere Schienennetze verwendet werden, z. B. städtische Schienenbahnen.

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion de la friction roue/rail - Partie 1-2 : Équipements et application - Matériaux de la surface du rail

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-2. del: Oprema in uporaba - Materiali za zgornjo površino tirnic

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Oct-2020
Publication Date
31-Jan-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Jan-2021
Due Date
04-Apr-2021
Completion Date
01-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
01-marec-2021

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-2. del: Oprema in uporaba -

Materiali za zgornjo površino tirnic
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-2: Equipment and
Application - Top of Rail materials
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-2:
Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion de la friction roue/rail - Partie 1-2 : Équipements et

application - Matériaux de la surface du rail
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
45.080 Tračnice in železniški deli Rails and railway
components
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-2
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
January 2021
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 21.260; 45.080; 45.120
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail
materials

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion de la friction Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

roue/rail - Partie 1-2 : Équipements et application - Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-2: Vorrichtungen und

Matériaux de la surface du rail Anwendung - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 23 November 2020 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
Contents Page

European foreword ..................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................. 6

4 General............................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Purpose .............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Application ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Requirements for trainborne equipment ............................................................................. 8

5.1 General............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Design of trainborne equipment .............................................................................................. 9

5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment .................................................................................... 9

5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance .......................................................................... 10

5.5 Application .................................................................................................................................... 10

5.6 Verification .................................................................................................................................... 11

6 Requirements for trackside equipment ............................................................................. 11

6.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 11

6.2 Design of trackside equipment .............................................................................................. 12

6.3 Installation of trackside equipment ..................................................................................... 13

6.4 Operations, inspection and maintenance .......................................................................... 13

6.5 Application .................................................................................................................................... 13

6.6 Verification .................................................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Types of Trainborne and Trackside Equipment ............................. 14

A.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 14

A.2 Trainborne Equipment ............................................................................................................. 14

A.2.1 Fluid material application to the active interface ........................................................... 14

A.2.2 Solid material application to the wheel .............................................................................. 14

A.3 Trackside Equipment ................................................................................................................ 14

A.3.1 Mechanically activated ............................................................................................................. 14

A.3.2 Hydraulically activated ............................................................................................................. 14

A.3.3 Electrically activated ................................................................................................................. 14

Annex B (informative) Guidance on approvals testing and verification.............................. 15

B.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 15

B.2 System – Equipment and materials ...................................................................................... 16

B.2.1 Baselining ...................................................................................................................................... 16

B.2.2 Trials ............................................................................................................................................... 16

B.2.3 Measure Effectiveness ............................................................................................................... 16

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B.2.4 Monitoring..................................................................................................................................... 17

B.2.5 Outcome of trial ........................................................................................................................... 17

Annex C (informative) Good Practice for trainborne equipment........................................... 18

C.1 Reasons for installing trainborne equipment .................................................................. 18

C.2 Determination of equipment position ................................................................................ 18

C.3 Inspection and Maintenance .................................................................................................. 18

Annex D (informative) Installation and maintenance good practice for trackside

equipment ..................................................................................................................................... 20

D.1 Selecting locations for trackside equipment .................................................................... 20

D.2 Determination of equipment position ................................................................................ 20

D.3 Inspection and Maintenance .................................................................................................. 21

D.4 Records ........................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex E (informative) Guideline braking tests for top of rail friction management

(trainborne and trackside equipment) .............................................................................. 22

E.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 22

E.2 Choosing the right test vehicle ............................................................................................... 22

E.3 Trainborne equipment ............................................................................................................. 22

E.4 Test conditions ............................................................................................................................ 22

E.5 Brake tests..................................................................................................................................... 23

E.6 Test parameters .......................................................................................................................... 23

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 24

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CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document is part of the EN 15427 series, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction

management, which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubrication;
— Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail materials;
— Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials;
— Part 2-1: Properties and Characteristics - Flange lubricants;
— Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials;
— Part 2-3: Properties and Characteristics - Adhesion materials;
— Part 3: Rationale for requirements and further background information.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc.) substances at the wheel-rail interface is a

complex subject and includes:

— lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange or

rail lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface, commonly referred to as “check rail

lubrication”;

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread,

commonly referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— applying materials to the wheel rail contact to increase (improve/ enhance/ recover) adhesion.

This document sets out the requirements for the equipment and application of the top of rail

wheel/rail friction management. It describes systems fitted on board trains and on the track, as both

systems may need to be deployed to achieve effective friction management of the wheel-rail

interface.

Managing the wheel-rail interface effectively will reduce wear of both wheel and rail. When friction

is managed effectively, noise levels, wear levels and the risk of flange climbing are reduced.

Conversely, where not managed effectively, assets may require replacement prematurely before

reaching their full economic potential.

There needs to be control in the application of top of rail materials such that there is:

— no loss of traction or braking performance;
— no adverse effect on signalling systems or track circuits;
— understanding of the increased risk of fire;
— no harmful environmental effect;

— no incompatibility between the different lubricants/ materials in use, particularly, between solid

and fluid systems.
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1 Scope

This document is limited to specifying the requirements when applying material to the active

interface between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail and includes trainborne and track side

equipment.

This document only covers the equipment and application of material to the active interface.

This document defines:

— the characteristics that systems of top of rail equipment for wheel-rail interface shall achieve,

together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;

— all relevant terminology which is specific to the application of top of rail materials of the wheel-

rail interface.
This document only applies to the mainline railway.
NOTE This document can also be used for other railways, e.g. urban rail.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

EN 13749, Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Method of specifying the structural

requirements of bogie frames

CEN/TS 15427-2-2, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 2-2: Properties and

Characteristics - Top of Rail materials

EN 50125-1, Railway applications - Environmental conditions for equipment - Part 1: Rolling stock and

on-board equipment
EN 50121 (series), Railway applications - Electromagnetic compatibility

EN 50238-1, Railway applications - Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems -

Part 1: General

EN 61373, Railway applications - Rolling stock equipment - Shock and vibration tests

EN 62621, Railway applications - Fixed installations - Electric traction - Specific requirements for

composite insulators used for overhead contact line systems
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
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3.1
active interface
contact area between wheel tread and the crown of the rail

Note 1 to entry Contact also occurs between the wheel flange root and the rail gauge corner but this

interface is not within the scope of this document.
3.2
applicator

part of trackside/trainborne equipment that delivers the material to the active interface

EXAMPLE Nozzles or solid sticks
3.3
trainborne equipment

system carried on the train that consists of one or more applicators, a storage unit and a means of

control
3.4
trackside equipment

system installed on or adjacent to the track that consists of one or more applicators, storage

containers and a means of control
3.5
train operator
authority responsible for operating the train or their authorised representative
3.6
infrastructure manager
authority responsible for the infrastructure or their authorised representative
3.7
supplier
organisation responsible for supplying the equipment/ material
3.8
material
substance designed to alter friction at the wheel/rail active interface
3.9
top of rail material
substance that changes the rheology of the third layer body to lower friction
4 General
4.1 Purpose

The primary aim of the top of rail friction management is to achieve wheel/rail friction conditions

that optimises asset life and reduces noise and vibration issues, as part of a wider wheel/rail

management strategy without compromising the safe operation of the railway.
Top of rail friction management may be used to:
— reduce noise and vibration;
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CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
— reduce the rate of wear;
— reduce rate of corrugation growth;
— reduce number of wheel and rail defects.

The specific purpose for the use of top of rail equipment and material shall be understood before

deployment in order to achieve the desired outcome (e.g. reduction in wear).
4.2 Application

The trainborne/trackside top of rail equipment shall apply material to take effect in the active

interface as set out in Clauses 5 and 6 of this document.

The trainborne/trackside top of rail equipment shall be designed to limit contamination of any other

part of the train or infrastructure.

Where both trainborne and trackside top of rail equipment are being applied concurrently, the effect

to braking performance and signalling shall be understood.

Compatibility between different materials (such as flange lubricant and top of rail/adhesion

material) in use shall be taken into account. Material properties and characteristics shall comply with

the requirements set out in CEN/TS 15427-2-2.

The applicator shall be adjustable such that it can be returned to its correct working position (refer

to 5.4) following wheel or rail reprofiling or other maintenance changes.
A method to determine when refilling is required shall be provided.

A method by which the equipment can be checked to ensure its functional status shall be provided.

Where there is any change to the approved design of the equipment, the customer shall be informed.

NOTE 1 This may lead to the equipment requiring reapproval.

NOTE 2 Ensure the material being applied to the active interface has been approved for use by the relevant

authorizing bodies (see Annex B).
5 Requirements for trainborne equipment
5.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— method of braking (e.g. tread, disk or other);
— position and number of applicator(s) on the vehicle;
— direction of travel;
— proximity of applicator to the wheel and the rail;
— speed of train;
— frequency and amount of application.
The position and alignment of each applicator shall take into account:

— suspension movements to ensure application of the material to the active interface in all

conditions;
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CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
— the need to gain access for maintenance.
The trainborne equipment shall comply with the vehicle gauge.
5.2 Design of trainborne equipment

General consideration when designing and installing trainborne equipment shall include:

— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1);

— equipment positioning - The design and location of the equipment shall factor in the

consideration for quick and easy refilling capability;
— space constraints (e.g. static and dynamic);
— availability of necessary supplies (e.g. electrical, air, hydraulic, etc.);
— options for system control and material regulation;
— interface with other on-board systems (e.g. braking);
— the type of material to be applied and its intended function;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
— length/ type of train;
— interface with infrastructure systems;
— intended design life and sustainability;
— safety and reliability requirements;

— vibration and shock loads requirements of EN 61373 and EN 13749 relevant to the position on

the vehicle;
— protection of the equipment from flying objects, e.g. track ballast;
— EMC standard (EN 50121);

— aerodynamic effects (e.g. wind turbulence may affect the performance of a spray system which

may be optimized by use of a windbreak);
— Electronic equipment used on rolling stock (EN 62621);

— EN 50238-1, Railway applications. Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection

systems. General;
— noise emissions.
5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment

The supplier of the trainborne equipment shall provide instructions for the installation and use of

the equipment.

Trainborne equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

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5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance

The installation shall be checked after a short period of service to ensure that the material is being

applied as agreed between the client and the supplier.

The supplier of the trainborne equipment shall provide maintenance instructions for the equipment.

These shall include a method for fault diagnosis to check that the trainborne equipment is not

partially or fully blocked or misaligned and that all components are securely attached to their

mountings (see Annex C for some examples).

A train maintenance plan shall include a check of the trainborne equipment to be carried out at pre-

defined intervals taking into account the equipment supplier’s instructions. This maintenance plan

shall include monitoring of material usage and application alignment as a method of checking

effective delivery.
Before any material is used, verify it is compatible with the equipment.
5.5 Application

The equipment shall be designed so that the rate of application of the material is consistent during

the agreed service conditions.

Any trainborne equipment using a spray applicator shall provide the facility to temporarily override

the application of material, either automatically or manually. Where such a facility is provided this

action shall be recorded.

Consideration shall be given to varying the point of recommencing material application after each

such cessation and when regaining the set speed, to ensure that there is no pooling or excess material

on the infrastructure.

Where top of rail material is manually applied by the driver, consideration shall be given to record

this action.

Any trainborne equipment using a spray applicator shall have a low speed cut out.

High speed cut-off should be considered for trainborne equipment design.

The material shall be applied to area “1” as shown in Figure 1 or area “1”, “2” and “3” in Figure 2.

Migration of material to the other zones is not desirable.
Key
1 tread
2 flange root
3 flange face
4 flange toe
5 flange tip
Figure 1 — Areas of a wheel tread
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CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021
Key
1 field shoulder
2 crown
3 gauge shoulder
4 gauge corner
5 gauge face
6 inside of running rail (gauge face)
7 outside of running rail (field side)
8 web
Figure 2 — Areas of a rail
5.6 Verification

Verification of the trainborne equipment shall be undertaken to establish effective application of the

material. The method chosen shall depend on the type of equipment and shall be relevant to the

application.

The method of verification shall be determined between the client and supplier, see Annex B.

Solid material that are used in the form of, for example stick application on to the tread may eject

part of the stick as debris. The mass of this part shall be no greater than 5 g.
6 Requirements for trackside equipment
6.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— length of site to be treated;
— the number of applicators to be installed;
— direction of travel (e.g. bi-directional);
— application and position at switches and crossings;
— the frequency of traffic;
— speed of traffic.
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The position of the trackside equipment shall take into account:
— the need to gain access for maintenance;

— any hazards associated with localized contamination, e.g. if equipment placed adjacent to

platforms, pedestrian / vehicle crossings, water courses, areas where local regulations prohibit

use of equipment.

The trackside equipment shall be designed, installed and maintained to limit contamination of any

other part of the train or infrastructure. Build-up of excess material on the equipment, trackbed or

trains shall be avoided.
6.2 Design of trackside equipment

The trackside equipment shall meet the specified requirements for application over the full range of

operating conditions. These shall include local conditions relating to:
— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1);
— equipment positioning for access and space constraints;
— availability of power supplies;
— options for system adjustment, control and material regulation;
— the type of material;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
— type of trains operating on the infrastructure, including on track machines;
— speed limit;
— train frequency;
— track form and rail profile (see EN 13674-1, e.g. 49E1, 60E1);
— installation of the equipment.

Electrically powered equipment shall be verified and approved in order to ensure that signalling and

telecommunications integrity is not compromised.

Trackside equipment shall be capable of being fitted without the need for welding to rails or drilling

of rails, unless defined in the technical specification.

When selecting trackside equipment, the operation of on-track machines shall be considered.

The means of adjusting the height of the applicator shall be separate from the means of attaching to

the rail. The range of adjustment shall accommodate permitted rail wear, wheel profiles, axle loads

and speeds of all train types using the route.
The trackside equipment shall not infringe the infrastructure gauge.

The trackside equipment shall include a means of checking and adjusting the amount and position of

material dispensed.

Where the location of application changes periodically, consideration shall be given to the type of

equipment being used.
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CEN/TS 15427-1-2:2021

Metallic armoured pipes and cables may be prohibited on third rail routes, the infrastructure

manager should be consulted.
6.3 Installation of trackside equipment

The installation of the trackside equipment shall take in to account the intended length of the site to

which the material should be applied.

The supplier of the trackside equipment shall provide instructions for the installation of the

equipment.

Trackside equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The

installation shall be checked after a short period of service (typically after the passage of no more

than five trains) to ensure that the material is being applied correctly.

NOTE Further guidance on the positioning of trackside equipment is contained in Annex D.

6.4 Operations, inspection and maintenance

The maintenance instruction of the trackside equipment shall be provided. These shall include an

inspection and a method for fault diagnosis to check that the equipment is not partially or fully

blocked or misaligned and all components are securely
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2:2020
01-oktober-2020

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-2. del: Oprema in uporaba -

Materiali za zgornjo površino tirnic
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-2: Equipment and
Application - Top of Rail materials
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-2:
Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion de la friction roue/rail - Partie 1-2 : Équipements et

application - Matériaux de la surface du rail
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
45.080 Tračnice in železniški deli Rails and railway
components
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2:2020
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2:2020
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
July 2020
ICS 21.260; 45.080; 45.120
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail
materials

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion de la friction Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

roue/rail - Partie 1-2 : Équipements et application - Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-2: Vorrichtungen und

Matériaux de la surface du rail Anwendung - Behandlung der Schienenoberfläche

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 256.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change

without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2:2020
Contents Page

European foreword ..................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................. 7

4 General............................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Purpose .............................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Application ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Requirements for trainborne equipment ............................................................................. 8

5.1 General............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Design of trainborne equipment .............................................................................................. 9

5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment ................................................................................. 10

5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance .......................................................................... 10

5.5 Application .................................................................................................................................... 10

5.6 Verification .................................................................................................................................... 12

6 Requirements for trackside equipment ............................................................................. 12

6.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 12

6.2 Design of trackside equipment .............................................................................................. 12

6.3 Installation of trackside equipment ..................................................................................... 13

6.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance .......................................................................... 13

6.5 Application .................................................................................................................................... 14

6.6 Verification .................................................................................................................................... 14

Annex A (informative) Types of Trainborne and Trackside Equipment ............................. 15

A.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 15

A.2 Trainborne Equipment ............................................................................................................. 15

A.3 Trackside Equipment ................................................................................................................ 15

Annex B (informative) Guidance on approvals testing and verification.............................. 16

B.1 General............................................................................................................................................ 16

B.2 System – Equipment and materials ...................................................................................... 16

Annex C (informative) Good Practice for trainborne equipment ........................................... 19

C.1 Reasons for installing trainborne equipment .................................................................. 19

C.2 Determination of equipment position ................................................................................ 19

C.3 Inspection and Maintenance ................................................................................................... 19

Annex D (informative) Installation and maintenance good practice for trackside

equipment ..................................................................................................................................... 21

D.1 Selecting locations for trackside equipment .................................................................... 21

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D.2 Determination of equipment position ................................................................................ 21

D.3 Inspection and Maintenance .................................................................................................. 22

D.4 Records ........................................................................................................................................... 22

Annex E (informative) Guideline braking tests for top of rail friction management

(trainborne and trackside equipment) .............................................................................. 23

E.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 23

E.2 Choosing the right test vehicle ............................................................................................... 23

E.3 Trainborne equipment ............................................................................................................. 23

E.4 Test conditions ............................................................................................................................ 23

E.5 Brake tests..................................................................................................................................... 24

E.6 Test parameters .......................................................................................................................... 24

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 25

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European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TS 15427-1-2:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/TC 256 “Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the vote.

This document is part of the series EN 15427, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction

management, which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubrication
— Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail materials
— Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials
— Part 2-1: Properties and Characteristics - Flange lubricants
— Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials
— Part 2-3: Properties and Characteristics - Adhesion materials
— Part 3: Rationale for requirements and further background information
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Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc) substances at the wheel-rail interface is a

complex subject and includes:

— lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange or

rail lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface, commonly referred to as “check rail

lubrication”;

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread,

commonly referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— applying materials to the wheel rail contact to increase (improve/ enhance/ recover) adhesion.

This document sets out the requirements for the equipment and application of the top of rail

wheel/rail friction management. It describes systems fitted on board trains and on the track, as both

systems may need to be deployed to achieve effective friction management of the wheel-rail

interface.

Managing the wheel-rail interface effectively will reduce wear of both wheel and rail. When friction

is managed effectively, noise levels, wear levels and the risk of flange climbing are reduced.

Conversely, where not managed effectively, assets may require replacement prematurely before

reaching their full economic potential.

There needs to be control in the application of top of rail materials such that there is:

— no loss of traction or braking performance;
— no adverse effect on signalling systems or track circuits;
— understanding of the increased risk of fire;
— no harmful environmental effect;

— no incompatibility between the different lubricants/ materials in use, particularly, between solid

and fluid systems.
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1 Scope

This document is limited to specifying the requirements when applying material to the active

interface between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail and includes trainborne and track side

equipment.

This document only covers the equipment and application of material to the active interface.

This document defines:

— the characteristics that systems of top of rail equipment for wheel-rail interface shall achieve,

together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;

— all relevant terminology which is specific to the application of top of rail materials of the wheel-

rail interface.
This document only applies to the mainline railway.
NOTE This document can also be used for other railways, e.g urban rail.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

EN 13749, Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Method of specifying the structural

requirements of bogie frames

FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2:2020, Railway application – Wheel/ Rail friction management – Part 2-2:

Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials

EN 50125-1, Railway applications - Environmental conditions for equipment - Part 1: Rolling stock and

on-board equipment
EN 50121 (series), Railway applications - Electromagnetic compatibility

EN 50238-1, Railway applications – Compatability between rolling stock and train detection systems –

General

EN 61373, Railway applications - Rolling stock equipment - Shock and vibration tests

EN 62621, Railway applications - Fixed installations - Electric traction - Specific requirements for

composite insulators used for overhead contact line systems
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3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
active interface
contact area between wheel tread and the crown of the rail

Note 1 to entry Contact also occurs between the wheel flange root and the rail gauge corner but this

interface is not within the scope of this standard.
3.2
applicator

part of trackside/trainborne equipment that delivers the material to the active interface

EXAMPLE Nozzles or solid sticks
3.3
trainborne equipment

system carried on the train that consists of one or more applicators, a storage unit and a means of

control
3.4
trackside equipment

system installed on or adjacent to the track that consists of one or more applicators, storage

containers and a means of control
3.5
train operator
authority responsible for operating the train or their authorised representative
3.6
infrastructure manager
authority responsible for the infrastructure or their authorised representative
3.7
supplier
organisation responsible for supplying the equipment/ material
3.8
material
substance designed to alter friction at the wheel/rail active interface
3.9
top of rail material
substance that changes the rheology of the third layer body to lower friction
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4 General
4.1 Purpose

The primary aim of the top of rail friction management is to achieve wheel/rail friction conditions

that optimises asset life and reduces noise and vibration issues, as part of a wider wheel/rail

management strategy without compromising the safe operation of the railway.
Top of rail friction management may be used to:
— reduce noise and vibration;
— reduce the rate of wear;
— reduce rate of corrugation growth.
— reduce number of wheel and rail defects.

The specific purpose for the use of top of rail equipment and material shall be understood before

deployment in order to achieve the desired outcome. (e.g reduction in wear).
4.2 Application

The trainborne/trackside top of rail equipment shall apply material to take effect in the active

interface as set out in Clauses 5 and 6 of this document.

The trainborne/trackside top of rail equipment shall be designed to limit contamination of any other

part of the train or infrastructure.

Where both trainborne and trackside top of rail equipment are being applied concurrently, the effect

to braking performance and signalling shall be understood.

Compatibility between different materials (such as flange lubricant and top of rail/adhesion

material) in use shall be taken into account. Material properties and characteristics shall comply with

the requirements set out in FprCEN/TS 15427-2-2.

The applicator shall be adjustable such that it can be returned to its correct working position (refer

to 5.4) following wheel or rail reprofiling or other maintenance changes.
A method to determine when refilling is required shall be provided.

A method by which the equipment can be checked to ensure its functional status shall be provided.

Where there is any change to the approved design of the equipment, the customer shall be informed.

NOTE 1 This may lead to the equipment requiring reapproval.

NOTE 2 Ensure the material being applied to the active interface has been approved for use by the relevant

authorizing bodies (see Annex B).
5 Requirements for trainborne equipment
5.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— method of braking (e.g. tread, disk or other);
— position and number of applicator(s) on the vehicle;
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— direction of travel;
— proximity of applicator to the wheel and the rail;
— speed of train;
— frequency and amount of application.
The position and alignment of each applicator shall take into account:

— suspension movements to ensure application of the material to the active interface in all

conditions;
— the need to gain access for maintenance.
The trainborne equipment shall comply with the vehicle gauge.
5.2 Design of trainborne equipment

General consideration when designing and installing trainborne equipment shall include:

— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1)

— equipment positioning - The design and location of the equipment shall factor in the

consideration for quick and easy refilling capability.
— space constraints (e.g. static and dynamic);
— availability of necessary supplies (e.g. electrical, air, hydraulic, etc...);
— options for system control and material regulation;
— interface with other on-board systems (e.g. braking);
— the type of material to be applied and its intended function;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
— length/ type of train;
— interface with infrastructure systems;
— intended design life and sustainability;
— safety and reliability requirements;

— vibration and shock loads requirements of EN 61373 and EN 13749 relevant to the position on

the vehicle;
— protection of the equipment from flying objects eg track ballast;
— EMC standard (EN 50121);

— aerodynamic effects (e.g. Wind turbulence may affect the performance of a spray system which

may be optimized by use of a windbreak);
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— Electronic equipment used on rolling stock (EN 62621);

— EN 50238-1, Railway applications. Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection

systems. General;
— noise emissions.
5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment

The supplier of the trainborne equipment shall provide instructions for the installation and use of

the equipment.

Trainborne equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance

The installation shall be checked after a short period of service to ensure that the material is being

applied as agreed between the client and the supplier.

The supplier of the trainborne equipment shall provide maintenance instructions for the equipment.

These shall include a method for fault diagnosis to check that the trainborne equipment is not

partially or fully blocked or misaligned and that all components are securely attached to their

mountings (see Annex C for some examples).

A train maintenance plan shall include a check of the trainborne equipment to be carried out at pre-

defined intervals taking into account the equipment supplier’s instructions. This maintenance plan

shall include monitoring of material usage and application alignment as a method of checking

effective delivery.
Before any material is used, verify it is compatible with the equipment.
5.5 Application

The equipment shall be designed so that the rate of application of the material is consistent during

the agreed service conditions.

Any trainborne equipment using a spray applicator shall provide the facility to temporarily override

the application of material, either automatically or manually. Where such a facility is provided this

action shall be recorded.

Consideration shall be given to varying the point of recommencing material application after each

such cessation and when regaining the set speed, to ensure that there is no pooling or excess material

on the infrastructure.

Where top of rail material is manually applied by the driver, consideration shall be given to record

this action.

Any trainborne equipment using a spray applicator shall have a low speed cut out.

High speed cut-off should be considered for trainborne equipment design.

The material shall be applied to area “1” as shown in Figure 1 or area “1,2,3” in Figure 2.

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Key
1 tread
2 flange root
3 flange face
4 flange toe
5 flange tip
6 back of wheel
Figure 1 — Areas of a wheel tread
Key
1 field shoulder
2 crown
3 gauge shoulder
4 gauge corner
5 gauge face
6 inside of running rail (gauge face)
7 outside of running rail (field side)
8 web
Figure 2 — Areas of a rail
Migration of material to the other zones is not desirable.
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5.6 Verification

Verification of the trainborne equipment shall be undertaken to establish effective application of the

material. The method chosen shall depend on the type of equipment and shall be relevant to the

application.

The method of verification shall be determined between the client and supplier, see Annex B.

Solid material that are used in the form of, for example stick application on to the tread may eject

part of the stick as debris. The mass of this part shall be no greater than 5 g.
6 Requirements for trackside equipment
6.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— length of site to be treated;
— the number of applicators to be installed;
— direction of travel (e.g bi-directional);
— application and position at switches and crossings;
— the frequency of traffic;
— speed of traffic;
The position of the trackside equipment shall take into account:
— the need to gain access for maintenance;

— any hazards associated with localized contamination, e.g. if equipment placed adjacent to

platforms, pedestrian / vehicle crossings, water courses, areas where local regulations prohibit

use of equipment.

The trackside equipment shall be designed, installed and maintained to limit contamination of any

other part of the train or infrastructure. Build-up of excess material on the equipment, trackbed or

trains shall be avoided.
6.2 Design of trackside equipment

The trackside equipment shall meet the specified requirements for application over the full range of

operating conditions. These shall include local conditions relating to:
— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1);
— equipment positioning for access and space constraints;
— availability of power supplies;
— options for system adjustment, control and material regulation;
— the type of material;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
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— type of trains operating on the infrastructure, including on track machines.;
— speed limit;
— train frequency;
— track form and rail profile (e.g S49, UIC 60);
— installation of the equipment.

Electrically powered equipment shall be verified and approved in order to ensure that signalling and

telecommunications integrity is not compromised.

Trackside equipment shall be capable of being fitted without the need for welding to rails or drilling

of rails, unless defined in the technical specification.

When selecting trackside equipment, the operation of on-track machines shall be considered.

The means of adjusting the height of the applicator shall be separate from the means of attaching to

the rail. The range of adjustment shall accommodate permitted rail wear, wheel profiles, axle loads

and speeds of all train types using the route.
The trackside equipment shall not infringe the infrastructure gauge.

The trackside equipment shall include a means of checking and adjusting the amount and position of

material dispensed.

Where the location of application changes periodically, consideration shall be given to the type of

equipment being used.

Metallic armoured pipes and cables may be prohibited on third rail routes, the infrastructure

manager should be consulted.
6.3 Installation of trackside equipment

The installation of the trackside equipment shall take in to account the intended length of the site to

which the material should be applied.

The supplier of the trackside equipment shall provide instructions for the installation of the

equipment.

Trackside equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The

installation shall be checked after a short period of service (typically after the passage of no more

than five trains) to ensure that the material is being applied correctly.

NOTE Further guidance on the positioning of trackside equipment is contained in Annex D.

6.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance

The maintenance instruction of the trackside equipment shall be provided. These shall include an

inspection and a method for fault diagnosis to check that the equipment is not partially or fully

blocked or misaligned and all components are securely attached to their mountings.

A maintenance plan that includes a check of the trackside equipment to be carried out at pre-defined

intervals taking into account, the equipment supplier’s instructions shall be produced. This

maintenance plan should include monitoring of material usage.

The condition of the rail served by the equipment shall be inspected to ensure effective application

is taking place.
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After refilling or adjustment, the trackside equipment shall be inspected for correct application of the

material from the equipment.

NOTE Annex D sets out recommendations for the inspection and maintenance arrangements.

6.5 Application

The equipment shall apply the material consistently under all agreed service conditions.

The system shall be designed such that no excessive material is applied.
The material shall be applied to area “1,2,3” of Figure 2.
Migration of top of rail material to other zones is not desirable.
6.6 Verification

Verification of the trackside equipment shall be undertaken to establish effective application of the

material. The method chosen shall depend on the type of equipment and shall be relevant to the

application.
NOTE Annex B sets out typical methods for verification.
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Annex A
(informative)
Types of Trainborne and Trackside Equipment
A.1 Introduction

This annex describes top of rail systems currently available for Trainborne and Trackside equipment.

A.2 Trainborne Equipment
A.2.1 Fluid material application to the active interface

The fluid material is applied on to the active interface either as an air/fluid mixture or as a fluid only.

Control of the duration and/or interval of the application can be either by a timer, location, distance

counter or curve sensing or a combination.
A.2.2 Solid material application to the wheel
The solid material is pressed against the running wheel.
A.3 Trackside Equipment
A.3.1 Mechanically activated
Mechanical trackside equipment is operated by physical co
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