This document specifies the continuous measurement method of shrinkage for thermosetting resin and/or UV curable resin.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the residual acrylonitrile monomer and styrene monomer in polymer polyols by gas chromatography.

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This document specifies a method whereby the heat of reaction generated during epoxy resin crosslinking is measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The degree of crosslinking is determined based on this result. This method is applicable to epoxy resin systems with a moderate or slow crosslinking-reaction speed. It might not be applicable to systems with a fast crosslinking-reaction speed at ambient temperature.

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ISO 20368:2017 specifies a method for determining the degree of crosslinking of crosslinked epoxy resins by the disappearance of the epoxy group during epoxy resin crosslinking measured by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) (with a transmittance mode) spectroscopy.

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ISO 15064:2017 specifies methods for the measurement of toluene-2,6-diisocyanate in mixtures of the 2,4- and 2,6-isomers. Two methods based on infrared spectroscopy are used to give accurate results over a broad range of isomer concentrations. Method A is applicable to toluenediisocyanate (TDI) samples containing between 5 % and 95 % of the 2,6-isomer. Method B is applicable to TDI samples containing 0 % to 5 % of the 2,6-isomer. Both methods are based on the quantitative measurement of absorption bands arising from out-of-plane C−H deformation vibrations of the aromatic ring at 810 cm−1 and 782 cm−1 (12,3 μm and 13,8 μm).

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ISO 14900:2017 specifies two methods for the measurement of the hydroxyl number of polyols used as polyurethane raw materials. It is necessary to know the hydroxyl content of polyols to properly formulate polyurethane systems. Method A is primarily applicable to readily esterified polyether polyols. It is also intended for polyols which have significant steric hindrance, such as those based on sugars. Method B is intended for polyether polyols, polymer polyols and amine-initiated polyols, but may give low results for sterically hindered polyols. Other polyols can be analysed by these methods if precautions are taken to verify applicability. These methods can be used for research and for quality control and specification purposes.

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ISO 26603:2017 specifies the determination of the total chlorine content of aromatic isocyanates used in the preparation of polyurethanes. The difference between the total chlorine content and the hydrolyzable chlorine content (see ISO 15028) is a measure of the process solvents left in the product. Both test methods are applicable to a variety of organic compounds, including aliphatic isocyanates, but the amount of sample used might need to be adjusted. These test methods can be used for research or for quality control. NOTE This document is technically equivalent to ASTM D4661?03.

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ISO 4895:2014 specifies a method for determining the tendency of liquid epoxy resins to crystallize. The tendency to crystallize is determined by observing, at specified time intervals, changes in fluidity and the onset of crystallization.

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The method specified in ISO 25761:2014 measures the basic constituents in polyols that are soluble in glacial acetic acid and reactive with perchloric acid. Samples containing 0,3 % to 10 % of nitrogen have been evaluated by this method. The method is applicable to amine-based polyols, polyether polyols and polyether polyol blends that are used in polyurethane reactions. The results are measures of batch-to-batch uniformity and may be used to estimate reactivity in polyurethane reactions.

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ISO 21048:2014 specifies a method for the determination of the 1,2-glycol content in epoxy resins.

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ISO 15028:2014 specifies a method for the determination of the hydrolysable-chlorine content of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, toluene-2,6-diisocyanate or mixtures of the two. This test method may also be applied to other isocyanates of suitable solubility, such as crude or refined polymeric isocyanates.

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ISO 3673-2:2012 specifies the methods of preparation of test specimens and the test methods to be used in determining the properties of crosslinked epoxy resins. The properties determined have been selected from the general test methods in ISO 10350‑1:2007. Test methods for the determination of the properties of non-crosslinked epoxy resins are not included in this part of ISO 3673. NOTE Test methods for non-crosslinked epoxy resins are specified in ISO 18280.

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ISO 15063:2011 specifies a method for the determination of hydroxyl numbers of polyols using NIR (near-infrared) spectroscopy. Definitions and calibration techniques are given. Procedures for selecting calibration materials and for collecting and processing data to develop NIR calibrations are outlined. Criteria for building, evaluating and validating the NIR calibration model are also described. Procedures for sample handling, data gathering and evaluation are included. It is necessary to know the hydroxyl number of polyols in order to properly formulate polyurethane systems. ISO 15063 is suitable for use in research, quality control, specification testing and process control.

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ISO 4901:2011 specifies a method for the determination, by gas chromatography, of the residual styrene monomer in reinforced plastics based on unsaturated polyester (UP) resins in the polymerized state. The residual styrene monomer content is an important criterion in evaluating the degree of cure of UP resins in the polymerized state. The method can also be used for the simultaneous determination of other volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in UP resins. The method is not applicable to UP resins of high chemical resistance.

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ISO 18280:2010 provides an overview of the ISO test methods used to characterize epoxy resins.

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ISO 21627-2:2009 specifies a method for the determination of easily saponifiable chlorine in epoxy resins. The easily saponifiable chlorine content is the quantity of easily saponifiable chlorine in a given quantity of epoxy resin. The values obtained are indicative of the concentration of easily saponifiable chlorine in chlorohydrin groups in the resin.

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ISO 21627-3:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the total amount of chlorine in epoxy resins. The chlorine measured by this method, referred to as total chlorine, includes saponifiable organic chlorine and inorganic chlorine.

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ISO 21627-1:2009 specifies a direct potentiometric method for the determination of inorganic chlorine in epoxy resins, also called “ionic chlorine”. The inorganic chlorine content is expressed in milligrams per kilogram of epoxy resin.

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ISO 14896:2009 specifies two methods for the measurement of the isocyanate content of aromatic isocyanates used as polyurethane raw materials. Method A is primarily applicable to refined toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methylene-bis-(4-phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and their prepolymers. Method B is applicable to refined, crude or modified isocyanates derived from toluene diisocyanate, methylene-bis-(4-phenylisocyanate) and polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate. It can also be used for isomer mixtures of toluene diisocyanate, methylene-bis-(4-phenylisocyanate) and polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate. Other aromatic isocyanates may be analysed by this method if precautions are taken to verify suitability. It is not applicable to blocked isocyanates.

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ISO 2577:2007 specifies a method of determining the moulding shrinkage and the shrinkage after heat treatment of moulded test specimens of thermosetting moulding materials. These characteristics are useful for the production control of thermosetting material and for checking uniformity of manufacture. Furthermore, knowledge of the initial shrinkage of thermosetting materials is important for the construction of moulds, and knowledge of post-shrinkage for establishing the suitability of the moulding material for the manufacture of moulded pieces with accurate dimensions.

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ISO 21318:2007 specifies a method for the determination of the electrical conductivity of an aqueous extract obtained by extraction of an epoxy resin with water at 95 °C. The method is applicable only to epoxy resins that are in the molten state at the extraction temperature (95 °C). The method is important for epoxy resins which are used as insulation materials for electronic devices. The electrical conductivity of the extract is used as a measure of the concentration of the ionic species in the resin.

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ISO 8988:2006 specifies three methods for the determination of the hexamethylenetetramine ("hexa") content of phenolic resins: a Kjeldahl method; direct titration with perchloric acid; potentiometric titration with hydrochloric acid.

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ISO 4597-1:2005 specifies a method of designation for epoxy resin hardeners and accelerators. The object of the designation method is to allocate to each commercial product a group of digits, called the 'designation', giving in a coded form certain information on the product: chemical base, modifiers and solvents, viscosity and additives. Thus all products having similar properties and therefore likely to have the same uses will have the same designation, so aiding users in their choice if producers list the designation in their data sheets.

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ISO 8987:2005 specifies methods for the determination of the B-transformation time of phenolic resins at a specified temperature and under specified conditions on a heated test plate. Two methods are described, each with a different test plate: Method A -- plate with depressions in the form of segments of spheres; Method B -- flat plate without depressions.

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ISO 11402:2004 specifies three methods for determining the free-formaldehyde content in the following: Phenolic resins, by potentiometric titration in aqueous or organic solution (hydroxylamine hydrochloride procedure). The method is applicable to resins with free-formaldehyde contents up to and including 15 % by mass. For free-formaldehyde contents between 15 % by mass and 30 % by mass, it may be necessary to adjust the concentrations of the standard volumetric solutions used accordingly. Amino resins and furan resins (sulfite procedure). The method is applicable to resins resulting from the polycondensation of urea and melamine with formaldehyde and to furan resins resulting from the polycondensation of furfuryl alcohol with formaldehyde without further modification. Condensation resins (KCN procedure), including urea resins, furan resins, melamine resins and phenolic resins, as well as combinations and modifications of these resins. The purpose of this International Standard is to establish recognized and useful determination procedures (for instance in order to check whether official regulations on the handling of hazardous workplace materials are observed). The free-formaldehyde content determined in formaldehyde condensation resins using this International Standard represents the actual content at the time of the determination. The value bears no quantitative relationship to the free-formaldehyde content during or after processing.

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ISO 295:2004 establishes the general principles and lays down the procedure to prepare test specimens of heat- and pressure-moulded thermosetting material from different moulding compounds, specifies the details for test specimen preparation to be included with the test reports on properties and gives the general principles for the design of the mould intended for the preparation of the test specimens. The method applies to phenolic resin, aminoplastic, melamine/phenol, epoxy and unsaturated polyester-based thermosetting powder moulding compounds (PMCs). Special methods for preparing test specimens required because of the nature of certain moulding compounds, their flow properties or other variable factors, are not considered.

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ISO 8619:2003 specifies a method for the determination of the flow distance of powdered heat-setting phenolic resins for production and control. With reference to tablet formation, test temperature and angle of inclination of the glass plate, measurement of the flow distance involves arbitrarily defined conditions. The flow distance is dependent on the reactivity and melt viscosity of the resins. Rapid solidification and high melt viscosity shorten the flow distance.

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ISO 14897 specifies methods used to measure the water content of polyols employed as polyurethane raw materials. Method A is a manual amperometric method which has been included to better define the principles of the Karl Fischer measurement. Amperometric methods are applicable to a wide range of polyols, including those which have enough colour to obscure a visual end-point. Method B includes an automated amperometric procedure and an automated coulometric procedure. The coulometric procedure is an absolute method that does not require calibration and gives improved sensitivity compared with amperometric methods.

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This International Standard specifies two methods, using gas chromatography, of measuring the residual phenol content of phenolic resins.

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This International Standard specifies a microtitration method to measure the degree of unsaturation in polyether polyols used in the production of polyurethanes. It is based on the reaction of mercuric acetate with double bonds in the polyol. It does not apply to compounds in which the unsaturation is conjugated with carbonyl, carboxyl or nitrile groups. The product being measured must be essentially dry and free of inorganic salts, especially halides.

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This International Standard specifies methods of measuring, under defined conditions, the gel time at ambient temperature (i.e. within the range 18 °C to 30 °C) of unsaturated-polyester resins. The referee temperature, if needed, is 25 °C.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the measurement of trace amounts of basic materials present in polyether polyols used in the production of polyurethanes. It is important to know the trace amount of basicity in a polyol to prevent gelation of the reaction mass during the production of polyurethane prepolymers. It is also useful to control the basicity in polyols used for polyurethane production to assure consistent and reproducible reaction behaviour. This method is suitable for quality control, as a specification test and for research. The applicable range is 0 _g to 50 _g/g, expressed as KOH. The method is not applicable to amine-based polyols. The values may be reported as CPR (controlled polymerization rate) units.

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1.1 This part of ISO 14530 establishes a data block system for the designation of unsaturated-polyester powder moulding compounds (UP-PMCs). 1.2 The various types of UP-PMC are differentiated from each other by a classification system based on information about the filler/reinforcement type and content, the intended method of processing, any special properties and those of the special properties used specifically for designation purposes (designatory properties). 1.3 This part of ISO 14530 is applicable to all UP-PMCs ready for normal use in the form of powder, granules or ground material. 1.4 It is not intended to imply that materials having the same designation necessarily give the same performance. This part of ISO 14530 does not provide engineering data, performance data or data on processing conditions which may be required to specify a material for a particular application and/or method of processing. If such additional properties are required, they shall be determined in accordance with the test methods specified in ISO 14530-2, if suitable. 1.5 Whenever general requirement data, as covered by ISO 14530-3, need to be indicated, this is also done using this data block system. 1.6 To ensure that code-letters and code-numbers remain unambiguous, and to avoid conflicts within the system, any new code-letters or code-numbers for use in data block 1, 2 or 3 shall be approved before use by the secretariats of ISO/TC 61/SC 1, SC 12 and SC 13.

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This part of ISO 14530 specifies the methods of preparation of test specimens and the test methods to be used in determining the properties of unsaturated-polyester powder moulding compounds (UP-PMCs). Requirements for handling test material and for conditioning both the test material before moulding and the specimens before testing are given here. Procedures and conditions for the preparation of test specimens and procedures for measuring properties of the materials from which these specimens are made are given. Properties and test methods which are suitable and necessary to characterize PMCs are listed. The properties have been selected from the general test methods in ISO 10350-1. Other test methods in wide use for, or of particular significance to, PMCs are also included in this part of ISO 14530, as are the designatory properties found in ISO 14530-1. In order to obtain reproducible and comparable test results, it is necessary to use the methods of preparation and conditioning, the specimen dimensions and the test procedures specified herein. Values determined will not necessarily be identical to those obtained using specimens of different dimensions or prepared using different procedures.

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This part of ISO 14527 specifies the methods of preparation of test specimens and the test methods to be used in determining the properties of urea-formaldehyde and urea/melamine-formaldehyde powder moulding compounds (UF- and UF/MF-PMCs). Requirements for handling test material and for conditioning both the test material before moulding and the specimens before testing are given here. Procedures and conditions for the preparation of test specimens and procedures for measuring properties of the materials from which these specimens are made are given. Properties and test methods which are suitable and necessary to characterize PMCs are listed. The properties have been selected from the general test methods in ISO 10350-1. Other test methods in wide use for, or of particular significance to, PMCs are also included in this part of ISO 14527, as are the designatory properties found in ISO 14527-1. In order to obtain reproducible and comparable test results, it is necessary to use the methods of preparation and conditioning, the specimen dimensions and the test procedures specified herein. Values determined will not necessarily be identical to those obtained using specimens of different dimensions or prepared using different procedures.

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1.1 This part of ISO 14528 establishes a data block system for the designation of melamine-formaldehyde powder moulding compounds (MF-PMCs). 1.2 The various types of MF-PMC are differentiated from each other by a classification system based on information about the filler/reinforcement type and content, the intended method of processing, any special properties and those of the special properties used specifically for designation purposes (designatory properties). 1.3 This part of ISO 14528 is applicable to all MF-PMCs ready for normal use in the form of powder, granules or ground material. 1.4 It is not intended to imply that materials having the same designation necessarily give the same performance. This part of ISO 14528 does not provide engineering data, performance data or data on processing conditions which may be required to specify a material for a particular application and/or method of processing. If such additional properties are required, they shall be determined in accordance with the test methods specified in ISO 14528-2, if suitable. 1.5 Whenever general requirement data, as covered by ISO 14528-3, need to be indicated, this is also done using this data block system. 1.6 To ensure that code-letters and code-numbers remain unambiguous, and to avoid conflicts within the system, any new code-letters or code-numbers for use in data block 1, 2 or 3 shall be approved before use by the secretariats of ISO/TC 61/SC 1, SC 12 and SC 13.

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This part of ISO 14526 specifies the requirements for the physical and chemical properties of phenolic powder moulding compounds (PF-PMCs) and compression- or injection-moulded test specimens produced from them. It is limited to those powder moulding compounds whose composition and properties are significantly different. It is further limited to those moulding compounds which are of general technical and/or economic importance. The properties which are used to characterize the moulding compounds, the test methods and the test conditions are selected from those given in ISO 14526-2. The moulding compounds are divided into types according to their composition and properties. The various types are designated using the designation system defined in ISO 14526-1.

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This part of ISO 14528 specifies the methods of preparation of test specimens and the test methods to be used in determining the properties of powder moulding compounds (PMCs). Requirements for handling test material and for conditioning both the test material before moulding and the specimens before testing are given here. Procedures and conditions for the preparation of test specimens and procedures for measuring properties of the materials from which these specimens are made are given. Properties and test methods which are suitable and necessary to characterize PMCs are listed. The properties have been selected from the general test methods in ISO 10350-1. Other test methods in wide use for, or of particular significance to, PMCs are also included in this part of ISO 14528, as are the designatory properties found in ISO 14528-1. In order to obtain reproducible and comparable test results, it is necessary to use the methods of preparation and conditioning, the specimen dimensions and the test procedures specified herein. Values determined will not necessarily be identical to those obtained using specimens of different dimensions or prepared using different procedures.

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This part of ISO 14528 specifies the requirements for the physical and chemical properties of melamineformaldehyde powder moulding compounds (MF-PMCs) and compression- or injection-moulded test specimens produced from them. It is limited to those powder moulding compounds whose composition and properties are significantly different. It is further limited to those moulding compounds which are of general technical and/or economic importance. The properties which are used to characterize the moulding compounds, the test methods and the test conditions are selected from those given in ISO 14528-2. The moulding compounds are divided into types according to their composition and properties. The various types are designated using the designation system defined in ISO 14528-1.

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This part of ISO 15252 specifies the methods of preparation of test specimens and the test methods to be used in determining the properties of epoxy powder moulding compounds (EP-PMCs). Requirements for handling test material and for conditioning both the test material before moulding and the specimens before testing are given here. Procedures and conditions for the preparation of test specimens and procedures for measuring properties of the materials from which these specimens are made are given. Properties and test methods which are suitable and necessary to characterize PMCs are listed. The properties have been selected from the general test methods in ISO 10350-1. Other test methods in wide use for, or of particular significance to, PMCs are also included in this part of ISO 15252, as are the designatory properties found in ISO 15252-1. In order to obtain reproducible and comparable test results, it is necessary to use the methods of preparation and conditioning, the specimen dimensions and the test procedures specified herein. Values determined will not necessarily be identical to those obtained using specimens of different dimensions or prepared using different procedures.

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This part of ISO 14526 specifies the methods of preparation of test specimens and the test methods to be used in determining the properties of phenolic powder moulding compounds (PF-PMCs). Requirements for handling test material and for conditioning both the test material before moulding and the specimens before testing are given here. Procedures and conditions for the preparation of test specimens and procedures for measuring properties of the materials from which these specimens are made are given. Properties and test methods which are suitable and necessary to characterize PMCs are listed. The properties have been selected from the general test methods in ISO 10350-1. Other test methods in wide use for, or of particular significance to, PMCs are also included in this part of ISO 14526, as are the designatory properties found in ISO 14526-1. In order to obtain reproducible and comparable test results, it is necessary to use the methods of preparation and conditioning, the specimen dimensions and the test procedures specified herein. Values determined will not necessarily be identical to those obtained using specimens of different dimensions or prepared using different procedures.

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1.1 This part of ISO 14526 establishes a data block system for the designation of phenolic powder moulding compounds (PF-PMCs). 1.2 The various types of PF-PMC are differentiated from each other by a classification system based on information about the filler/reinforcement type and content, the intended method of processing, any special properties and those of the special properties used specifically for designation purposes (designatory properties). 1.3 This part of ISO 14526 is applicable to all PF-PMCs ready for normal use in the form of powder, granules or ground material. 1.4 It is not intended to imply that materials having the same designation necessarily give the same performance. This part of ISO 14526 does not provide engineering data, performance data or data on processing conditions which may be required to specify a material for a particular application and/or method of processing. If such additional properties are required, they shall be determined in accordance with the test methods specified in ISO 14526-2, if suitable. 1.5 Whenever general requirement data, as covered by ISO 14526-3, need to be indicated, this is also done using this data block system. 1.6 To ensure that code-letters and code-numbers remain unambiguous, and to avoid conflicts within the system, any new code-letters or code-numbers for use in data block 1, 2 or 3 shall be approved before use by the secretariats of ISO/TC 61/SC 1, SC 12 and SC 13.

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This part of ISO 14529 specifies the methods of preparation of test specimens and the test methods to be used in determining the properties of melamine/phenolic powder moulding compounds (MP-PMCs). Requirements for handling test material and for conditioning both the test material before moulding and the specimens before testing are given here. Procedures and conditions for the preparation of test specimens and procedures for measuring properties of the materials from which these specimens are made are given. Properties and test methods which are suitable and necessary to characterize PMCs are listed. The properties have been selected from the general test methods in ISO 10350-1. Other test methods in wide use for, or of particular significance to, PMCs are also included in this part of ISO 14529, as are the designatory properties found in ISO 14529-1. In order to obtain reproducible and comparable test results, it is necessary to use the methods of preparation and conditioning, the specimen dimensions and the test procedures specified herein. Values determined will not necessarily be identical to those obtained using specimens of different dimensions or prepared using different procedures.

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1.1 This part of ISO 14529 establishes a data block system for the designation of melamine/phenolic powder moulding compounds (MP-PMCs). 1.2 The various types of MP-PMC are differentiated from each other by a classification system based on information about the filler/reinforcement type and content, the intended method of processing, any special properties and those of the special properties used specifically for designation purposes (designatory properties). 1.3 This part of ISO 14529 is applicable to all MP-PMCs ready for normal use in the form of powder, granules or ground material. 1.4 It is not intended to imply that materials having the same designation necessarily give the same performance. This part of ISO 14529 does not provide engineering data, performance data or data on processing conditions which may be required to specify a material for a particular application and/or method of processing. If such additional properties are required, they shall be determined in accordance with the test methods specified in ISO 14529-2, if suitable. 1.5 Whenever general requirement data, as covered by ISO 14529-3, need to be indicated, this is also done using this data block system. 1.6 To ensure that code-letters and code-numbers remain unambiguous, and to avoid conflicts within the system, any new code-letters or code-numbers for use in data block 1, 2 or 3 shall be approved before use by the secretariats of ISO/TC 61/SC 1, SC 12 and SC 13.

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This part of ISO 14527 specifies the requirements for the physical and chemical properties of urea-formaldehyde and urea/melamine-formaldehyde powder moulding compounds (UF- and UF/MF-PMCs) and compression- or injection-moulded test specimens produced from them. It is limited to those powder moulding compounds whose composition and properties are significantly different. It is further limited to those moulding compounds which are of general technical and/or economic importance. The properties which are used to characterize the moulding compounds, the test methods and the test conditions are selected from those given in ISO 14527-2. The moulding compounds are divided into types according to their composition and properties. The various types are designated using the designation system defined in ISO 14527-1.

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