This International Standard specifies the quantitative determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) according to the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency, USA (EPA, 1982). This International Standard is applicable to all types of soil (field-moist or chemically dried samples), covering a wide range of PAH contamination levels.
Under the conditions specified in this International Standard, a lower limit of application of 0,01 mg/kg
(expressed as dry matter) can be ensured for each individual PAH.

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ISO 16772:2004 specifies a method for the determination of mercury in an aqua regia extract of soil, obtained in accordance with ISO 11464 and ISO 11466, using cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry or cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The limit of determination of the method is at least 0,1 mg/kg.

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This International Standard specifies a method for microwave-assisted extraction of elements from samples
using aqua regia as the extraction solution for the determination of elements. This method is applicable to all
types of soil and soil material.
Aqua regia extraction is suitable for the release of trace and major element fractions in soil. Aqua regia is not
suitable for the extraction of elements from refractory compounds, such as SiO2, TiO2 and Al2O3.
The extraction with aqua regia is operationally defined and will not necessarily release all elements completely.
The microwave method is generic and can be implemented using a wide variety of equipment, provided:
a) the extraction mixture ratio is unchanged;
b) the extraction temperature is known.
Solutions produced by the microwave method are suitable for analysis, for example, by using atomic
absorption spectrometry (flame: FAAS, hydride generation: HGAAS, cold vapour: CVAAS, graphite furnace;
GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass
spectrometry (ICP/MS).
NOTE Due to the presence of chloride in the extraction solution, limitations for the application of analytical
techniques can occur.

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This International Standard describes the determination of trace elements in digests or extraction solutions
from soil by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for 34 elements (see
Table 1).
This multi-element determination method is applicable to soil extracts obtained with aqua regia in accordance
with ISO 11466, with DTPA in accordance with ISO 14870 or other weak extractants, or soil extracts for the
determination of total element contents using the acid digestion method of ISO 14869-1 or the fusion method
of ISO 14869-2.
The choice of calibration method depends on the extractant and can be adapted to the extractant
concentration.

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This International Standard specifies a method for quantitative determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyls
and seventeen organochlorine pesticides in soil.
This International Standard is applicable to all types of soil.
Under the conditions specified in this International Standard, limits of detection of 0,1 μg/kg to 4 μg/kg (expressed
as dry matter) can be achieved.

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ISO 14507:2003 specifies three methods for the pretreatment of soil samples in the laboratory prior to the determination of organic contaminants:
if volatile organic compounds are to be measured;
if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured, if the result of the subsequent analysis must be accurate and reproducible, and if the sample contains particles larger than 2 mm and/or the contaminant is heterogeneously distributed;
if non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field-moist sample, or if the largest particles of the sample are smaller than 2 mm and the contaminant is homogeneously distributed. This procedure is also applicable if reduced accuracy and repeatability are acceptable.
The pretreatment described in ISO 14507:2003 is used in combination with an extraction procedure in which the contaminant is available for the extraction liquid.
NOTE For the pretreatment of soil samples for the purposes of determining non-volatile inorganic compounds and physico-chemical soil characteristics, see ISO 11464.

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This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed
guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on
— the average properties of soil,
— the variability of soil properties, and
— the spatial distribution of soil properties.
It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other
properties (e.g. physical).
Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a
laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field.
NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of
appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies.
NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for
soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater
is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in
geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.

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This document provides guidance on the design and execution of preliminary investigations comprising
desk studies and site reconnaissance, and where appropriate, preliminary risk assessment. It is
applicable whenever sampling exercises or investigations are to be carried out to determine soil quality.

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This document gives guidance on the:
— investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of
soil contamination is suspected;
— investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined
(e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present);
— investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be
contaminated;
— collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best
achieved).
Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and
actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the
requirements for remediation (if any).

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This document gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be
examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment
that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to
be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the
equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly
taken at different depths.
This document does not cover:
— investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil
quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined;
— sampling of hard strata such as bedrock;
— methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical
methods;
— collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International
Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series);
— investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400-204;
— investigation of radioactively contaminated sites.
NOTE 1 “Sampling technique” is defined in ISO 11074.
NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589
series.

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This document gives guidelines for:
— identification of hazards that could be encountered during a site investigation and when collecting
samples of soil and other ground material, including hazards that are intrinsic in the sampling
operation (e.g. physical hazards) in addition to the hazards that might arise, e.g. from contamination
with chemicals or biological agents;
— measures to be adopted to control risks once an appropriate risk assessment has been carried out.

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This document specifies the minimum information required for a sampling report independent of the
purpose of the investigation.
The preparation of the overall investigation report is not covered by this document (see
ISO/IEC 17025:2005, 5.10.3).

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This document specifies the procedural elements to be taken in the preparation and application of a
sampling plan. The sampling plan describes among other things what laboratory samples are to be
taken, how they are to be taken and from where they are to be taken, in order that the objectives of
the investigation programme can be achieved. The principles or basic rules outlined in this document
provide a framework that can be used to
— produce standardized sampling plans for use in more regular or routine circumstances,
— incorporate the specific requirements of national legislation, and
— design and develop a sampling plan for use on a case-by-case basis.
This document is applicable to sampling of soil and soil material, more specifically, e.g.
— soil in the landscape,
— soil stockpiles,
— potentially contaminated sites,
— agricultural soils,
— landfills, and
— forest soils.
Ultimately, the sampling plan provides the sampler with detailed instructions on how sampling should
be carried out.
NOTE 1 There might be a need for more than one sampling plan to meet all the requirements of the
investigation programme.
NOTE 2 It might sometimes be appropriate to divide a site or above-ground deposit (e.g. stockpile) into two or
more zones and to develop separate sampling plans for each zone. For example, a (potentially) contaminated site
might be zoned on the basis of past use, future use, topography or geology and an agricultural site on the basis of
known or suspected soil types or use (pasture, type of crops, etc.).

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ISO/IEC 17025:2017 specifies the general requirements for the competence, impartiality and consistent operation of laboratories.
ISO/IEC 17025:2017 is applicable to all organizations performing laboratory activities, regardless of the number of personnel.
Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities, organizations and schemes using peer-assessment, accreditation bodies, and others use ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories.

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This document specifies three methods for the determination of dry bulk density of soils calculated
from the mass and the volume of a soil sample. The methods involve drying and weighing a soil sample,
the volume of which is either known [core method (see 4.1)] or determined [excavation method (see 4.2)
and clod method (see 4.4)].

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This part of ISO 17294 specifies a method for the determination of the elements aluminium, antimony,
arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, cadmium, caesium, calcium, cerium, chromium, cobalt,
copper, dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, gallium, germanium, gold, hafnium, holmium, indium, iridium,
iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium,
nickel, palladium, phosphorus, platinum, potassium, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, rhodium,
ruthenium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, terbium, tellurium, thorium,
thallium, thulium, tin, tungsten, uranium and its isotopes, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and
zirconium in water (for example, drinking water, surface water, ground water, waste water and eluates).
Taking into account the specific and additionally occurring interferences, these elements can also be
determined in digests of water, sludges and sediments (for example, digests of water as described in
ISO 15587-1 or ISO 15587-2).
The working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered. In drinking water and
relatively unpolluted waters, the limit of quantification (xLQ) lies between 0,002 μg/l and 1,0 μg/l for
most elements. The working range typically covers concentrations between several pg/l
and mg/l depending on the element and pre-defined requirements.
The quantification limits of most elements are affected by blank contamination and depend
predominantly on the laboratory air-handling facilities available on the purity of reagents and the
cleanliness of glassware.
The lower limit of quantification is higher in cases where the determination suffers from interferences
or memory effects (see ISO 17294-1:2004, 8.2).

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This document describes methods for the determination of the particle size distribution of soil samples.
The particle size distribution is one of the most important physical characteristics of soil. Classification of soils is mainly based on the particle size distribution.
The particle size distribution provides a description of soil, based on a subdivision in discrete classes of particle sizes. The size of each class can be determined by sieving and/or sedimentation.

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This International Standard specifies a method for quantitative gas-chromatographic determination of
volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in soil.
This International Standard is applicable to all types of soil.
NOTE In the case of unsaturated peaty soils, absorption of the extraction solution may occur.
The lower limit of quantification is dependent on the equipment used and the quality of the methanol
grade used for the extraction of the soil sample.
Under the conditions specified in this International Standard the following limits of quantification
apply (expressed on basis of dry matter):
Typical limit of quantification when using GC-FID:
— Volatile aromatic hydrocarbons: 0,1 mg/kg
Typical limit of quantification when using GC-ECD:
— Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons: 0,01 mg/kg
Lower limits of quantification for some compounds can be achieved by using mass spectrometry (MS)
with selected ion detection.

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2010-08-31 EMA: //ENQ draft received in ISO/CS following notification received in dataservice on 2010-08-30.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the quantitative determination of the mineral oil (hydrocarbon) content in field-moist soil samples by gas chromatography.
The method is applicable to mineral oil contents (mass fraction) between 100 mg/kg and 10 000 mg/kg soil, expressed as dry matter, and can be adapted to lower limits of detection.
This International Standard is applicable to the determination of all hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 175 °C to 525 °C, of n-alkanes from C10H22 to C40H82, of isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes and polycyclic aromatic compounds, provided that they are not absorbed on the specified column during the clean-up procedure.
This International Standard is not applicable to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbons < C10 originating from gasolines.
On the basis of the peak pattern of the gas chromatogram obtained, and of the boiling points of the individual n-alkanes listed in Annex B, the approximate boiling range of the mineral oil and some qualitative information on the composition of the contamination can be obtained.

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This International Standard specifies general requirements for the competence of providers of proficiency testing schemes and for the development and operation of proficiency testing schemes. These requirements are intended to be general for all types of proficiency testing schemes, and they can be used as a basis for specific technical requirements for particular fields of application.

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This International Standard specifies the pretreatments required for soil samples that are to be subjected to physico-chemical analyses of stable and non-volatile parameters and describes the following five types of pretreatment of samples: drying, crushing, sieving, dividing and milling. The pretreatment procedures described in this International Standard are not applicable if they affect the results of the determinations to be made. This International Standard is also not applicable to samples when volatile compounds are measured. In general, International Standards for analytical methods will state when it is necessary to adopt other procedures.

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This International Standard specifies an instrumental method for the routine determination of pH using a glass electrode in a 1:5 (volume fraction) suspension of soil in water (pH in H2O), in 1 mol/l potassium chloride solution (pH in KCL) or in 0,01 mol/l calcium chloride solution (pH in CaCl2). This International Standard is applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples, for example pretreated in accordance with ISO 11464.

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This part of the European Standard gives guidance on the selection, use and maintenance of diffusive samplers used to measure ambient air quality.

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This part of the European Standard specifies general performance requirements for diffusive samplers used for the determination of the concentration of gases and vapours in ambient air. Such requirements apply to all diffusive samplers, irrespective of the physical nature of the rate controlling process and irrespective of the nature of the sorption process and the analytical determination. This standard applies to all stages of the measuring procedure, including deployment, transportation and storage of the sample where appropriate.

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This part of the European Standard specifies specific performance requirements and test methods under prescribed laboratory and field conditions for diffusive samplers used for the determination of the concentration of gases or vapours in ambient air. Such requirements apply to all diffusive samplers, irrespective of the physical nature of the rate-controlling process and irrespective of the nature of the sorption process and the analytical determination.

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Specifies a method for the extraction, with aqua regia, of trace elements from soils and similar materials containing less than about 20 % (m/m) organic carbon. Materials containing more than about 20 % (m/m) organic carbon will require treatment with additional nitric acid. The resulting solution is suitable for the determination of trace elements using appropriate atomic spectrometric techniques.

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Specifies an instrumental method for the routine determination of the specific electrical conductivity in an aqueous extract of soil. The determination is carried out to obtain an indication of the content of water-soluble electrolytes in a soil.

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Specifies a method for the determination of the potential cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil buffered at pH = 8,1 and of the determination of the content of exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in soil. Applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples.

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The method specified can be applied to all types of soil samples. Different procedures are specified for air-dried soil samples, e.g. samples pretreated according to ISO 11464, and for field-moist soil samples. Its principle is drying soil samples to constant mass at 105 °C and using the difference in mass of an amount of soil before and after the drying procedure to calculate the dry matter and water contents on a mass basis. For the determination of soil water content on a volume basis, refer to ISO 11461.

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Specifies a method for the determination of the total carbon content in soil after dry combustion. The organic carbon content is calculated from this content after correcting for carbonates present in the sample. If carbonates are removed beforehand, the organic carbon content is measured directly. Applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples.

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Specifies two methods for the determination of cadmium: using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in an air-acetylene flame (aspiration of the acidified sample into the flame and measurement of the cadmium concentration at a wavelength of 228,8 nm) and by electrothermal atomization AAS (injection of the acidified sample into an electrically heated graphite tube of an electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometer and measurement of the absorbance at a wavelength of 228,8 nm).

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The method is based on developing a potential difference between the measuring electrode and the reference electrode, when a fluoride ion-selective electrode comes into contact with an aqueous solution containing fluoride ions. On certain assumptions specified, the method will no longer refer to activities, but to fluoride ion concentration. The method is directly suitable for measuring fluoride concentrations from 0,2 mg/l to 2,0 g/l.

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This International Standard specifies a basic method of determining the particle size distribution applicable to a wide range of mineral soil materials, including the mineral fraction of organic soils. It also offers procedures to deal with the less common soils mentioned in the introduction. This International Standard has been developed largely for use in the field of environmental science, and its use in geotechnical investigations is something for which professional advice might be required.
A major objective of this International Standard is the determination of enough size fractions to enable the construction of a reliable particle-size-distribution curve.
This International Standard does not apply to the determination of the particle size distribution of the organic components of soil, i.e. the more or less fragile, partially decomposed, remains of plants and animals. It is also realized that the chemical pretreatments and mechanical handling stages in this International Standard could cause disintegration of weakly cohesive particles that, from field inspection, might be regarded as primary particles, even though such primary particles could be better described as aggregates. If such disintegration is undesirable, then this International Standard is not used for the determination of the particle size distribution of such weakly cohesive materials.

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ISO 10381-4:2003 describes the sampling of soils of natural and near-natural sites; areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites); areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments); areas used for special crop-cultivation, arboreal, vineyard, etc.; forest areas and woods. It is applicable to soil investigations and evaluations in the field; chemical, geochemical, physical, biological and radiological characterization of soil and soil materials in the laboratory after sampling. ISO 10381-4:2003 sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g. drying, milling). NOTE ISO 10381-4:2003 is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of ISO 10381 when appropriate.

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ISO 10381-1:2002 sets out the general principles to be applied in the design of sampling programmes for the purpose of characterizing and controlling soil quality and identifying sources and effects of contamination of soil and related material, with emphasis on procedures required to locate points from which samples may be taken for examination or at which instruments may be installed for in situ measurement including statistical implications, procedures for determining how much sample to collect and whether to combine samples, methods of collecting samples, methods for containing, storing and transporting samples to prevent deterioration/contamination.

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