Optics and optical instruments - Test methods for radiation scattered by optical components (ISO 13696:2002)

ISO 13696:2002 specifies procedures for the determination of the total scattering by coated and uncoated optical surfaces. Procedures are given for measuring the contributions of the forward scattering and backward scattering to the total scattering of an optical component.
ISO 13696:2002 applies to coated and uncoated optical components with optical surfaces that have a radius of curvature of more than 10 m. The wavelength range includes the ultraviolet, the visible and the infrared spectral regions.

Optik und optische Instrumente - Bestimmung von Streustrahlung, hervorgerufen durch optische Komponenten (ISO 13696:2002)

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Prüfverfahren für die Bestimmung der Gesamtstreuung von beschichteten und unbeschichteten optischen Oberflächen fest. Verfahren zur Messung der Beiträge der Vorwärts- und Rückwärtsstreuung zur Gesamtstreuung von optischen Komponenten werden angegeben.
Diese Europäische Norm bezieht sich auf beschichtete und unbeschichtete optische Komponenten mit optischen Oberflächen, die einen Krümmungsradius von mehr als 10 m besitzen. Der Wellenlängenbereich erstreckt sich vom ultravioletten über den sichtbaren bis zum infraroten Spektralbereich.

Optique et instruments d'optique - Méthodes d'essai du rayonnement diffusé par les composants optiques (ISO 13696:2002)

L'ISO 13696:2002 définit les méthodes de détermination de la diffusion totale par des surfaces optiques revêtues et non revêtues. Des procédures sont indiquées pour mesurer les contributions de la prodiffusion et de la rétrodiffusion à la diffusion totale d'un composant optique.
L'ISO 13696:2002 s'applique aux composants optiques revêtus et non revêtus dont les surfaces optiques ont un rayon de courbure supérieur à 10 m. La gamme de longueurs d'onde inclut les régions spectrales ultraviolette, visible et infrarouge.

Optika in optični instrumenti - Preskusne metode za sevanje, razpršeno z optičnimi komponentami (ISO 13696:2002)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
14-Jul-2002
Withdrawal Date
14-Jun-2022
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
15-Jun-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
01-november-2002
2SWLNDLQRSWLþQLLQVWUXPHQWL3UHVNXVQHPHWRGH]DVHYDQMHUD]SUãHQR]
RSWLþQLPLNRPSRQHQWDPL ,62
Optics and optical instruments - Test methods for radiation scattered by optical
components (ISO 13696:2002)
Optik und optische Instrumente - Bestimmung von Streustrahlung, hervorgerufen durch
optische Komponenten (ISO 13696:2002)
Optique et instruments d'optique - Méthodes d'essai du rayonnement diffusé par les
composants optiques (ISO 13696:2002)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 13696:2002
ICS:
31.260 Optoelektronika, laserska Optoelectronics. Laser
oprema equipment
SIST EN ISO 13696:2002 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 13696
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2002
ICS 37.020
English version
Optics and optical instruments - Test methods for radiation
scattered by optical components (ISO 13696:2002)
Optique et instruments d'optique - Méthodes d'essai du Optik und optische Instrumente - Bestimmung von
rayonnement diffusé par les composants optiques (ISO Streustrahlung hervorgerufen durch optische Komponenten
13696:2002) (ISO 13696:2002)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 June 2002.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official
versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36  B-1050 Brussels
© 2002 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 13696:2002 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
EN ISO 13696:2002 (E)
CORRECTED  2002-09-25
Foreword
This document (ISO 13696:2002) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172
"Optics and optical instruments" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 123
"Lasers and laser-related equipment", the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication
of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2003, and conflicting national
standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2003.
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of
the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the
United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice
The text of ISO 13696:2002 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 13696:2002 without any
modifications.
NOTE  Normative references to International Standards are listed in Annex ZA (normative).
2

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
EN ISO 13696:2002 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their relevant European publications
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other
publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the
publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions
of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by
amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to
applies (including amendments).
NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications,
indicated by (mod.), the relevant EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN Year
ISO 12005 1999 Lasers and laser-related equipment - EN ISO 12005 1999
Test methods for laser beam parameters
- Polarization
ISO 14644-1 1999 Cleanrooms and associated controlled EN ISO 14644-1 1999
environments - Part 1: Classification of
air cleanliness
3

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002


INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13696
First edition
2002-07-15
Corrected version
2004-08-01


Optics and optical instruments — Test
methods for radiation scattered by optical
components
Optique et instruments d'optique — Méthodes d'essai du rayonnement
diffusé par les composants optiques





Reference number
ISO 13696:2002(E)
©
ISO 2002

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
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All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic
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Published in Switzerland

ii © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
Contents Page
Foreword . iv
Introduction. v
1 Scope. 1
2 Normative references. 1
3 Terms, definitions and symbols . 1
3.1 Terms and definitions. 1
3.2 Symbols and units . 3
4 Test method . 3
4.1 Principle . 3
4.2 Measurement arrangement and test equipment . 3
4.3 Arrangement with high sensitivity . 6
4.4 Preparation of specimens . 6
5 Procedure. 7
5.1 General . 7
5.2 Alignment procedure . 7
5.3 Measurement procedure. 8
6 Evaluation . 8
6.1 Determination of the total scattering value . 8
6.2 Error budget. 11
7 Test report. 11
Annex A (informative) Set-up with a Coblentz sphere . 13
Annex B (informative) Example of test report. 15
Annex C (informative) Statistical evaluation example . 19
Annex D (informative) Example for selection of spacing . 23
Bibliography. 26


© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved iii

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO
member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical
committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has
the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in
liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.
Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard ISO 13696 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172, Optics and photonics,
Subcommittee SC 9, Electro-optical systems.
Annexes A to D of this International Standard are for information only.
In this corrected version of ISO 13696:2002, the following changes have been incorporated:
N
Vr()-(τV )
1
s,for i s u
page 10, equation (5) reads S =
for Â
NV ()r -V
cui
i=1
N
Vr()-+(1 r )V
1
s,bac i s u
 equation (6) reads S =
bac Â
NV ()r -V
cui
i=1
Vr()-(tV )
s,for i s u
 equation (7) reads Sr() =
for i
VV-
cu
Vr()-+(1 r )V
s,bac i s u
page 11, equation (8) reads Sr() =
bac i
VV-
cu
N
2
1
page 19, equation (C2) reads =-Sr()
s  M
()s
s i
bac,sc
N -1
i = 1
page 26, the year of publication of ISO 12005 has been inserted.
iv © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
Introduction
In most applications, scattering in optical components reduces the efficiency and deteriorates the image-forming
quality of optical systems. Scattering is predominantly produced by imperfections of the coatings and the optical
surfaces of the components. Common surface features which contribute to optical scattering are imperfections of
substrates, thin films and interfaces, surface and interface roughness, or contamination and scratches. These
imperfections deflect a fraction of the incident radiation from the specular path. The spatial distribution of this
scattered radiation is dependent on the wavelength of the incident radiation and on the individual optical properties
of the component. For most applications in laser technology and optics, the amount of total loss produced by
scattering is a useful quality criterion of an optical component.
This International Standard describes a testing procedure for the corresponding quantity, the total scattering (TS)
value, which is defined by the measured values of backward scattering and forward scattering. The measurement
principle described in this International Standard is based on an Ulbricht sphere as the integrating element for
scattered radiation. An alternative apparatus with a Coblentz hemisphere, which is also frequently employed for
collecting scattered light, is described in annex A. Currently, advanced studies on the comparability and
the limitations of both light collecting elements are being performed (e.g. round robin tests, EUREKA-project
EUROLASER: CHOCLAB).
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved v

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13696:2002(E)

Optics and optical instruments — Test methods for radiation
scattered by optical components
1 Scope
This International Standard specifies procedures for the determination of the total scattering by coated and
uncoated optical surfaces. Procedures are given for measuring the contributions of the forward scattering and
backward scattering to the total scattering of an optical component.
This International Standard applies to coated and uncoated optical components with optical surfaces that have a
radius of curvature of more than 10 m. The wavelength range includes the ultraviolet, the visible and the infrared
spectral regions.
2 Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these
publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For
undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC
maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 11145, Optics and optical instruments — Lasers and laser-related equipment — Vocabulary and symbols
ISO 14644-1:1999, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this International Standard, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11145 and the following
apply.
3.1.1
scattered radiation
fraction of the incident radiation that is deflected from the specular optical path
3.1.2
front surface
optical surface that interacts first with the incident radiation
3.1.3
rear surface
surface that interacts last with the transmitted radiation
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 1

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
3.1.4
backward scattering
fraction of radiation scattered by the optical component into the backward halfspace
NOTE Backward halfspace is defined by the halfspace that contains the incident beam impinging upon the component and
that is limited by a plane containing the front surface of the optical component.
3.1.5
forward scattering
fraction of radiation scattered by the optical component into the forward halfspace
NOTE Forward halfspace is defined by the halfspace that contains the beam transmitted by the component and that is
limited by a plane containing the rear surface of the optical component.
3.1.6
total scattering
ratio of the total power generated by all contributions of scattered radiation into the forward or the backward
halfspace or both to the power of the incident radiation
NOTE The halfspace in which the scattering is measured should be clearly stated.
3.1.7
diffuse reflectance standard
diffuse reflector with known total reflectance
NOTE Commonly used diffuse reflectance standards are fabricated from barium sulfate or polytetrafluoroethylene powders
(see Table 2). The total reflectance of reflectors freshly prepared from these materials is typically greater than 0,98 in the
spectral range given in Table 2, and it can be considered as a 100 % reflectance standard. For increasing the accuracy, diffuse
reflectance standards with lower reflectance values can be realized by mixtures of polytetrafluoroethylene powder and powders
of absorbing materials. (See reference [5] in the Bibliography.)
3.1.8
range of acceptance angle
range from the minimum to the maximum angle with respect to the reflected or transmitted beam that can be
collected by the integrating element
3.1.9
angle of polarization
γ
angle between the major axis of the instantaneous ellipse of the incident radiation and the plane of incidence
NOTE 1 For non-normal incidence, the plane of incidence is defined by the plane which contains the direction of propagation
of the incident radiation and the normal at the point of incidence.
NOTE 2 The angle of polarization, γ, is identical to the azimuth, Φ (according to ISO 12005), if the reference axis is located in
the plane of incidence.
2 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
3.2 Symbols and units of measure
Table 1 — Symbols and units of measure
Symbol Term Unit
λ Wavelength nm
Angle of incidence degrees
α
γ Angle of polarization degrees
d Beam diameter on the surface of the specimen mm
σ
P Power of the incident radiation W
inc
P Total power, backward scattered radiation W
bac
P Total power, forward scattered radiation W
for
S Backward scattering
bac
S Forward scattering
for
V
Detector signal for the specimen, backward scattering V
s,bac
V Detector signal for the specimen, forward scattering V
s,for
V Detector signal, diffuse reflectance standard V
c
V
Detector signal, test ports open V
u

τ Transmittance of specimen at wavelength, λ
s
ρ Reflectance of specimen at wavelength, λ
s
r
Sample position mm
i
N Number of test sites per surface

4 Test method
4.1 Principle
The fundamental principle (see Figure 1) of the measurement apparatus is based on the collection and integration
of the scattered radiation. For this purpose, a hollow sphere with a diffusely reflecting coating on the inner surface
(Ulbricht sphere) is employed. Beam ports are necessary for the transmission of the test beam and the specularly
reflected beam through the wall of the sphere. The sample is attached to one of these ports forming a part of the
inner surface of the sphere. For the measurement of the backward scattering, the specimen is located at the exit
port. The forward scattering is determined by mounting the specimen to the entrance port. The scattered radiation
is integrated by the sphere and measured by a suitable detector, that is attached to an additional port at an
appropriate position. A diffuse reflectance standard is used for calibration of the detector signal.
4.2 Measurement arrangement and test equipment
4.2.1 General
The measurement facility employed for the determination of the total scattering is divided into four functional
sections, which are described in detail below. One functional section consists of the radiation source and the beam
preparation system. Two different components are defined by the integration and detection of the scattered
radiation. Another section is formed by the sample holder and its optional accessories.

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 3

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)

Key
1 Radiation source 11 Exit port
2 Chopper 12 Beam stop
3 Spatial filter 13 Sample
4 Telescope 14 Radiation baffles
5 Beam splitter 15 Detector, diffuser
6 Power detector 16 Beam stop
7 Power meter 17 Chopper signal
8 Entrance port 18 Lock-in amplifier
9 Ulbricht sphere 19 Detector signal, V
s
10 Coating
Figure 1 — Schematic arrangement for the measurement of total scattering
(configuration for backward scattering)
4.2.2 Radiation source
As radiation sources, lasers are preferred because of their excellent beam quality and the high power density
achievable on the sample surface. For special applications involving the wavelength dependence of scattering,
different conventional radiation sources may be used in conjunction with spectral filters or monochromators.
Different types of discharge, arc or tungsten lamps are suitable for wavelength-resolved total scatter
measurements.
The temporal power variation of the radiation source shall be measured and documented. For this purpose, a beam
splitter and a monitor detector are installed. The monitor detector shall be calibrated to the power at the sample
surface for both test locations at the entrance and exit port of the integrating element.
4.2.3 Beam preparation system
The beam preparation system consists of a spatial filter and additional apertures, if necessary, for cleaning the
beam. For measurements involving conventional radiation sources, additional optical elements are required for the
shaping and collimation of the beam. The beam diameter, d , at the surface of the specimen shall be greater than
σ
0,4 mm. No radiation power shall be present in the collimated beam profile beyond radial positions exceeding the
beam diameter by a factor of 2,5.
4 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
NOTE 1 The behaviour of the measured total scatter value may be dependent on the beam diameter and the beam profile
(see annex D).
On the sample surface, the beam profile shall be smooth without local power density values exceeding the average
power density within the beam diameter, d , by a factor of three. For measurement systems with a laser as the
σ
radiation source, a TEM -operation with a diffraction-limited Gaussian beam profile is recommended. The defined
00
state and angle of polarization shall be selected. For measurement systems using conventional radiation sources,
an unpolarized beam with a circular profile shall be realized. The beam profile on the sample surface shall be free
of diffraction patterns and parasitic spots in the outward region. The spatial beam profile on the sample surface
shall be recorded and documented.
NOTE 2 Beam deflection mirrors and beam splitters may have a reflectivity which depends on the polarization state of the
incident radiation, and they may also deteriorate the sensitivity of the measurement. The last optical element in front of the
integrating sphere shall be positioned such that the measurement is not influenced by it.
For the fractions of the beam reflected and transmitted by the sample, efficient beam dumps shall be employed to
suppress backscattering into the integrating sphere.
NOTE 3 An efficient beam dump may be constructed with a stack of optically absorbing neutral density filters. These filters
are arranged for non-normal angles of incidence in a housing with optically absorbing inner walls.
4.2.4 Integrating sphere
An integrating sphere is employed for the collection and integration of the radiation scattered by the sample. The
sphere shall be equipped with beam ports for the entrance and the exit of the probe beam and the fraction of the
beam which is specularly reflected by the specimen. The inner surface shall be coated with a highly diffusive
reflecting material with a Lambertian characteristic. Selected materials suitable for this coating and the
corresponding spectral ranges are listed in Table 2.
Table 2 — Selected materials for coating of the inner surface of the integrating sphere
Spectral range
Material
µm
Barium sulfate 0,35 to 1,4
Magnesium oxide 0,25 to 8,0
Polytetrafluoroethylene 0,20 to 2,5
Gold coating, matt 0,70 to 20

The diameters of the beam ports shall be equal and shall exceed the beam diameter, d , of the probe beam at the
σ
beam ports by at least a factor of five. The port for the detector shall be adapted to the sensitive area of the
detecting element. The detailed shape of the ports shall be optimized for minimum deterioration of the integrating
action and for a contact-free installation of the test sample. Baffles coated with the same material as the inner
surface of the sphere shall be installed between the exit and entrance port and the detector port. Radiation baffles
in front of the detector port are recommended in order to shield the detector against radiation directly scattered by
the specimen to the location of the detector. For compensation of spatial inhomogeneities of the detector
sensitivity, an optional diffuser may be attached to the detector.
An interval from 2° to 85° is defined as the minimum range of the acceptance angle for scattered radiation. The
minimum size of the integrating sphere is specified by the lower limit of 2,0° for the acceptance angle.
NOTE The determination of the minimum size of the integrating sphere originates from the beam diameter, d , at the beam
σ
ports of the Ulbricht sphere. The minimum diameter of the entrance port is directly related to this beam diameter by the factor of
five. The minimum sphere diameter is then calculated on the basis of the minimum diameter of the entrance port and the lower
limit for the acceptance angle. (The minimum diameter of the integrating sphere is approximately 72 times the beam diameter,
d .)
σ
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 5

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SIST EN ISO 13696:2002
ISO 13696:2002(E)
For measurement systems with radiation sources other than lasers or special measurement conditions, the beam
diameter, d , achievable may result in an impractically large size of the integrating sphere. In such cases, the
σ
diameters of the entrance and exit ports shall be adjusted to a value that guarantees no vignetting of the incident,
transmitted and reflected beams. The lower and upper limits for the acceptance angles shall be documented.
For specific problems caused by limitations of the integrating element, the detectors and radiation source shall be
taken into account for an application of ISO 13696 below a wavelength of 250 nm. The amount of radiation
scattered at a discontinuity is a function of both the discontinuity dimensions and the wavelength of the radiation. In
practice, scattering becomes less important at longer wavelengths.
As an alternative, a Coblentz half-sphere with an appropriate reflecting surface may be employed. A typical set-up
and the corresponding measurement procedure are described in annex A.
4.2.5 Detection system
For detection of the scattered radiation, a detector is employed that is appropriate for the wavelength range of the
radiation source. The detector system shall have a sufficient sensitivity for the radiation source and a dynamic
5
range greater than 10 with a deviation from linearity of less than 2 %. The size of the sensitive detector area shall
be optimized in order to exclude a deterioration of the integration process in the sphere and influence of speckle on
the measurement. The detector is attached to the detection port of the sphere with its sensitive area forming
approximately one part of the inner surface.
For shielding the detector against the direct radiation scattered onto the sensitive area by the specimen, radiation
baffles shall be insta
...

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