This document specifies minimum requirements on the optical effects and the mechanical, chemical and environmental properties of neutral beam splitter coatings. This document applies to neutral beam splitter coatings for optical applications. Thereby the user is able to rely on defined numerical data while the manufacturer of thin films has the choice for the materials and production method.

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This document specifies the test methods for the determination of the transmittance of telescopic systems and telescopic observational instruments.

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This document applies to capsule endoscopes used for clinical practice. The document defines relevant terms and gives requirements for them.

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This document specifies filter functions of uncoated bulk absorption filters for optical applications excluding ophthalmic optics (spectacles) and gives a standard form for their specification. Additionally, basic definitions and a description of the specification concerning optical bulk absorption filters are given. This document specifies the optical properties of the filters and the test and measurement methods whenever necessary. This document does not specify any material properties (internal quality, homogeneity, etc.) and it does not apply to any production method. This document applies to both the raw material (filter glass, filter plastics, etc.) and the polished component. NOTE 1  Colorimetric parameters for the description of the filter function are specified in e.g. ISO 11664‑1 and ISO 11664‑2. NOTE 2  For filters where the spectral transmission characteristics are achieved by the application of optical coatings, see ISO 9211 series. NOTE 3  In the case of high power applications, further optical effects may occur.

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This document specifies test equipment and test procedures for determination of the following optical characteristics of telescopic sights: — axial parallax; — parallax; — eye relief range, eye relief, critical eye relief; — reticle tracking; — line of sight shift due to zooming; — line of sight shift due to focusing.

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This document describes methods to qualify the scanning electron microscope with the digital imaging system for quantitative and qualitative SEM measurements by evaluating essential scanning electron microscope performance parameters to maintain the performance after installation of the instruments. The items and evaluating methods of the performance parameters are selected by users for their own purposes.

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This document applies to telescopic sights used on hand-held firearms and airguns and gives terms and definitions for telescopic sights only. The alphabetical indexes of terms that are common for all published parts of ISO 14132 are published in ISO 14132-1. The definitions can be changed, if required, by introducing derivative attributes into them, revealing the meanings of the terms used, showing the objects covered by the scope of the notion being defined. These changes will not affect the scope and contents of this document.

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This document applies to general-purpose telescopic sights, used on hand-held firearms and airguns. It contains a classification to the usage of telescopic sights and specifies interfaces, minimum requirements and tolerances to their performances. High-performance telescopic sights are specified in ISO 14135-2.

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This document applies to high-performance telescopic sights, used on hand-held firearms and airguns. It contains a classification of the usage of telescopic sights and specifies interfaces, minimum requirements and tolerances to their performances. General-purpose telescopic sights are specified in ISO 14135-1.

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This document specifies the test method for the measurement of the axial colour performance which includes axial chromatic aberration and spherical aberration of telescopic systems and observational telescopic instruments.

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This document applies to rigid endoscopes designed for use in the practice of medicine. Endoscopes having a fibre-optic or opto-electronic imaging system are excluded. It specifies a test method for determining the optical resolution of endoscopes. This document provides a measurement method for characterizing three aspects of the optical resolution of a rigid endoscope. Characteristic A is used to provide a simple measurement of the limiting resolution of the endoscope image. Characteristic B provides a measurement of low spatial frequency resolution and characterizes the sharpness, or contrast, of the endoscope image. Characteristic C provides a measurement of the spatial frequency response of the endoscope image.

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This document defines terms for endoscopes and endotherapy devices commonly used in the endoscopic area. This document does not define general medical terms or other general terms. This document does not define terms that should be defined in other ISO 8600 (all parts).

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This document specifies terms and definitions to be used in the field of light microscopy and advanced techniques in light microscopy.

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This document specifies the measuring method for the refractive index of optical glasses with the accuracy within 1 × 10−5 used in the spectral range from 365 nm to 2 400 nm. Additional information on how to apply the refractive index in the dispersion and the various dispersion formulae of optical glasses is given in Annex A and Annex B.

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This document specifies the test method for climate resistance of optical glass and the classification of the optical glass according to the test results.

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This document specifies calcium fluoride used in the infrared spectral range from 0,78 µm to 10 µm. The material specified in this document can also transmit light in other spectral domains (ultraviolet and visible).

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This document specifies a method of testing telescopes in terms of imaging states aimed at making valid optical transfer function (OTF) measurements. This document includes two annexes (Annex A and B) that provide information on the more recent techniques for measuring optical transfer function and methods of deriving image quality criteria from such measurements.

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This document specifies the structure model with related parameters, file format and fitting procedure for characterizing critical dimension (CD) values for wafer and photomask by imaging with a critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) by the model-based library (MBL) method. The method is applicable to linewidth determination for specimen, such as, gate on wafer, photomask, single isolated or dense line feature pattern down to size of 10 nm.

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This document specifies commonly used quantities regarding image performance in confocal laser scanning microscopy used for imaging of fluorescent biological specimens. This document applies only to confocal single point scanners using single photon excitation.

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This document specifies measurands and measurement procedures of colour properties for bright field microscopy with transmitted light illumination. These measurements are defined in image planes or intermediate image planes. This document also specifies how the information is provided to the user.

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This document specifies rules for presentation of aspheric surfaces and surfaces with low order symmetry such as cylinders and toroids in the ISO 10110 series, which standardizes drawing indications for optical elements and systems. It also specifies sign conventions and coordinate systems. This document does not apply to off-axis aspheric and discontinuous surfaces such as Fresnel surfaces or gratings. NOTE For off-axis aspheric and non-symmetric surfaces, see ISO 10110-19. This document does not specify the method by which conformity with the specifications is tested.

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This document specifies rules for the indication of the surface texture of optical elements, in the ISO 10110 series, which standardizes drawing indications for optical elements and systems. Surface texture is the characteristic of a surface that can be effectively described with statistical methods. Typically, surface texture is associated with high spatial frequency errors (roughness) and mid-spatial frequency errors (waviness). This document is primarily intended for the specification of polished optics. This document describes a method for characterizing the residual surface that is left after detrending by subtracting the surface form. The control of the surface form specified in ISO 10110-5, ISO 10110-12, and ISO 10110-19 is not specified in this document.

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This document specifies the general layout of drawings and provides examples of indications in the ISO 10110 series, which standardizes drawing indications for optical elements and systems. This document specifies the presentation in drawings of the characteristics, including the tolerances, of optical elements and systems. This document also includes the popular tabular format, formerly presented in ISO 10110‑10. This tabular format, now described in 5.1, is the preferred format for ISO 10110 drawings. Rules for preparation of technical drawings as well as for dimensioning and tolerancing are given in various ISO Standards. These general standards apply to optical elements and systems only if the necessary rules are not given in the various parts of ISO 10110.

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This document specifies the test method for the determination of the deviation from a flat image surface, i.e. the sagittal and tangential field curvature of telescopic systems and observational telescopic instruments.

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This document gives fundamental explanations to interferometric measurement objects, describes hardware aspects of interferometers and evaluation methods, and gives recommendations for test reports and calibration certificates.

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This document specifies optically and mechanically related dimensions for imaging components of a microscope such as a) the dimensions related to objective, eyepiece and tube lens, b) the dimensions of screw thread types for connecting a microscope objective to the nosepiece, and c) the diameters of interchangeable eyepieces and corresponding viewing tubes of microscopes.

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This document specifies minimum requirements for the optical functions and especially for the laser power handling capability as well as for the resistance against mechanical, chemical and climatic stress of optical coatings. This document applies to optical coatings that are used in laser optics. Thereby the user is able to rely on defined numerical data while the manufacturer of thin films has the choice for the materials and production method.

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This document specifies the indication of tolerances for four categories of imperfections within optical materials — stress birefringence, bubbles and inclusions, homogeneity, and striae — in the ISO 10110 series, which standardizes drawing indications for optical elements and systems. Tolerances are applied either to a finished optical part, a finished system of optical parts, or to the raw material used to manufacture an optical part.

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This document specifies minimum requirements for the optical effects and the mechanical, chemical and environmental properties of antireflecting coatings. This document applies to antireflecting coatings for optical applications. Thereby the user is able to rely on defined numerical data while the manufacturer of thin films has the choice for the materials and production method.

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This document specifies rules for the indication of the permissible deformation of a wavefront transmitted through or, in the case of reflective optics, reflected from an optical element or assembly in the ISO 10110 series, which standardizes drawing indications for optical elements and systems. This document is also applicable when using optical systems with general surfaces (ISO 10110-19). The deformation of the wavefront refers to its departure from the desired shape. The tilt of the wavefront with respect to a given reference surface is excluded from this document. There is no requirement that a tolerance for wavefront deformation is indicated.

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This document specifies minimum requirements on the optical effects and the mechanical, chemical and environmental properties of reflecting metal coatings. This document applies to reflecting metal coatings based on aluminium or silver for optical applications. Thereby the user is able to rely on defined numerical data while the manufacturer of thin films has the choice for the materials and production method.

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This document defines terms relevant to optical coatings. These terms are grouped in four classes: Terms and definitions, definition of coatings by function, definitions of common coating imperfections and other definitions. This document identifies surface treatments of components and substrates excluding ophthalmic optics (spectacles) by the application of optical coatings and gives a standard form for their specification. It defines the general characteristics and the test and measurement methods whenever necessary, but is not intended to define the process method.

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This document specifies the general procedures of the powder test method for the water resistance of optical glass.

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This document specifies the principle, apparatus, condition, sample, procedure and data processing of measuring homogeneity of infrared optical materials. It is applicable to the determination of homogeneity of infrared optical materials, such as infrared optical glass, infrared crystals and infrared ceramics, which are opaque to visible wavelengths and whose transmission optical spectra are beyond 0,78 µm.

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This document specifies the apparatus, condition, sample, procedure and data processing of measuring bubbles and inclusions in infrared optical materials. It is applicable to the determination of bubbles and inclusions in infrared optical materials, such as infrared optical glass, infrared crystals and infrared ceramics, which are opaque to visible wavelengths and whose transmission optical spectra are beyond 0,78 µm.

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This document specifies the principle, apparatus, condition, sample, procedure and data processing of measuring striae in infrared optical materials. It is applicable to the determination of striae in infrared optical materials, such as infrared optical glass, which is opaque to visible wavelengths and whose transmission optical spectra are beyond 0,78 µm.

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ISO 29301:2017 specifies a calibration procedure applicable to images recorded over a wide magnification range in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The reference materials used for calibration possess a periodic structure, such as a diffraction grating replica, a super-lattice structure of semiconductor or an analysing crystal for X-ray analysis, and a crystal lattice image of carbon, gold or silicon. This document is applicable to the magnification of the TEM image recorded on a photographic film, or an imaging plate, or detected by an image sensor built into a digital camera. This document also refers to the calibration of a scale bar. This document does not apply to the dedicated critical dimension measurement TEM (CD-TEM) and the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).

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ISO 20263:2017 specifies a procedure for the determination of averaged interface position between two different layered materials recorded in the cross-sectional image of the multi-layered materials. It is not intended to determine the simulated interface of the multi-layered materials expected through the multi-slice simulation (MSS) method. This document is applicable to the cross-sectional images of the multi-layered materials recorded by using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) or a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and the cross-sectional elemental mapping images by using an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) or an electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS). This document is also applicable to the digitized image recorded on an image sensor built into a digital camera, a digital memory set in the PC or an imaging plate and the digitalized image converted from an analogue image recorded on the photographic film by an image scanner.

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ISO/TR 21477:2017 intends to guide the user to understand the origins, meanings and differences between the two systems of specifying and evaluating surface imperfections in ISO 10110-7 and ISO 14997, specifically the dimensional method and the visibility method, and to provide information on how to use them. Tables are provided to show specifications of roughly equivalent yield loss for imperfections in the two systems.

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ISO 10110 (all parts) specifies the presentation of design and functional requirements for single optical elements and for optical assemblies in technical drawings used for their manufacture and inspection. ISO 10110-7:2017 specifies the indication of the level of acceptability of surface imperfections within a test region on individual optical elements and optical assemblies. These include localized surface imperfections, edge chips and long scratches. The acceptance level for imperfections is specified, taking into account functional effects (affecting image formation or durability of the optical element), as well as cosmetic (appearance) effects. ISO 10110-7:2017 applies to transmitting and reflecting surfaces of finished optical elements, whether or not they are coated, and to optical assemblies. It allows permissible imperfections to be specified according to the area affected by imperfections, or alternatively by the visibility of imperfections, on components or in optical assemblies.

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ISO 14997:2017 specifies the physical principles and practical means for the implementation of methods for evaluating surface imperfections. For imperfections specified using the visibility method, two inspection methods are described. The first is visual evaluation of the surface without any comparison standard (IVV). The second is a visibility assessment of a surface imperfection when compared to an artefact of known brightness (ISV). For imperfections specified using the dimensional method, three methods are described. The first is visual evaluation of the surface without any comparison standard (IVD). The second is a dimensional assessment of a surface imperfection when compared to an artefact of known size (ISD). The third is the dimensional measurement of a surface imperfection using magnification and either a comparison artefact of known size or a reticle or ruler (IMD). Instruments exist that allow objective measurement of brightness (digital scatterometry) or size (digital microscopy). While these instruments can be used for evaluation of surface imperfections, they are beyond the scope of this document. ISO 14997:2017 applies to optical surfaces of components or assemblies such as doublets or triplets. ISO 14997:2017 can be applied to optical plastic components; however, attention is drawn to the fact that impact damage to plastic materials often looks very different from that on harder materials as it does not always result in the removal of material but instead can displace material, causing ripples in the surface. Consequently, visual comparisons of scratch and dig damage to plastic with those on glass or crystalline materials can give very different results.

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ISO 10936-1:2017 specifies requirements and refers to test methods for operation microscopes used for observation during surgical operation and treatment of patients. It does not apply to accessories, e.g. photographic cameras. NOTE Specific requirements with regard to optical radiation hazards from operation microscopes used in ocular surgery are given in ISO 10936‑2.

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ISO 8255-1:2017 specifies requirements for dimensional tolerances, thickness and optical properties for microscope cover glasses used for transmitted light microscopy in the visible spectral range (400 nm to 760 nm).

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ISO 20711:2017 specifies requirements to be met with regard to resistance of the optical, mechanical, chemical and electrical properties or performance data of instruments to environmental influences and hence determines geographical and technical areas of application. It applies to consumer telescopic systems and accessories, such as hunting and sporting products. Environmental test methods as specified in relevant parts of ISO 9022 are assigned to the various areas of application for the purpose of ascertaining the suitability of the instruments in their respective area of application. ISO 20711:2017 is the basis for the specification of environmental requirements and environmental tests in instrument standards. If necessary, these requirements and tests can be amended in the instrument standards. ISO 20711:2017 does not deal with the requirements to be met by the packaging of the instrument during transport from the manufacturer to the user. NOTE Nominal values of properties and performance characteristics as understood by this document are predetermined by specifications provided by the manufacturer, technical terms of delivery and instrument standards.

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ISO 14490-7:2016 specifies the test methods for the determination of the limit of resolution of telescopic systems and observational telescopic instruments.

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ISO 9344:2016 specifies dimensions and permissible material defects and processing faults for graticules with diameters of 19 mm, 21 mm and 26 mm to be used in microscope eyepieces for the purposes of measurement, assessment and comparison.

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ISO 16700:2016 specifies a method for calibrating the magnification of images generated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using an appropriate reference material. This method is limited to magnifications determined by the available size range of structures in the calibrating reference material. It does not apply to the dedicated critical dimension measurement SEM.

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ISO 9022-1:2016 defines terms relating to environmental tests of optical and photonic instruments, including additional assemblies from other fields (e.g. mechanical, chemical and electronic devices), and specifies basic features of testing.

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ISO 9022-23:2016 specifies the methods relating to the environmental tests of optical instruments including additional assemblies from other fields (e.g. mechanical, chemical, and electronic devices), under equivalent conditions, for their ability to resist the influence of low pressure combined with cold, including the potential condensation and freezing of moisture, ambient temperature, and dry or damp heat. It is applicable to optical instruments including additional assemblies from other fields, designed for operation and/or transport in high mountainous areas or on board aircraft or missiles. The purpose of the testing is to investigate to what extent optical, climatic, mechanical, chemical, and electrical (including electrostatic) performance characteristics of the specimen are affected by combined low pressure and low, ambient, or high temperature. Furthermore, the additional effects of moisture condensing and freezing on the instrument or components can be determined. Examples are instruments which are installed or externally mounted on aircraft or missiles or transported inside aircraft or flying objects not providing any pressure equalization. Annex A explains the intent of the different types of tests.

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