Solid biofuels - Vocabulary (ISO 16559:2022)

This document establishes a vocabulary for solid biofuels. This document only includes raw and processed material originating from
—    forestry and arboriculture,
—    agriculture and horticulture, and
—    aquaculture.
NOTE 1   Chemically treated material cannot include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see also ISO 17225-1:2021, Annex B) or higher than typical values of the country of origin.
NOTE 2   Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit and aquatic biomass and biodegradable waste originating from above sectors.
Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are outside the scope of this document but relevant terms are included for information. Liquid biofuels (ISO/TC 28/SC 7), natural gas (ISO/TC 193) and solid recovered fuels (ISO/TC 300) are outside the scope of this document.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Terminologie (ISO 16559:2022)

Dieses Dokument legt die Terminologie für biogene Festbrennstoffe fest. Dieses Dokument umfasst nur Rohmaterial und verarbeitetes Material, das aus folgenden Quellen stammt:
- Forstwirtschaft und Baumkultur;
- Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau;
- Aquakultur.
ANMERKUNG 1 Chemisch behandeltes Material enthält keine halogenierten organischen Verbindungen oder Schwermetalle in Konzentrationen, die über den typischen Werten für erntefrisches Material (siehe auch ISO 17225 1:2021, Anhang B) oder den typischen Werten für das Herkunftsland liegen.
ANMERKUNG 2 Roh  und verarbeitetes Material umfasst holzartige Biomasse, halmgutartige Biomasse, Biomasse von Früchten und aquatische Biomasse sowie biologisch abbaubaren Abfall, der aus den vorstehend genannten Bereichen stammt.
Materialien, die aus verschiedenen Recyclingprozessen von Produkten am Ende des Lebensweges stammen, fallen nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments, zugehörige Begriffe wurden jedoch zur Information aufgenommen. Flüssige Biokraftstoffe (ISO/TC 28/SC 7), Erdgas (ISO/TC 193) und feste Sekundärbrennstoffe (ISO/TC 300) fallen nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments.

Biocombustibles solides - Vocabulaire (ISO 16559:2022)

Le présent document établit un vocabulaire pour les biocombustibles solides. Le présent document ne couvre que les matières premières et les matières issues de processus provenant de:
—    la sylviculture et l'arboriculture;
—    l'agriculture et l'horticulture; et
—    l'aquaculture.
NOTE 1   Les niveaux de composés organiques halogénés ou de métaux lourds inclus dans les matériaux traités chimiquement ne peuvent pas dépasser les valeurs des matériaux vierges (voir également l'Annexe B de l'ISO 17225-1:2021) ou les valeurs types du pays d'origine.
NOTE 2   Les matières premières et les matières transformées comprennent la biomasse ligneuse, herbacée, fruitière et aquatique ainsi que des déchets biodégradables provenant des secteurs cités ci-dessus.
Les matériaux provenant de différents processus de recyclage de produits en fin de vie ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document, mais les termes qui s'y rapportent sont inclus à titre d'information. Les biocombustibles liquides (ISO/TC 28/SC 7), le gaz naturel (ISO/TC 193) et les combustibles solides de récupération (ISO/TC 300) ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document.

Trdna biogoriva - Slovar (ISO 16559:2022)

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
EN ISO 16559:2022
English language
37 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day
Draft
prEN ISO 16559:2020
English language
35 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
01-april-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 16559:2014
Trdna biogoriva - Slovar (ISO 16559:2022)
Solid biofuels - Vocabulary (ISO 16559:2022)
Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Terminologie, Definitionen und Beschreibungen (ISO
16559:2022)
Biocombustibles solides - Vocabulaire (ISO 16559:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 16559:2022
ICS:
01.040.75 Naftna in sorodna tehnologija Petroleum and related
(Slovarji) technologies (Vocabularies)
75.160.20 Tekoča goriva Liquid fuels
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
EN ISO 16559
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.27; 01.040.75; 27.190; 75.160.40 Supersedes EN ISO 16559:2014
English Version
Solid biofuels - Vocabulary (ISO 16559:2022)

Biocombustibles solides - Vocabulaire (ISO Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Terminologie, Definitionen

16559:2022) und Beschreibungen (ISO 16559:2022)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 30 November 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 16559:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
EN ISO 16559:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
EN ISO 16559:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 16559:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2022, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by July 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 16559:2014.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 16559:2022 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 16559:2022 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16559
Second edition
2022-01
Solid biofuels — Vocabulary
Biocombustibles solides — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 16559:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (informative) Scheme of sample hierarchy .......................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 335, Solid biofuels, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16559:2014), which has been technically

revised. The main changes are as follows:
— Clause 3 has been updated;
— the title of this document has been changed;
— Annex A has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
Introduction

Some of the terms included in this document are only used in particular countries.

In this document, terms for virgin biomass, residue, and by-product are used to describe co-products

from forestry, arboriculture, agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture as well as related virgin biomass

industries. The terms and definitions are harmonized as far as possible with the current language used

in management as well as in regulatory activities.

This document only contains terms used to describe solid biofuels within the scope of ISO/TC 238, see

Figure 1.
Figure 1 — ISO/TC 238 within the biomass-biofuel-bioenergy field

Solid biofuels are produced from different sources. Terms and definitions are categorized in a logical

structure based on the fact that solid biofuels are produced from different sources and that solid

biofuels are used to produce bioenergy:
— origin and source of solid biofuels in the overall supply chain;

— the different traded forms as well as the different forms of biofuels produced within the preparation

processes;

— the most relevant solid biofuel properties and terms of sampling and testing as well as classification

and specification;

— the description of the solid biofuels itself as well as their handling and processing given in the same

structure as the biomass sources;
— bioenergy as the result of solid biofuel conversion.

Appropriate terms for sampling and testing as well as classification and specification of properties

should be defined and described together with the category source/origin, type and properties of

solid biofuels. The inclusion of terms defined in this document is, in many cases, based on the detailed

classification system of solid biofuels given in ISO 17225-1.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16559:2022(E)
Solid biofuels — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes a vocabulary for solid biofuels. This document only includes raw and

processed material originating from
— forestry and arboriculture,
— agriculture and horticulture, and
— aquaculture.

NOTE 1 Chemically treated material cannot include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels

higher than those in typical virgin material values (see also ISO 17225-1:2021, Annex B) or higher than typical

values of the country of origin.

NOTE 2 Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit and aquatic biomass and biodegradable

waste originating from above sectors.

Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are outside the scope

of this document but relevant terms are included for information. Liquid biofuels (ISO/TC 28/SC 7),

natural gas (ISO/TC 193) and solid recovered fuels (ISO/TC 300) are outside the scope of this document.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
absorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid permeates or is

dissolved by a liquid or solid (the absorbent)

Note 1 to entry: Adsorption (3.3) is a surface-based process while absorption involves the whole volume (3.214) of

the material.
3.2
additive

material which has been intentionally introduced into the fuel feedstock (3.86) to improve quality

(3.160) of fuel (3.99) (e.g. combustion or durability properties), to reduce emissions or to make

production more efficient

Note 1 to entry: Trace amounts of, e.g. grease or other lubricants that are introduced into the fuel (3.99)

processing stream as part of typical mill operations are not considered as additives.

[SOURCE: ISO 17225-2:2021, 3.1]
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.3
adsorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid adheres to a

surface whereby the process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent

3.4
agrofuel

biofuel (3.27) obtained from energy crops (3.76) and/or agricultural by-products (agricultural residues)

[SOURCE: FAO unified bioenergy terminology (UBET)]
3.5
air-dried

in a condition, in which the solid biofuel (3.185) has been brought to equilibrium moisture content

(3.132) by drying in air
3.6
angle of drain

steepest angle of descent within a silo or a hopper when granular material on the slope face is on the

verge of sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of drain is measured in degrees of slope relative to the horizontal plane.

Note 2 to entry: The angle of drain is typically a few degrees higher than the angle of repose (3.7).

3.7
angle of repose
critical angle of repose

steepest angle of descent of a stock pile when granular material on the slope face is on the verge of

sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of repose is measured in degrees of the slope of material relative to the horizontal

plane.

Note 2 to entry: The angle of repose is typically a few degrees lower than the angle of drain (3.6).

3.8
animal biomass
biomass (3.32) obtained from livestock

Note 1 to entry: Animal biomass is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.9
animal by-products
animal residues

agricultural by-products (or agricultural residues) obtained from livestock operations

Note 1 to entry: It includes among others solid excreta of animals.
3.10
aquatic biomass
biomass (3.32) from hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes

Note 1 to entry: Hydrophytes are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.11
as determined
as analysed

reference moisture content (3.132) of the material at the moment of analysis/determination

Note 1 to entry: “ad” is used as a subscript, e.g. M is equivalent to moisture content (3.132) at the time of

determination.
3.12
as received
as delivered
calculation basis for a material in the delivery state
Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of as received is "ar".
3.13
ash
ash content
total ash

mass of inorganic residue remaining after complete combustion of a fuel (3.99) under specified

conditions, typically expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry matter (3.71) in fuel (3.99)

Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

Note 2 to entry: Depending on the combustion efficiency, the ash can contain combustibles.

Note 3 to entry: If a complete combustion is realised, ash contains only inorganic, non-combustible components.

3.14
ash deformation temperature
deformation temperature
temperature at which first signs of melting occur
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

Note 2 to entry: Ash deformation temperature can be seen as rounding of the edges, smoothing of surfaces,

expansion of the cylinder or general changing of the cylinder shape. If the test piece starts to swell or bubble

without the edges being rounded, the temperature is registered as DT (since swelling and bubbling only occur

when a fraction of the ash (3.13) is melted).

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.2, modified — First preferred term added, Notes 1 and 3 to entry deleted,

new Note 1 to entry added.]
3.15
ash flow temperature
flow temperature

temperature at which the ash (3.13) is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which

is half of the height of the test piece at the ash hemisphere temperature (3.16)
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.16
ash hemisphere temperature
hemisphere temperature

temperature at which the test piece forms approximately a hemisphere, i.e. when the height is half of

the base diameter
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.3, modified — First preferred term added, Note to entry added.]

3.17
ash melting behaviour
ash fusibility

characteristic set of temperatures at which the ash (3.13) undergoes certain physical stages of melting

during heating under specific conditions

Note 1 to entry: Ash melting behaviour is determined under either oxidising or reducing conditions.

Note 2 to entry: See also ash deformation temperature (3.14), ash flow temperature (3.15), ash hemisphere

temperature (3.16) and ash shrinkage starting temperature (3.18).
3.18
ash shrinkage starting temperature
shrinkage starting temperature
SST

temperature at which the area of a test piece falls below 95 % of the original test piece area under

specific conditions due to shrinking of a test piece
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

Note 2 to entry: Shrinkage can be due to liberation of carbon dioxide and volatile alkali compounds. It can also be

due to sintering and may be a first sign of partial melting.

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.1, modified — First preferred term added, Note 1 to entry added.]

3.19
bag weight
weight of the fuel (3.99) including the bag
3.20
baled biofuel
bale

solid biofuel (3.185) which has been compressed and bound to keep its shape and bulk density (3.40)

EXAMPLE Straw bales, bales of energy grass (3.80), bales of logging residues (3.124).

3.21
bark

organic cellular tissue which is formed by taller plants (trees, bushes) on the outside of the growth zone

(cambium) as a shell for the wooden body
3.22
basic density

ratio of the mass on dry basis (3.70) and the solid volume (3.187) as received (3.12)

3.23
bio-based
derived from biomass (3.32)
[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.1 modified — Notes to entry deleted.]
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.24
bio-based content
fraction of a fuel (3.99) that is derived from biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: Typically expressed as a percentage of the total mass (3.205) of the product.

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.4, modified — "product" changed to "fuel" and Note 2 to entry deleted.]

3.25
bio-based product
bio-based industrial product
bioproduct
product wholly or partly derived from biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: The bio-based product is typically characterized by the bio-based (3.23) carbon content (3.202) or

the bio-based content (3.24).

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.5, modified — Two new preferred terms added; Note 1 to entry modified

and Notes 2 and 3 to entry deleted.]
3.26
bioenergy
energy derived from biomass (3.32)
3.27
biofuel

solid, liquid or gaseous fuel (3.99) produced directly or indirectly from biomass (3.32)

3.28
biofuel blend
biofuel resulting from intentionally mixing of different biofuels (3.27)

EXAMPLE Straw or energy grass (3.80) with wood, dried biosludge (3.37) with bark (3.21).

3.29
biofuel briquette

densified biofuel (3.64) made with or without additives (3.2) in pre-determined geometric form with at

least two dimensions (length, width, height) of more than 25 mm, produced by compressing biomass

(3.32)
3.30
biofuel mixture

biofuel (3.27) resulting from natural or unintentional mixing of different biofuels (3.27) and/or different

types of biomass (3.32)
3.31
biofuel pellet

densified biofuel (3.64) made with or without additives (3.2) usually with a cylindrical form, random

length typically 5 mm to 40 mm and diameter up to 25 mm and broken ends, produced by compressing

biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: Usually the biomass (3.32) has been milled before densification.

Note 2 to entry: See also non-woody pellet (3.140) and wood pellet (3.224).
3.32
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized

EXAMPLE Including but not limited to energy crops (3.76), agricultural crops and trees, food, feed and fibre

crop residues, aquatic plants, algae, forestry and wood residues, agricultural wastes, processing by-products and

other non-fossil organic matters (3.143).
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)

Note 1 to entry: See also aquatic biomass (3.10), fruit biomass (3.98), herbaceous biomass (3.110) and woody

biomass (3.227).
3.33
biomass by-product

secondary product which is made incidentally during the production of something else

EXAMPLE Sawdust (3.176) when sawing timber.
3.34
biomass residue

biomass (3.32) from well-defined side-streams from forestry, agriculture, aquaculture and related

industrial operations
EXAMPLE Olive press cake after pressing of oil, logging residues (3.124).
3.35
biomass resource owner
body or enterprise with the right to exploit the biomass (3.32) resources

Note 1 to entry: The biomass resource owner can be a land or forest owner, a company, etc.

3.36
biomethane
methane produced from biomass (3.32), e.g. solid biofuels (3.185)

Note 1 to entry: Biomethane is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.37
biosludge

sludge formed in the aeration basin during biological waste water treatment or biological treatment

process and separated by sedimentation or flotation

Note 1 to entry: Biosludge must be treated for the transformation into solid biomass (3.32).

3.38
black liquor
fluid containing lignin (3.121) removed from the wood in the pulping process
Note 1 to entry: Black liquor also contains pulping chemicals.

Note 2 to entry: Black liquor is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.39
bridging
arching

tendency of particles (3.147) to form a stable arch across an opening which restricts flow

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.8, modified — "bridge" replaced by "arch".]
3.40
bulk density

mass of a portion of a particulate matter divided by the volume (3.214) of the container which is filled

by that portion under specific conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.9, modified — abbreviation “BD” added, "solid fuel" replaced by "particulate

matter", text in parentheses deleted.]
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.41
bulk permeability
permeability in storage

ability of gas such as air to pass through the void spaces in biomass (3.32) during storage

3 2

Note 1 to entry: Permeability is measured in pressure (Pa) vs. flow of gas (m /s/m ) and depends for example

on the viscosity and density (3.65) of the gas (including moisture content (3.132) and temperature), shape, and

orientation of particles (3.147) and the bulk porosity of biomass (3.32).
3.42
bundled biofuel
bundle

solid biofuels (3.185) which have been bound together and where there is a lengthwise orientation of

the material

EXAMPLE Bundles of short rotation coppice (3.178), logging residues (3.124) or small trees.

3.43
calorific value
heating value
energy amount per unit mass released on complete combustion

Note 1 to entry: Q is used as designation for the net calorific value (3.136) as received (3.12) basis at constant

pressure (q ).
p,net,ar

Note 2 to entry: See also gross calorific value (3.106), energy density (3.77), net calorific value (3.136).

3.44
cereal crops
annual crops grown with the main purpose of using the seed for food production
EXAMPLE Barley, wheat, rye, oat.
Note 1 to entry: Some cereal crops can be used as a solid biofuel (3.185).
3.45
certified reference material
CRM

reference material (3.164) of which one or more property values are certified by a technically valid

procedure, accompanied by or traceable to a certificate or other documentation which is issued by a

certifying body
3.46
charcoal
biochar
biocarbon
biocoke
biocoal

solid biofuel (3.185) derived from carbonization, distillation or pyrolysis of biomass (3.32)

[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.47
chemical treatment
any treatment with chemicals other than air, water or heat
[SOURCE: ISO 17225-1:2021, 3.1, modified — Note 1 to entry deleted.]
3.48
chopped straw
straw which has been cut into small pieces
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 19 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.49
chunkwood

wood cut with sharp cutting devices where most of the material have typical particle (3.147) lengths of

50 mm to 150 mm

Note 1 to entry: Chunkwood is substantially longer and coarser than wood chips (3.222).

3.50
coarse pellet fines
CPF

particles (3.147) with a size ranging from ≥3,15 mm to <5,6 mm resulting from breakage of pellets

during production or handling

Note 1 to entry: The fraction of coarse pellet fines contains all particles (3.147) which pass through a sieve with

an aperture size of 5,6 mm round hole and which are retained on a sieve with an aperture size of 3,15 mm round

hole.
3.51
coke

solid residue of impure carbon obtained from carbon rich feedstock (3.86) after removal of volatile

material by destructive distillation
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.52
combined sample
composite sample

sample (3.168) consisting of all the increments (3.118) taken from a lot (3.126) or a sub-lot (3.193)

Note 1 to entry: The increments (3.118) may be reduced by division before being added to the combined sample.

Note 2 to entry: See also Annex A.
3.53
complete tree
tree, including branches and root system
Note 1 to entry: See also whole tree (3.218).
3.54
contamination

occurrence of any undesirable matter such as chemical, physical and/or microbiological matter in the

product
[SOURCE: ISO 22716:2007, 2.10]
3.55
co-product
any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.10]
3.56
critical control point
CCP

quality control (3.162) point within or between processes at which relevant properties can be most

readily assessed and which offer the greatest potential for quality (3.160) improvement

3.57
cross-cut ends

short pieces of woody biomass (3.227) which occur when the ends of logs or sawn timber are cross cut

off, with or without bark (3.21)
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 20 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16559:2022
ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.58
cutter chips

wood chips (3.222) made as a by-product of the wood processing industry, with or without bark (3.21)

3.59
deflagration

violent event describing subsonic combustion propagating by means of hot burning material [usually

dust (3.73)] heating the next layer of cold material and igniting it in consecutive sequence

Note 1 to entry: The process can be characterized as an exploding fire whereby the burning material partly

deposits on surfaces in its path and causing significant damage and injuries.
[SOURCE: EN 13857-1:2003, 2.13, modified — With regard to solid biofuels.]
3.60
deflagration index

measure in bar meter per second and is a product of the pressure rate and propagation of an explosion

(3.83) as established by testing standards
3.61
delivery agreement

contract for fuel (3.99) trade, which specifies, e.g. origin and source, quality (3.160) and quantity of the

fuel (3.99), as well as delivery terms
3.62
delivery lot

amount of a solid biofuel (3.185) delivery to which the essential quality (3.160) requirements are related

Note 1 to entry: The delivery lot can be an indivi
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
01-junij-2020
Trdna biogoriva - Terminologija, definicije in opisi (ISO/DIS 16559:2020)
Solid biofuels - Terminology, definitions and descriptions (ISO/DIS 16559:2020)
Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Terminologie, Definitionen und Beschreibungen (ISO/DIS
16559:2020)
Biocombustibles solides - Terminologie, définitions et descriptions (ISO/DIS
16559:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 16559
ICS:
01.040.75 Naftna in sorodna tehnologija Petroleum and related
(Slovarji) technologies (Vocabularies)
75.160.20 Tekoča goriva Liquid fuels
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 16559
ISO/TC 238 Secretariat: SIS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-03-24 2020-06-16
Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions
Biocombustibles solides — Terminologie, définitions et descriptions
ICS: 01.040.75; 27.190; 75.160.40
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

Annex A (informative) Scheme of sample hierarchy .........................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

ISO 16559 was prepared by ISO Technical Committee TC 238, Solid biofuels, in collaboration with the

European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 335, Solid biofuels, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16559:2014), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Terms an definitions updated in the whole document and
— Annex A "Scheme of sample hierarchy "added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
Introduction

This International Standard has been written in accordance with ISO 10241. This International Standard

is based on European standard EN 14588:2010 as well as on approved national standards and manuals.

Some of the terms included in this International Standard are only used in particular countries.

In this International Standard instead of the legal definition waste the technical terms residue, and by-

product are used to describe co-products from forestry and arboriculture, agriculture and horticulture,

and aquaculture as well as related industries. The terms and definitions are harmonized as far as

possible with the current language used in management as well as in regulatory activities.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions
1 Scope

This international standard determines the terminology and definitions for solid biofuels. According to

the scope of the ISO/TC 238 this standard only includes raw and processed material originating from

— forestry and arboriculture,
— agriculture and horticulture,
— aquaculture.

NOTE 1 Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit and aquatic biomass from the sectors

mentioned above.

NOTE 2 Chemically treated material does not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at

levels higher than those in typical virgin material values or higher than typical values of the country of origin.

Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are not within the scope

but relevant terms are included for information. Areas covered by ISO/TC 28/SC 7 “Liquid biofuels”,

ISO/TC 193 “Natural gas” and ISO/TC 300 “Solid recovered fuels” are excluded.

Other standards with a different scope than this International Standard may have different definitions

than this standard.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Principle

This International Standard only contains terms used to describe solid biofuels within the scope of

ISO/TC 238, see Figure 1.
Figure 1 — ISO/TC 238 within the biomass-biofuel-bioenergy field
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)

Solid biofuels are produced from different sources, which are defined within the scope of ISO/TC 238

“Solid Biofuels”. Terms and definitions are categorised in a logical structure based on the fact that solid

biofuels are produced from different sources and that solid biofuels are used to produce bioenergy:

— origin and source of solid biofuels in the overall supply chain;

— the different traded forms as well as the different forms of biofuels produced within the preparation

processes;

— the most relevant solid biofuel properties and terms of sampling and testing as well as classification

and specification;

— the description of the solid biofuels itself as well as their handling and processing given in the same

structure as the biomass sources;
— bioenergy as the result of solid biofuel conversion.

Appropriate terms for sampling and testing as well as classification and specification of properties

have to be defined and described together with the category source/origin, type and properties of solid

biofuels. The necessity of terms defined in this International Technical Standard is in many cases based

on the classification system of solid biofuels given in ISO 17225-1, in which the classification of solid

biofuels is specified in more detail.
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4.1
absorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid permeates or is

dissolved by a liquid or solid (the absorbent)

Note 1 to entry: Adsorption is a surface-based process while absorption involves the whole volume of the material.

[SOURCE: ISO 18757:2003, normative text summarised as term and definition]
4.2
adsorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid adheres to a

surface whereby the process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent

[SOURCE: ISO 18757:2003, 3.1]
4.3
additive

material which has been intentionally introduced into the fuel feedstock to improve quality of fuel (e.g.

combustion properties or durability), to reduce emissions or to make production more efficient

Note 1 to entry: Trace amounts of e.g. grease or other lubricants that are introduced into the fuel processing

stream as part of normal mill operations are not considered as additives.
[SOURCE: ISO 17225-2:2014, 3.2]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.4
agrofuels

biofuels obtained from energy crops and/or agricultural by-products (agricultural residues)

[SOURCE: FAO unified bioenergy terminology (UBET)]
4.5
air dried

condition in which the solid biofuel has been dried in air to equilibrium moisture content

[SOURCE: ISO 1213-2:1992 3.5, modified – with regard to solid biofuels ]
4.6
angle of repose
critical angle of repose

steepest angle of descent of a stock pile measured in degrees of the slope of material relative to the

horizontal plane when granular material on the slope face is on the verge of sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of repose is normally a few degrees lower than the angle of drain.

[SOURCE: ISO 4324:1977, 3]
4.7
angle of drain

steepest angle of descent within a silo or a hopper when material is withdrawn from the bottom

measured in degrees of the slope of material relative to the horizontal plane when granular material on

the slope face is on the verge of sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of drain is normally a few degrees higher than the angle of repose.

4.8
animal biomass
biomass obtained from livestock
4.9
animal by-products
animal residues

agricultural by-products (or agricultural residues) obtained from livestock operations

Note 1 to entry: It includes among others solid excreta of animals.
4.10
aquatic biomass

biomass from hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes, which are plants that have adapted to living in or on

aquatic environments
[SOURCE: ISO 17225-1:2014, normative text summarised as term and definition]
4.11
as determined
as analysed

reference moisture content of the material at the moment of analysis/determination

Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of “as determined” is “ad”. It is used as a subscript (e.g. A is equivalent to ash

content at the moisture content at the time of determination).

[SOURCE: ISO 1213-2:1992, text summarised as term and definition with regard to solid biofuels]

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.12
as received
as delivered
calculation basis for a material in the delivery state
Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of “as received” is “ar”.

[SOURCE: ISO 15357:2011, 3.1, modified – "at delivery" changed to " in the delivery state"]

4.13
ash
ash content
total ash

mass of inorganic residue remaining after complete combustion of a fuel under specified conditions,

typically expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry matter in fuel
Note 1 to entry: See also ash fusibility, natural ash, extraneous ash.

Note 2 to entry: Depending on the combustion efficiency the ash may contain combustibles.

Note 3 to entry: If a complete combustion is realised ash contains only inorganic, non-combustible components.

[SOURCE: ISO 1213-2:1992, modified – text summarised as term and definition with regard to solid

biofuels]
4.14
ash deformation temperature

temperature at which first signs of rounding due to melting of the edges of the ash test piece occur

4.15
ash flow temperature

temperature at which the ash is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which is half

of the height of the test piece at the ash hemisphere temperature
4.16
ash fusibility
ash melting behaviour

characteristic physical state of the ash obtained by heating under specific conditions

Note 1 to entry: Ash fusibility is determined under either oxidising or reducing conditions.

Note 2 to entry: See also ash deformation temperature, ash flow temperature, ash hemisphere temperature and ash

shrinkage starting temperature.
4.17
ash hemisphere temperature

temperature at which the height of a test piece, prepared from ash by a specific procedure, is equal to

half the width of the base, and its shape becomes approximately hemispherical
4.18
ash shrinkage starting temperature
SST
temperature at which shrinking of the test piece occurs

Note 1 to entry: This temperature is defined as when the area of the test piece falls below 95 % of the original

test piece area at 550 °C.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.19
bag weight
weight of the fuel including the bag
4.20
baled biofuel
bale
solid biofuel which has been compressed and bound to keep its shape and density
EXAMPLE Straw bales, bales of energy grass, bales of logging residues.
4.21
bark

organic cellular tissue which is formed by taller plants (trees, bushes) on the outside of the growth zone

(cambium) as a shell for the wooden body
4.22
basic density
ratio of the mass on dry basis and the solid volume on green basis
4.23
biobased
derived from biomass
[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.1]
4.24
biobased content
fraction of a fuel that is derived from biomass

Note 1 to entry: Normally expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the product.

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.4, modified – "product" changed to "fuel"]
4.25
biobased product
biobased industrial product
bioproduct
product wholly or partly derived from biomass

Note 1 to entry: The biobased product is normally characterized by the biobased carbon content or the biobased

content.
[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.5]
4.26
bioenergy
energy derived from biomass
4.27
biofuel
solid, liquid or gaseous fuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass
4.28
biofuel blend
biofuel resulting from intentionally mixing of different biofuels
EXAMPLE Straw or energy grass with wood, dried biosludge with bark.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.29
biofuel briquette

densified biofuel made with or without additives in pre-determined geometric form with at least two

diameters of more than 25 mm, produced by compressing biomass
4.30
biofuel mixture

biofuel resulting from natural or unintentional mixing of different biofuels and/or different types of

biomass
4.31
biofuel pellet

densified biofuel made with or without additives usually with a cylindrical form, random length typically

5 mm to 40 mm and diameter up to 25 mm and broken ends, produced by compressing biomass

Note 1 to entry: Usually the biomass has been milled before densification.

Note 2 to entry: See also non-woody pellet, wood pellet and pellet from thermally treated biomass.

4.32
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized

Note 1 to entry: Biomass is organic material that is plant or animal based, including but not limited to dedicated

energy crops, agricultural crops and trees, food, feed and fibre crop residues, aquatic plants, algae, forestry and

wood residues, agricultural wastes, processing by-products and other non fossil organic matters.

Note 2 to entry: See also herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass, and woody biomass.
4.33
biomass by-product

a secondary product which is made incidentally during the production of something else

EXAMPLE Sawdust when sawing timber.
4.34
biomass residue

biomass from well-defined side-streams from forestry, agriculture, aquaculture and related industrial

operations
EXAMPLE Olive cake after pressing of oil, logging residues.
4.35
biomass resource owner
body or enterprise with the right to exploit the biomass resources

Note 1 to entry: The biomass resource owner can be a land or forest owner, a company etc.

4.36
biomethane
methane produced from biomass (e.g. solid biofuels)

Note 1 to entry: Biomethane is not a solid biofuel. The term is included for information only.

4.37
biosludge

sludge formed in the aeration basin during biological waste water treatment or biological treatment

process and separated by sedimentation or flotation

Note 1 to entry: Biosludge has to be treated for the transformation into solid biomass.

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.38
black liquor
a fluid containing lignin removed from the wood in the pulping process
Note 1 to entry: Black liquor contains also pulping chemicals.

Note 2 to entry: Black liquor is not a solid biofuel. The term is included for information only.

4.39
bridging
arching
tendency of particles to form a stable arch across an opening and hindering flow
[SOURCE: ISO/DIS 21637:2019, 3.8]
4.40
briquette from thermally treated biomass
biofuel briquette made from thermally treated biomass
4.41
bulk density

mass of a portion of a particulate matter divided by the volume of the container which is filled by that

portion under specific conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 1213-2:1992, 3.21, modified – with regard to solid biofuels]
4.42
bulk volume
loose volume
volume of a material including space between the particles
4.43
bundled biofuel
bundle

solid biofuels which have been bound together and where there is a lengthwise orientation of the

material
EXAMPLE Bundles of short rotation coppice, logging residues or small trees,
4.44
calorific value
heating value
energy amount per unit mass released on complete combustion

Note 1 to entry: See also gross calorific value, energy density, net calorific value.

4.45
cereal crops
annual crops grown with the main purpose of using the seed for food production
Note 1 to entry: Some cereal crops can be used as a solid biofuel.
EXAMPLE Barley, wheat, rye, oat.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.46
certified reference material
CRM

reference material of which one or more property values are certified by a technically valid procedure,

accompanied by or traceable to a certificate or other documentation which is issued by a certifying body

[SOURCE: ISO 16967, 3.2, modified – definition updated]
4.47
charcoal
biochar
biocarbon
biocoke
biocoal
solid biofuel derived from carbonization, distillation or pyrolysis of biomass
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
4.48
chemical treatment
any treatment with chemicals other than air, water or heat
[SOURCE: ISO 17225-7:2014, 3.3]
4.49
chopped straw
straw which has been cut into small pieces
4.50
chunkwood

wood cut with sharp cutting devices where most of the material have typical particle lengths of 50

to 150 mm
Note 1 to entry: Chunkwood is substantially longer and coarser than wood chips.
4.51
coke

the solid residue of impure carbon obtained from carbon rich feedstock after removal of volatile material

by destructive distillation
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593-2006]
4.52
combined sample
sample consisting of all the increments taken from a lot or a sub-lot

Note 1 to entry: The increments may be reduced by division before being added to the combined sample.

Note 2 to entry: See also annex A.
[SOURCE: EN 14780:2011, 3.1, changed – Note 2 added]
4.53
complete tree
tree, including branches and root system
Note 1 to entry: See also whole tree.
8 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.54
contamination

occurrence of any undesirable matter such as chemical, physical and/or microbiological matter in

the product
[SOURCE: ISO 22716:2007, 2.10]
4.55
co-product
any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.10]
4.56
critical control point
quality control point
CCP

point within or between processes at which relevant properties can be most readily assessed; quality

control points also offer the greatest potential for quality improvement
4.57
cross-cut ends

short pieces of woody biomass which occur when the ends of logs or sawn timber are cross cut off, with

or without bark
4.58
customer
organisation or person that receives a product
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.5]
4.59
cutter chips

wood chips made as a by-product of the wood processing industry, with or without bark

4.60
deflagration

violent event describing subsonic combustion propagating by means of hot burning material (usually

dust) heating the next layer of cold material and igniting it in consecutive sequence

Note 1 to entry: The process can be characterized as an exploding fire whereby the burning material partly

deposits on surfaces in its path and causing significant damage and injuries.
[SOURCE: EN 13857-1:2003, 2.13, modified – with regard to solid biofuels]
4.61
deflagration index

measure in bar meter per second and a product of the pressure rate and propagation of an explosion as

established by testing standards
4.62
delivery agreement

contract for fuel trade, which specifies e.g. origin and source, quality and quantity of the fuel, as well as

delivery terms
4.63
delivery lot

solid biofuel batch on which the essential quality requirements for solid biofuel are focused

Note 1 to entry: The delivery lot can be an individual delivery lot, which is an agreed quantity of solid biofuel (e.g. a

package, shipload or truck load), or continuous delivery, where several loads are delivered to the end-user during

an agreed period of time (usually daily or weekly delivery).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)

Note 2 to entry: In continuous delivery, the delivery lot is the amount of solid biofuel delivered during a specified

period of time, e.g. 24 h, unless otherwise agreed by supplier and end-user. If the delivery lot in continuous delivery

is more than 1,500 to 2,000 m in 24 h, it is recommended that it should be divided into two or more individual lots.

4.64
demolition wood

used wood arising from demolition of buildings or civil engineering installations

[SOURCE: EN 13965-1:2004, 505, modified – with regard to solid biofuels, e.g. "waste" to "(used) wood"]

4.65
densified biofuel
compressed biofuel

solid biofuel made by mechanically compressing biomass or thermally treated biomass to mould the solid

biofuel into a specific size and shape such as cubes, pressed logs, biofuel pellets or biofuel briquettes

Note 1 to entry: See also biofuel briquette and biofuel pellet.
4.66
density
ratio of mass to volume or ratio of energy content to volume

Note 1 to entry: It must always be stated whether the density refers to the density of individual particles or to the

bulk density of the material and whether the mass of water in the material is included.

Note 2 to entry: See also bulk density, particle density and energy density
4.67
desorption
phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface
Note 1 to entry: The process is the opposite of absorption and adsorption.
4.68
detonation

violent event generated by sudden expansion of gas in to a supersonic shock wave (molecular speed

higher than the speed of sound) not followed by fire
[SOURCE: EN 13857-1:2003, 2.19, modified – with regard to solid biofuels]
4.69
devolatilization

process (usually pyrolysis or gasification) whereby volatile matter is removed from carbon rich

feedstock (e.g. biomass)
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
4.70
dry ash free
dry ash free basis
daf

calculation basis in which the solid biofuel is considered free from moisture and inorganic matter

Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of “dry ash free” is “daf”.
4.71
dry
dry basis
calculation basis in which the solid biofuel is considered free from moisture
Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of “dry basis” is “d”.
10 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.72
dry matter
material remaining after removal of moisture under specific conditions
4.73
dry matter content
portion of dry matter in the total material on mass basis

Note 1 to entry: Expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the solid biofuel.

4.74
dust

fragmented material of small size passing a 500 µm sieve caused by a non-intentional process

Note 1 to entry: It is opposed to fuel powder which is intentionally manufactured to size.

4.75
edgings

parts of woody biomass which occur when trimming sawn timber and which show a remainder of the

original rounded surface of the tree, with or without bark
4.76
end-user
consumer (private person, enterprise, utility etc.) using biofuel
4.77
energy crops
woody or herbaceous crops grown and harvested specifically for their fuel value
Note 1 to entry: See also energy forest trees, energy grass.
4.78
energy density
ratio of net energy content and bulk volume

Note 1 to entry: The energy density is calculated using the net calorific value determined and the bulk density.

4.79
energy forest trees

woody biomass grown specifically for its fuel value in medium to long rotation forestry

4.80
energy grain
grain used for energy purpose
4.81
energy grass
herbaceous energy crop
EXAMPLE Sugarcane, Miscanthus, Reed canary grass.
4.82
explosibility

propensity by gaseous, liquid or solid material to ignite and violently transform to high pressure gas

while emitting sound and light and normally followed by fire
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 11
---------------------- Page: 19 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16559:2020
ISO/DIS 16559:2020(E)
4.83
explosion (primary and secondary)
violent event emitting sound and light immediately followed by fire
Note 1 to entry: An initial explosion
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.