Space engineering - Mechanical shock design and verification handbook

The intended users of the “Mechanical shock design and verification handbook” are engineers involved in design, analysis and verification in relation to shock environment in spacecraft. The current know-how relevant to mechanical shock design and verification is documented in this handbook in order to make this expertise available to all European spacecraft and payload developers.
The handbook provides adequate guidelines for shock design and verification; therefore it includes advisory information, recommendations and good practices, rather than requirements.
The handbook covers the shock in its globally, from the derivation of shock input to equipment and sub-systems inside a satellite structure, until its verification to ensure a successful qualification, and including its consequences on equipment and sub-systems. However the following aspects are not treated herein:
- No internal launcher shock is treated in the frame of this handbook even if some aspects are common to those presented hereafter. They are just considered as a shock source (after propagation in the launcher structure) at launcher/spacecraft interface.
- Shocks due to fall of structure or equipment are not taken into account as they are not in the frame of normal development of a spacecraft.

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu mechanischem Design und Verifikation für Stöße

Ingénierie spatiale - Chocs mécaniques: Manuel de conception et de vérification

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za načrtovanje in preverjanje mehanskih udarcev

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-25:2022
01-september-2022
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za načrtovanje in preverjanje mehanskih udarcev
Space engineering - Mechanical shock design and verification handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu mechanischem Design und Verifikation für Stöße
Ingénierie spatiale - Chocs mécaniques: Manuel de conception et de vérification
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-25:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-25:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-25:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-25
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
June 2022
ICS 49.035; 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Mechanical shock design and
verification handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Chocs mécaniques: Manuel de Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu mechanischem

conception et de vérification Design und Verifikation für Stöße

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 13 April 2022. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-25:2022 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 9

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 10

1 Scope .................................................................................................................... 11

2 References............................................................................................................ 12

2.1 References of Part 1 ............................................................................................... 12

2.2 References of Part 2 ............................................................................................... 12

2.3 References of Part 3 ............................................................................................... 14

2.4 References of Part 4 ............................................................................................... 16

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ......................................................... 19

3.1 Terms and definitions from other documents .......................................................... 19

3.2 Terms and definitions specific to the present document .......................................... 19

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 20

4 Background – Shock environment description ................................................. 24

4.1 Shock definition and main characteristics ............................................................... 24

4.1.1 Shock definition ......................................................................................... 24

4.1.2 Physical aspects of shocks ....................................................................... 25

4.1.3 Main shock effects .................................................................................... 25

4.1.4 Shock response spectra (SRS) ................................................................. 26

5 Shock events ........................................................................................................ 31

5.1 Shock occurrence ................................................................................................... 31

5.2 Shock environmental categories ............................................................................. 31

6 Introduction to shock design and verification process .................................... 34

6.1 Presentation of the global process .......................................................................... 34

6.2 Means to conduct an evaluation of shock environment and criticality...................... 36

7 Shocks in spacecraft ........................................................................................... 38

7.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 38

7.2 Potential shock sources for spacecraft .................................................................... 38

7.3 Shocks devices description ..................................................................................... 39

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7.4 Detailed information on specific shock events ......................................................... 42

7.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 42

7.4.2 Launcher induced shocks.......................................................................... 42

7.4.3 Clampband release ................................................................................... 49

7.4.4 Other S/C separation systems................................................................... 56

7.4.5 Internal shock sources .............................................................................. 64

7.4.6 Landing and splashdown........................................................................... 69

7.5 Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 72

8 Shock inputs derivation by similarity-heritage-extrapolation .......................... 73

8.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 73

8.2 Similarity-heritage-extrapolation methods principle ................................................. 74

8.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 74

8.2.2 Use of database ........................................................................................ 74

8.2.3 Zoning procedure ...................................................................................... 78

8.2.4 SRS ratio as approximation of transfer functions ....................................... 79

8.2.5 Difference between structural model and flight model ............................... 82

8.2.6 Statistical methods to derive maximum expected environment.................. 83

8.3 Similarity-heritage-extrapolation methods in practice .............................................. 92

8.3.1 Method A – Point source excitation ........................................................... 93

8.3.2 Method B – Clampband excitation ............................................................. 99

8.3.3 Method C – Launcher induced shock ...................................................... 105

8.3.4 Method D – Unified approach and practical implementation of
attenuation rules for typical spacecraft shock generated environments ... 114

8.3.5 Additional attenuation factors .................................................................. 121

8.3.6 Method E – Shock responses in instruments........................................... 122

9 Shock inputs derivation by numerical analysis .............................................. 126

9.1 Numerical simulation principles ............................................................................. 126

9.1.1 Rationale and limitations ......................................................................... 126

9.2 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Numerical methods ............................................... 127

9.2.1 Comparison of explicit and implicit methods ............................................ 127

9.2.2 Explicit and implicit integration schemes ................................................. 129

9.2.3 Example of simulation codes (implicit and explicit) .................................. 129

9.2.4 Modelling aspects ................................................................................... 131

9.3 Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) Numerical Methods .......................................... 152

9.3.1 The classical SEA approach ................................................................... 152

9.3.2 The Transient SEA formulation ............................................................... 153

9.3.3 Prediction of shock response by Local Modal Phase Reconstruction

(LMPR) ................................................................................................... 153

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9.3.4 Virtual SEA modelling for robust SEA modelling in the mid-frequency..... 155

9.4 Best practices for shock derivation by simulation .................................................. 157

9.5 Examples of methodology for numerical simulation .............................................. 158

9.5.1 Numerical simulation for clampband release ........................................... 158

9.5.2 Numerical simulation for Shogun ............................................................. 161

9.5.3 Numerical simulation for launcher induced shock .................................... 165

9.5.4 Implicit vs. explicit method: Example of a shock prediction on a

complex structure .................................................................................... 174

9.5.5 Shock prediction analysis examples using SEA-Shock module of

SEA+ software ........................................................................................ 176

10 Deriving a specification from a shock environment ..................................... 180

10.1 Specification tool .................................................................................................. 180

10.2 Deriving the qualification environment – MEE and qualification margin ................. 183

10.3 From level derivation/Measure to specification ..................................................... 183

11 Shock attenuation ............................................................................................ 185

11.1 Definitions ............................................................................................................. 185

11.1.1 History of shock attenuation .................................................................... 185

11.1.2 Impedance breakdown ............................................................................ 186

11.1.3 Shock and vibration Isolator .................................................................... 187

11.1.4 Damper ................................................................................................... 189

11.1.5 Shock absorber ....................................................................................... 190

11.2 Theoretical background ........................................................................................ 191

11.2.1 Shock attenuation problematic approach ................................................ 191

11.2.2 Shock isolator device features ................................................................ 193

11.2.3 Rubber and damping effect ..................................................................... 193

11.2.4 Elastomer type selection ......................................................................... 199

11.3 Attenuator device development............................................................................. 202

11.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 202

11.3.2 Attenuator requirement definition ............................................................ 202

11.3.3 Attenuator device development logic ....................................................... 205

11.4 Attenuator device manufacturing .......................................................................... 210

11.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 210

11.4.2 Manufacturing process ............................................................................ 210

11.4.3 Moulding technology ............................................................................... 211

11.4.4 Manufacturing limitations......................................................................... 213

11.5 Product assurance logic........................................................................................ 213

11.6 Existing attenuator products ................................................................................. 214

11.6.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 214

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11.6.2 Compact shock attenuators for electronic equipment .............................. 214

11.6.3 SASSA (shock attenuator system for spacecraft and adaptor) ................ 216

11.6.4 Shock isolators for EXPERT on-board equipment ................................... 221

12 General approach to shock verification ......................................................... 226

12.1 Rationale for shock verification ............................................................................. 226

12.2 Test rationale and model philosophy .................................................................... 229

12.2.1 Qualification test ..................................................................................... 229

12.2.2 Acceptance test ...................................................................................... 231

12.2.3 System / subsystem distinction ............................................................... 231

12.2.4 Model philosophy .................................................................................... 231

12.3 Environmental test categories ............................................................................... 233

12.3.1 Combination or separation of sources ..................................................... 233

12.3.2 Pyroshock environmental categories ....................................................... 233

12.4 Shock sensitive equipment and severity criteria .................................................... 235

12.4.1 Identification of shock sensitive equipment ............................................. 235

12.4.2 Severity criteria ....................................................................................... 235

12.4.3 Synthesis ................................................................................................ 247

12.5 Equivalence between shock and other mechanical environment .......................... 248

12.5.1 Quasi static equivalence – effective mass method .................................. 248

12.5.2 Use of sine vibration test data ................................................................. 251

12.5.3 Use of random vibration test data ............................................................ 252

12.6 Similarity between equipment – Verification by similarity ...................................... 257

12.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 257

12.6.2 Similarity criteria for shock ...................................................................... 257

12.6.3 Example of process for verification by similarity ...................................... 259

12.7 Specific guidelines for shock verification ............................................................... 263

12.7.1 Optical instrument ................................................................................... 263

12.7.2 Propulsion sub system ............................................................................ 270

13 Shock testing ................................................................................................... 283

13.1 Shock test specifications....................................................................................... 283

13.1.1 Test levels and forcing function ............................................................... 283

13.1.2 Number of applications ........................................................................... 283

13.1.3 Mounting conditions ................................................................................ 284

13.1.4 Test article operation ............................................................................... 284

13.1.5 Safety and cleanliness ............................................................................ 285

13.1.6 Instrumentation ....................................................................................... 285

13.1.7 Test tolerances ....................................................................................... 285

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13.1.8 Test success criteria ............................................................................... 286

13.2 Criteria for test facility selection ............................................................................ 287

13.3 Test methods and facilities ................................................................................... 288

13.3.1 Basis ....................................................................................................... 288

13.3.2 Procedure I – System level shock test ..................................................... 288

13.3.3 Procedure II – Equipment shock test by pyrotechnic device (explosive

detonation) .............................................................................................. 302

13.3.4 Procedure III – Equipment shock test by mechanical impact (metal-

metal impact) .......................................................................................... 308

13.3.5 Procedure IV – Equipment shock test with an electrodynamic shaker ..... 320

13.4 Test monitoring ..................................................................................................... 336

13.4.1 Accelerometers ....................................................................................... 336

13.4.2 Strain gauges .......................................................................................... 351

13.4.3 Load cells ................................................................................................ 356

13.4.4 Laser vibrometer ..................................................................................... 359

13.4.5 Acquisition systems ................................................................................. 366

13.5 In-flight shock monitoring ...................................................................................... 380

13.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 380

13.5.2 VEGA in-flight acquisition systems .......................................................... 380

14 Data analysis tools for shock ......................................................................... 383

14.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 383

14.2 Shock Response Spectra (SRS) ........................................................................... 383

14.2.1 Basis ....................................................................................................... 383

14.2.2 Definition ................................................................................................. 383

14.2.3 SRS properties ........................................................................................ 385

14.2.4 SRS algorithm ......................................................................................... 388

14.2.5 Recommendations on SRS computation ................................................. 389

14.2.6 Q-factor ................................................................................................... 390

14.2.7 SRS limitations ........................................................................................ 392

14.3 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) ............................................................................... 393

14.3.1 FFT definition .......................................................................................... 393

14.3.2 Precautions ............................................................................................. 393

14.4 Time-Frequency Analysis (TFA) ........................................................................... 393

14.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 393

14.4.2 Linear Time-Frequency Transform (TFT) ................................................ 394

14.4.3 Quadratic Time-Frequency Transform..................................................... 397

14.4.4 Interpretation and precautions ................................................................. 401

14.5 Prony decomposition ............................................................................................ 401

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14.5.1 Definition ................................................................................................. 401

14.5.2 Basic scheme .......................................................................................... 401

14.5.3 Advanced scheme................................................................................... 403

14.5.4 Use and limitation ................................................................................... 404

14.6 Digital filters .......................................................................................................... 406

14.6.1 Basis ....................................................................................................... 406

14.6.2 Definition and parameters ....................................................................... 406

14.6.3 FIR filters ................................................................................................ 407

14.6.4 IIR filters .................................................................................................. 408

14.6.5 Precautions ............................................................................................. 409

15 Shock data validation ...................................................................................... 410

15.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 410

15.2 Visual inspection ................................................................................................... 410

15.3 Data analysis – simplified criteria .......................................................................... 413

15.3.1 Duration analysis .................................................................................... 413

15.3.2 Validity frequency range .......................................................................... 413

15.3.3 Final validity criteria - Positive versus negative SRS ............................... 415

15.4 Data analysis – refined criteria – Velocity validation .............................................. 415

15.5 Corrections for anomalies ..................................................................................... 416

15.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 416

15.5.2 Correction for zeroshift ............................................................................ 416

15.5.3 Correction for power line pickup .............................................................. 420

16 Introduction to shock damage risk assessment and objective ................... 424

16.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 424

16.2 Assessment context .............................................................................................. 424

16.3 Outputs of SDRA and associated limitations ......................................................... 425

17 Unit susceptibility with respect to shock....................................................... 426

17.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 426

17.2 Derivation of qualification shock levels at unit interface ........................................ 428

17.3 Identification of critical frequency ranges .............................................................. 428

17.4 Considerations related to life duration and mission ............................................... 431

17.5 List of shock sensitive components/units .............................................................. 431

17.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 431

17.5.2 Electronic components and associated degradation modes .................... 432

17.5.3 Functional mechanical assemblies .......................................................... 456

17.5.4 Mechanisms and associated degradation modes .................................... 459

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18 Shock damage risk analysis ........................................................................... 460

18.1 Required inputs for detailed SDRA ....................................................................... 460

18.2 Evaluation of transmissibility between equipment and sensitive components

interfaces .............................................................................................................. 461

18.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................. 461

18.2.2 Derivation by extrapolation from test data ............................................... 461

18.2.3 Shock response prediction based on transmissibility ............................... 465

18.2.4 Guideline for equipment shock analysis .................................................. 466

18.3 Verification method per type of components and/or units ...................................... 480

18.3.1 Electronic equipment ............................................................................... 480

18.3.2 Mechanisms – Ball bearings ................................................................... 502

18.3.3 Valves ..................................................................................................... 526

18.3.4 Optical components ................................................................................ 533

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European Foreword
This document (CEN/TR 17603-32-25:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee
CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-

32.

This Technical report (CEN/TR 17603-32-25:2022) originates from ECSS-E-HB-32-25A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).

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Introduction

In recent years, discussions concerning “what to do about shock” in relation to spacecraft have taken

more importance. During launch and deployment operations, a spacecraft can be exposed to energetic

shock environments. As spacecraft have become more capable, more equipment can be flown, and

components are closer together. In addition, more sophisticated and delicate instruments are flown to

maximize mission results.
As such, the shock environment has become a sou
...

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