Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification - Coding principles for indicators and actuators

Establishes general rules for assigning particular meanings to certain visual, acoustsic and tactile indications. Has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

Grund- und Sicherheitsregeln für die Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle, Kennzeichnung - Codierungsgrundsätze für Anzeigengeräte und Bedienteile

Principes fondamentaux et de sécurité pour l'interface homme-machine, le marquage et l'identification - Principes de codage pour les indicateurs et les organes de commande

Etablit des règles générales en vue d'attribuer une signification particulière à certaines indications visuelles, acoustiques et tactiles. A le statut d'une publication fondamentale de sécurité conformément au Guide 104

Osnovna in varnostna načela za vmesnik človek-stroj, označevanje in identifikacijo - Načela kodiranja za indikatorje in aktivatorje

Ta mednarodni standard določa splošna pravila za pripisovanje posebnih pomenov določenim vidnim,
zvočnim in taktilnimi indikacijam, da se:
– z varnim nadzorom in krmiljenjem opreme ali procesa poveča varnost oseb, premoženja in/ali
okolja;
– olajša primeren nadzor, krmiljenje in vzdrževanje opreme ali procesa;
– olajša hitro prepoznavanje pogojev krmiljenja in položajev aktivatorjev.
Ta standard je namenjen splošni uporabi:
– od preprostih primerov, kot so indikatorska luč, tipkala, mehanski indikatorji, svetleče diode (LED)
ali videoprikazovalniki, do večjih postaj za krmiljenje, ki lahko vključujejo raznovrstne naprave za
krmiljenje opreme ali procesa;
OPOMBA: Uporaba splošnih načel kodiranja za prikaze na zaslonih naj bi bila izpeljana brez sprememb.
– kjer je vključena varnost oseb, premoženja in/ali okolja in tudi kjer se zgoraj omenjene kode
uporabljajo z namenom olajšanja primernega nadzora in krmiljenja opreme;
– kadar mora tehnični komite pripisati posebni funkciji določen način kodiranja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jul-2002
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Start Date
10-Jul-2002
Completion Date
10-Jul-2002

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SLOVENSKI SIST EN 60073:2003
STANDARD
april 2003

Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification -

Coding principles for indicators and actuators
ICS 01.070; 13.110; 29.020 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 60073:2003(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60073
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM July 2002
ICS 01.070; 29.020 Supersedes EN 60073:1996
English version
Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface,
marking and identification -
Coding principles for indicators and actuators
(IEC 60073:2002)
Principes fondamentaux et de sécurité Grund- und Sicherheitsregeln
pour l'interface homme-machine, für die Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle,
le marquage et l'identification - Kennzeichnung -
Principes de codage pour les indicateurs Codierungsgrundsätze für
et les organes de commande Anzeigengeräte und Bedienteile
(CEI 60073:2002) (IEC 60073:2002)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2002-07-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2002 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60073:2002 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 60073:2002 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 16/402/FDIS, future edition 6 of IEC 60073, prepared by IEC TC 16, Basic and

safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification, was submitted to the

IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 60073 on 2002-07-01.
This European Standard supersedes EN 60073:1996.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2003-04-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2005-07-01
Annexes designated "normative" are part of the body of the standard.
Annexes designated "informative" are given for information only.

In this standard, annexes A and ZA are normative and annexes B and C are informative.

Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60073:2002 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated:

IEC 60204-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60204-1:1997 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 60073:2002
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any

of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or

revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including

amendments).

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60027 Series Letter symbols to be used in HD 245 Series
electrical technology
IEC 60050-441 - International Electrotechnical --
Vocabulary (IEV)
Chapter 441: Switchgear,
controlgear and fuses
IEC 60050-721 - Chapter 721: Telegraphy facsimile--
and data communication
IEC 60050-845 - Chapter 845: Lighting - -
IEC 60417 Series Graphical symbols for use on EN 60417 Series
equipment
IEC 60447 - Man-machine interface (MMI) - EN 60447 1993
Actuating principles
IEC 60617 Series Graphical symbols for diagrams EN 60617 Series
1) 2)
IEC 61310-1 - Safety of machinery - Indication, EN 61310-1 1995
marking and actuation
Part 1: Requirements for visual,
auditory and tactile signals
IEC Guide 104 - The preparation of safety --
publications and the use of basic
safety publications and group safety
publications
ISO 3864 - Safety colours and safety signs - -
ISO 7000 - Graphical symbols for use on --
equipment - Index and synopsis
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 60073:2002 - 4 -
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
ISO 8201 - Acoustics - Audible emergency--
evacuation signal
ISO 11429 - Ergonomics - System of auditory and--
visual danger and information
signals
ISO/IEC Guide 51 - Safety aspects - Guidelines for their--
inclusion in standards
CIE 2-2 - Colours of light signals - -
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
NORME
CEI
INTERNATIONALE IEC
60073
INTERNATIONAL
Sixième édition
STANDARD
Sixth edition
2002-05
Principes fondamentaux et de sécurité pour
l’interface homme-machine, le marquage
et l’identification –
Principes de codage pour les indicateurs
et les organes de commande
Basic and safety principles for man-machine
interface, marking and identification –
Coding principles for indicators and actuators
© IEC 2002 Droits de reproduction réservés ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

CODE PRIX
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale PRICE CODE
International Electrotechnical Commission
ɆɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹɗɥɟɤɬɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɄɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................9

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................11

2 Normative references .....................................................................................................11

3 Definitions ......................................................................................................................13

4 Coding principles............................................................................................................17

4.1 General .................................................................................................................17

4.2 Visual codes..........................................................................................................21

4.2.1 Coding by colours......................................................................................21

4.2.2 Coding by shapes and/or position..............................................................25

4.2.3 Coding by changing of characteristics over time ........................................27

4.3 Acoustic codes ......................................................................................................27

4.4 Tactile codes.........................................................................................................29

5 Application requirements ................................................................................................31

5.1 Indication modes ...................................................................................................31

5.2 Actuation modes....................................................................................................41

5.2.1 Non-illuminated actuators ..........................................................................41

5.2.2 Illuminated actuators .................................................................................43

5.2.3 Actuators as a part of pictorial presentation on a video display screen ......45

Annex A (normative) Special requirements for mechanical indicators...................................47

Annex B (informative) Example for the application of indication coding (using colours) ........49

Annex C (informative) Examples of visual, acoustic and tactile codes ..................................53

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................61

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
BASIC AND SAFETY PRINCIPLES FOR MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE,
MARKING AND IDENTIFICATION –
Coding principles for indicators and actuators
FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is

entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may

participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International

Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the

two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested National Committees.

3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form

of standards, technical specifications, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National

Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject

of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60073 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 16: Basic

and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition published in 1996 and constitutes a

technical revision.

Compared to the fifth edition, the following substantial modifications have been made:

– the field of application has been extended to include displays on screens;
– the concept of “message” has been adopted from IEC 60050(721);
– clarifications are provided in 4.2.1 and 5.2.3.2.

It has the status of a Basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
16/402/FDIS 16/404/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 7 –

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Annex A forms an integral part of this standard.
Annexes B and C are for information only.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged

until 2007. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 9 –
INTRODUCTION

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation

of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and in
ISO/IEC Guide 51.

It should be noted that one of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever

possible, to include or refer to the requirements of basic safety publications in standards for

equipment within its scope. Consequently, the requirements of this basic safety publication

apply only if they are included, or are referred to in those standards.

Supervision and intervention are the principal tasks of personnel engaged in the monitoring

and control of equipment or processes.

Indicator for the representation of conditions, and actuating devices to enable intervention

under normal and fault conditions, are essential to this purpose.

The information presented should meet the needs of the users for the monitoring and control

tasks which they are required to perform, for example, in extensive industrial processes.

Safety and ergonomic aspects should also be taken into account. The use of only a single

means of coding is often insufficient to ensure unambiguous representation of information.

Apart from an unambiguous marking of the indicating and actuating devices, there is a

requirement for a clear and consistent system of coding.

The choice of a code will depend on the information which it is intended to impart. This may

relate to the state of equipment (or part of it), to the condition of a process, and/or to the

effects which this condition has on persons, property and the environment.

The user is required to decide on which of these criteria the coding for the relevant application

is to be based.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 11 –
BASIC AND SAFETY PRINCIPLES FOR MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE,
MARKING AND IDENTIFICATION –
Coding principles for indicators and actuators
1 Scope

This International Standard establishes general rules for assigning particular meanings to

certain visual, acoustic and tactile indications in order to

– increase the safety of persons, property and/or the environment through the safe

monitoring and control of the equipment or process;

– facilitate the proper monitoring, control and maintenance of the equipment or process;

– facilitate the rapid recognition of control conditions and actuator positions.
This standard is for general application:

– from simple cases such as single indicator lights, push-buttons, mechanical indicators,

light emitting diodes (LEDs) or video display screens to extensive control stations which

may include a wide variety of devices for controlling an equipment or process;

NOTE Application of the general coding principles for displays on screens should be carried out without

modification.

– where the safety of persons, property and/or the environment is involved, and also where

the above-mentioned codes are used to facilitate the proper monitoring and controlling of

equipment;

– where a particular kind of coding is to be assigned by a technical committee to a special

function.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC 60027 (all parts), Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology

IEC 60050(441), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) − Chapter 441: Switchgear,

controlgear and fuses

IEC 60050(721), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) − Chapter 721: Telegraphy,

facsimile and data communication
IEC 60050(845), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) Lighting
IEC 60417 (all parts), Graphical symbols for use on equipment
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 13 –
IEC 60447, Man-machine interface (MMI) − Actuating principles
IEC 60617 (all parts), Graphical symbols for diagrams

IEC 61310-1, Safety of machinery – Indication, marking and actuation – Part 1: Requirements

for visual, auditory and tactile signals

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO 3864, Safety colours and safety signs
ISO 7000, Graphical symbols for use on equipment – Index and synopsis
ISO 8201, Acoustics – Audible emergency evacuation signal

ISO 11429, Ergonomics – System of auditory and visual danger and information signals

ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards

CIE (International Commission on Illumination): Publication No. 2-2 (TC 1.6), Colours of

light signals
3 Definitions
For the purposes of this standard, the following definitions apply.
3.1
coding

systematic representation of specific signals or values by another set of signals, which has to

conform to a definite set of rules
[IEC 61310-1: 1995, definition 3.22]
3.2
indicator

mechanical, optical or electrical device or a part of device providing visual, acoustic or tactile

information
3.2.1
acoustic signal

message conveyed by means of tone, frequency and intermittency, emanating from a sound

source
3.2.2
tactile signal

message conveyed by means of vibration, force, surface roughness, contour or position

3.2.3
visual signal

message conveyed by means of brightness, contrast, colour, shape, size or position

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 15 –
3.3
actuator
part of the actuating system which receives a human actuating action
[IEC 60447: 1993, definition 3.1]

NOTE For the purposes of this standard, the actuator in the case of an interactive screen display is considered to

be that part of the screen display which represents the actuator function.
3.4
mechanical indicator

indicator which forms an integral part of a mechanical or electromechanical switching device

(e.g. circuit-breaker) and which indicates whether it is in the OPEN or CLOSED position or an

intermediate position (e.g. star position of a star-delta starter) but which is not intended as a

manual actuator
3.5
man-machine interface (MMI)

parts of the equipment intended to provide a direct means of communication between

the operator and the equipment, and which enable the operator to control and monitor the

operation of the equipment

NOTE Such parts may include manually operated actuators, indicators and screens.

[IEC 60447: 1993, definition 3.3]
3.6
signal light
object or apparatus designed to emit a light signal
[IEV 845-11-05]
3.7
light emitting diode (LED)

solid-state device embodying a p-n junction, emitting optical radiation when excited by an

electric current
[IEV 845-04-40]
3.8
illuminated actuator

actuator with an integrated light source giving visual indication by illumination. The operation

of the light source may be related to or independent of the actuator action
3.9
hue

attribute of a visual sensation according to which an area appears to be similar to one of the

perceived colours, red, yellow, green, and blue, or to a combination of two of them

[IEV 845-02-35]
3.10
brightness

attribute of a visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light

[IEV 845-02-28]
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 17 –
3.11
saturation
chromaticness, colourfulness, of an area judged in proportion to its brightness

NOTE For given viewing conditions and at luminance levels within the range of photopic vision, a colour stimulus

of a given chromaticity exhibits approximately constant saturation for all luminance levels, except when the

brightness is very high.
[IEV 845-02-41]
3.12
contrast

a) In the perceptual sense: assessment of the difference in appearance of two or more parts

of a field seen simultaneously or successively (hence: brightness contrast, lightness

contrast, colour contrast, simultaneous contrast, successive contrast, etc.)

b) In the physical sense: quantity intended to correlate with the perceived brightness

contrast, usually defined by one of a number of formulae which involve the luminances of

the stimuli considered, for example: ∆L/L near the luminance threshold, or L /L for much

1 2
higher luminances.
[IEV 845-02-47]
3.13
message

group of characters and function control sequences which is transferred as an entity from

a transmitter to a receiver, where the arrangement of the characters is determined at the

transmitter
[IEV 721-09-01]
4 Coding principles
4.1 General

Coding principles shall be established at an early stage of system design and shall be

consistent with those used for other equipment within the same plant or process.

The choice of a certain code will depend on the tasks of the personnel and the associated

service conditions in which these tasks have to be fulfilled.

It is recommended to apply one or more of the following means of indication coding:

Visual codes:
− by colour;
– by shape;
– by position;
– by changing characteristics over time (flashing).
Acoustic codes:
– by type of sound;
–by pure tone;
– by changing characteristic over time.
Tactile codes:
– by shape;
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 19 –
–by force;
– by vibration;
– by position;
– by changing characteristic over time.
Table 1 gives examples of these means of coding.

The meaning of the selected codes shall be unambiguous and shall be explained in the

associated documentation of the particular equipment and/or the plant.
Table 1 – Means of coding
Means Characteristic
Visual codes
− Hue
– Saturation
Colour
– Brightness
– Contrast
− Figure (alphanumeric, pictographs, graphical symbols, lines)
Shape – Form (character font, size, line width)
– Texture (line type, shading, dotting)
− Location (absolute, relative)
Position
– Orientation (with or without reference system)
Changing over time (flashing):
– Brightness
Time – Colour
– Shape
– Position
Acoustic codes
− Tone
Type of
– Noise
sound
– Spoken message
Pure tone – Selected frequency
Change of
– Frequency composition over time
Time
– Sound volume over time
– Total duration
Tactile codes
− Form
Shape
– Surface roughness
Force − Amplitude
− Amplitude
Vibration
– Frequency
− Location (absolute, relative)
Position
– Orientation (with or without reference system)
Change of:
Time – Force over time
– Vibration over time
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 21 –
4.2 Visual codes

Colour and changing of elements over time (flashing) are the most effective visual means of

attracting attention. Therefore these codes shall be used with consistent meanings; colours

for giving priority and flashing for attracting attention.

Where persons with defective colour vision can be employed as operators, it is recommended

that colour shall not be the sole means of coding.

Where the meaning of colour relates to the safety of persons or the environment (see 4.2.1.1)

then supplementary means of coding shall be provided.

When certain service conditions will not permit the application of colours in the specified

definition then alternative codes to colours shall be provided (see 4.2.2 and the following

subclauses of clause 4).

NOTE "Supplementary to another code" means "in addition to" (e.g. shape in addition to colour). "Alternative to

another code" means "instead of" (e.g. shape instead of colour).
4.2.1 Coding by colours

Specific meanings are assigned to specific colours (see table 2) and these colours shall be

easily identifiable and distinguishable from the background colour and any other assigned

colours. Certain colours shall be reserved for safety applications.

For clarity, it is recommended that the number of colours used in a given application is kept to

the minimum practicable.

Again, for reasons of clarity, this standard deals with indicators and actuators having the

following colours only:
RED, YELLOW, GREEN, BLUE, BLACK, GREY, WHITE.

NOTE 1 The colour BLACK is also used for indicators, e.g. for symbols on video display screens or mechanical

indicators.

NOTE 2 Additional colours may be used (e.g. to meet local requirements) but their meanings are not given in this

standard.

Besides hue as the first kind of colour coding, more extended information on a certain colour

may be given by saturation, brightness or contrast.

Where colour is the sole means of coding, the coordinates of the specified colour shall not go

beyond the recommended limits during the expected life of the indicators and actuators under

the specified service conditions.
For the exact definitions see:
− for surface colours: ISO 3864
− for emitted lights: CIE Publication No. 2-2

NOTE 3 Perceived colour is due to the combined effects of emitted light, if any (e.g. of a signal light) and incident

light (e.g. of the working place).
NOTE 4 The colour GREY is not defined in ISO 3864.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 23 –
4.2.1.1 Choice of colours

The general principles for the meaning of colours for the indication of information are given in

table 2.
Table 2 – Meaning of colours – General principles
Meaning
Colour
Safety of persons or
Condition of process State of equipment
environment
RED Danger Emergency Faulty
YELLOW Warning/caution Abnormal Abnormal
GREEN Safe Normal Normal
BLUE Mandatory significance
WHITE
GREY No specific meaning assigned
BLACK

If indicators connected in parallel are mounted at different locations where the same source of

information may have different meanings, different colours may be used for the indicators

(see annex B).

Gas discharge lamps and yellow LEDs may be used for WHITE if there is no risk of confusion

by the operator.

When LEDs are used for at least two of the colours WHITE, YELLOW and GREEN at the

same time and at the same working place, special care shall be taken to avoid the risk of

confusion.

The colour to be displayed by indicators shall be chosen with regard to the information to be

imparted. Meanings shall be assigned to the colours according to which of the following

monitoring criteria is given priority:
– safety of persons or the environment;
– condition of the process;
– state of the equipment.

Which one of these criteria is applied for the choice of colour coding shall be decided

unambiguously according to the meanings given in tables 6 to 8 without causing confusion

between the meaning of these tables.
4.2.1.2 Colours on video display screens

The colours used for transmitting information within the scope of this standard shall be as

specified in 4.2.1 and their meanings shall be as specified in 4.2.1.1.

Colours shall contrast adequately with adjacent colours and with the background of the display.

The meaning assigned to each colour shall apply consistently within a suite of displays, and

should also apply consistently with other related instruments, control and alarm displays.

In the case of safety-related meanings, the colours shall be bright, saturated and contrasting.

For low priority information, the colours may be dim and unsaturated.
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
60073 © IEC:2002 – 25 –
4.2.1.3 Contrast colours

If a contrast colour is required for a safety application, for example, between an indicator or

actuator and the mounting surface, it shall be in accordance with ISO 3864. However, the

contrast colour for a RED-coloured emergency-stop actuator may be YELLOW.
NOTE IEC 60204-1 [1] gives an example for actuators of emergency-stop devices.
4.2.2 Coding by shapes and/or position
Visual codes using shapes and/or position may be applied as follows:
a) as a main code;

b) as a supplementary code to the applied main code, for example, shapes in addition to

colours to prevent errors caused by persons with defective colour vision.
Meanings are assigned to
...

SLOVENSKI SIST EN 60073
STANDARD april 2003
Osnovna in varnostna načela za vmesnik človek-stroj, označevanje in
identifikacijo – Načela kodiranja za indikatorje in aktivatorje

Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification

– Coding principles for indicators and actuators
Grund- und Sicherheitsregeln für die Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle,
Kennzeichnung – Codierungsgrundsätze für Anzeigengeräte und Bedienteile
Principes fondamentaux et de sécurité pour l'interface homme-machine, le
marquage et l'identification – Principes de codage pour les indicateurs et les
organes de commande
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 01.070; 13.110; 29.020 SIST EN 60073:2003 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh II do III in od 1 do 33

© 2019-03: Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni

dovoljeno.
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
NACIONALNI UVOD

Slovenski standard SIST EN 60073 (sl), Osnovna in varnostna načela za vmesnik človek-stroj,

označevanje in identifikacijo – Načela kodiranja za indikatorje in aktivatorje, 2003, ima status

slovenskega standarda in je istoveten standardu EN 60073 (en), Basic and safety principles for man-

machine interface, marking and identification – Coding principles for indicators and actuators (en), 2002.

Ta slovenski standard nadomešča SIST EN 60073:2001.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Standard EN 60073:2002 je pripravil tehnični odbor Evropskega komiteja za standardizacijo v

elektrotehniki CLC/SR 3 Dokumentacija in grafični simboli.

Slovenski standard SIST EN 60073:2003 je prevod angleškega besedila evropskega standarda EN

60073:2002. V primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je odločilno izvirno

besedilo evropskega standarda v angleškem jeziku. Slovensko izdajo tega standarda je potrdil Strokovni

svet SS EIT za področja elektrotehnike, informacijske tehnologije in telekomunikacij.

Odločitev za privzem tega standarda je v aprilu 2003 sprejel Strokovni svet SS EIT za področja

elektrotehnike, informacijske tehnologije in telekomunikacij.
ZVEZE S STANDARDI
SIST EN 60027 (vsi deli) Črkovni simboli za uporabo v elektrotehnologiji

SIST IEC 60050-441 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar (IEV) – 441. del: Stikalne in krmilne

naprave ter varovalke

SIST IEC 60050-845 Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar (IEV) – 845. del: Razsvetljava

SIST EN 60417-1 Grafični simboli za uporabo na opremi – 1. del: Pregled in uporaba

SIST EN 60417-2 Grafični simboli za uporabo na opremi – 2. del: Grafični simboli

SIST EN 60447:2004 Osnovna in varnostna načela za vmesnik človek-stroj, označevanje in

identifikacija – Načela upravljanja
SIST EN 60617 (vsi deli) Grafični simboli za sheme

SIST EN 61310-1 Varnost strojev – Prikaz, oznaka in upravljanje – 1. del: Zahteve za vidne,

zvočne in otipljive signale
SIST ISO 3864 (vsi deli) Varnostne barve in varnostni znaki
SIST ISO 7000 Grafični simboli za uporabo na opremi – Registrirani simboli
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda EN 60073:2002
OPOMBE

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporabljata izraza "evropski standard" ali “mednarodni

standard”, v SIST EN 60073:2003 to pomeni “slovenski standard”.
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
– Ta standard je istoveten EN 60073:2002 in je objavljen z dovoljenjem
CENELEC
Centralni sekretariat
Rue de Stassart 35
B-1050 Bruselj

This standard is identical with EN 60073:2002 and is published with the permission of

CENELEC
Central Secretariat
Rue de Stassart 35
B-1050 Brussels
III
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EVROPSKI STANDARD EN 60073
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
julij 2002
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.070; 29.020 Nadomešča EN 60073:1996
Slovenska izdaja
Osnovna in varnostna načela za vmesnik človek-stroj, označevanje in
identifikacijo – Načela kodiranja za indikatorje in aktivatorje

Basic and safety principles for Principes fondamentaux et de Grund- und Sicherheitsregeln

man-machine interface, marking sécurité pour l'interface homme- für die Mensch-Maschine-

and identification – Coding machine, le marquage et Schnittstelle, Kennzeichnung –

principles for indicators and l'identification – Principes de Codierungsgrundsätze für

actuators codage pour les indicateurs et Anzeigengeräte und Bedienteile
(IEC 60073:2002) les organes de commande (IEC 60073:2002)
(CEI 60073:2002)

Ta evropski standard je CENELEC sprejel dne 1. julija 2002. Člani CENELEC morajo izpolnjevati

določila poslovnika CEN/CENELEC, s katerim je predpisano, da mora biti ta standard brez

kakršnihkoli sprememb sprejet kot nacionalni standard.

Seznami najnovejših izdaj teh nacionalnih standardov in njihovi bibliografski podatki so na voljo pri

Centralnem sekretariatu ali kateremkoli članu CENELEC.

Ta evropski standard obstaja v treh izvirnih izdajah (nemški, angleški in francoski). Izdaje v drugih

jezikih, ki jih člani CENELEC na lastno odgovornost prevedejo in izdajo ter prijavijo pri Centralnem

sekretariatu, veljajo kot uradne izdaje.

Člani CENELEC so nacionalni elektrotehniški komiteji Avstrije, Belgije, Češke republike, Danske,

Finske, Francije, Grčije, Irske, Islandije, Italije, Luksemburga, Madžarske, Malte, Nemčije,

Nizozemske, Norveške, Portugalske, Slovaške, Španije, Švedske, Švice in Združenega kraljestva.

CENELEC
Evropski komite za standardizacijo v elektrotehniki
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization Comité
Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Centralni sekretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B-1050 Brussels

© 2002 CENELEC Lastnice avtorskih pravic so vse države članice CENELEC. Ref. oznaka EN 60073:2002 E

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
Predgovor k evropskemu standardu

To besedilo dokumenta 16/402/FDIS, poznejša 6. izdaja IEC 60073, je pripravil tehnični odbor IEC/TC

16, Osnovna in varnostna načela za vmesnik človek-stroj, označevanje in identifikacijo, in je bil

predložen v vzporedno glasovanje IEC/CENELEC ter ga je 1. julija 2002 CENELEC potrdil kot EN

60073.
Ta evropski standard nadomešča EN 60073:1996.
Določena sta bila naslednja datuma:
– zadnji datum, do katerega mora EN
dobiti status nacionalnega standarda bodisi
z objavo istovetnega besedila ali z razglasitvijo (dop) 2003-04-01
– zadnji datum, ko je treba razveljaviti
nacionalne standarde, ki so z EN v nasprotju (dow) 2005-07-01
Dodatki, označeni kot normativni, so del standarda.
Dodatki, označeni kot informativni, so samo za informacijo.
V tem standardu sta dodatka A in ZA normativna, dodatka B in C pa informativna.
Dodatek ZA je dodal CENELEC.
Razglasitvena objava

Besedilo mednarodnega standarda IEC 60073:2002 je CENELEC potrdil kot evropski standard brez

kakršnih koli sprememb.
V uradni verziji je pri navedbi literature za standard dodana naslednja opomba:
IEC 60204-1 OPOMBA: Harmoniziran kot EN 60204-1:1997 (brez sprememb)
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
Dodatek ZA
(normativni)
Normativna sklicevanja na mednarodne publikacije z njihovimi ustreznimi
evropskimi publikacijami

Ta evropski standard vsebuje z datiranim ali nedatiranim sklicevanjem določila iz drugih publikacij. Ta

sklicevanja na standarde so navedena na ustreznih mestih v besedilu, publikacije pa so naštete spodaj.

Pri datiranih sklicevanjih se pri uporabi tega evropskega standarda upoštevajo poznejša dopolnila ali

spremembe katerekoli od teh publikacij le, če so z dopolnilom ali spremembo vključene vanj. Pri

nedatiranih sklicevanjih se uporablja zadnja izdaja publikacije, na katero se sklicuje (vključno z

dopolnili).

OPOMBA: Kadar je bila mednarodna publikacija spremenjena s skupnimi spremembami, označenimi z (mod), se uporablja

ustrezni EN/HD.
Publikacija Leto Naslov EN/HD Leto
IEC 60027 Serijska Črkovni simboli za električno HD 245 Serijska
tehnologijo
– –
IEC 60050-441 – Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar –
441. del: Stikalne in krmilne naprave ter
varovalke
1)
– –
IEC 60050-721 – Poglavje 721: Telegrafija, faksimile in
podatkovne komunikacije
1)
– –
IEC 60050-845 – Poglavje 845: Razsvetljava
IEC 60417 Serijska Grafični simboli za uporabo na opremi EN 60417 Serijska
1) )
IEC 60447 – Vmesnik človek-stroj (MMI) – Načela EN 60447 1993
upravljanja
IEC 60617 Serijska Grafični simboli za načrte EN 60617 Serijska
1) 2)
IEC 61310-1 – Varnost strojev – Prikaz, oznaka in EN 61310-1 1995
upravljanje – 1. del: Zahteve za vidne,
zvočne in taktilne signale
1)
– –
IEC Vodilo 104 – Priprava varnostnih publikacij ter
uporaba osnovnih varnostnih publikacij
in skupinskih varnostnih publikacij
1)
– –
ISO 3864 – Varnostne barve in varnostni znaki
1)
– –
ISO 7000 – Grafični simboli za uporabo na opremi –
Kazalo in pregled
1)
– –
ISO 8201 – Akustika – Zvočni signal za evakuacijo
v sili
1)
– –
ISO 11429 – Ergonomija – Sistem slušnih in vidnih
signalov o nevarnosti in informacijah
1)
– –
ISO/IEC Vodilo 51 – Varnostni vidiki – Smernice za njihovo
vključevanje v standarde
1)
– –
CIE 2-2 – Barve svetlobnih signalov
Nedatirano sklicevanje.
Veljavna izdaja na dan izdaje.
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SIST EN 60073 : 2003
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor k evropskemu standardu ........................................................................................................ 2

Dodatek ZA .............................................................................................................................................. 3

Predgovor ................................................................................................................................................ 5

Uvod ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 Področje uporabe ................................................................................................................................ 8

2 Zveze s standardi ................................................................................................................................ 8

3 Definicije .............................................................................................................................................. 9

4 Načela kodiranja ................................................................................................................................ 11

4.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 11

4.2 Vidne kode ...................................................................................................................................... 12

4.2.1 Kodiranje z barvami ..................................................................................................................... 12

4.2.2 Kodiranje z oblikami in/ali s položajem ........................................................................................ 14

4.2.3 Kodiranje s spreminjanjem lastnosti v odvisnosti od časa .......................................................... 15

4.3 Zvočne kode ................................................................................................................................... 16

4.4 Taktilne kode .................................................................................................................................. 17

5 Zahteve za uporabo ........................................................................................................................... 17

5.1 Načini indikacije .............................................................................................................................. 17

5.2 Načini aktiviranja ............................................................................................................................ 23

5.2.1 Neosvetljeni aktivatorji ................................................................................................................. 23

5.2.2 Osvetljeni aktivatorji ..................................................................................................................... 24

5.2.3 Aktivatorji kot del slikovne predstavitve na videoprikazovalniku ................................................. 25

Dodatek A (normativni): Posebne zahteve za mehanske indikatorje .................................................... 26

Dodatek B (informativni): Primer uporabe kodiranja indikatorjev (z barvami) ....................................... 27

Dodatek C (informativni): Primeri vidnih, zvočnih in taktilnih kod .......................................................... 29

Literatura ................................................................................................................................................ 33

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
MEDNARODNA ELEKTROTEHNIŠKA KOMISIJA
OSNOVNA IN VARNOSTNA NAČELA ZA VMESNIK ČLOVEK-STROJ, OZNAČEVANJE
IN IDENTIFIKACIJO –
Načela kodiranja za indikatorje in aktivatorje
Predgovor

1) IEC (Mednarodna elektrotehniška komisija) je svetovna organizacija za standardizacijo, ki združuje vse

nacionalne elektrotehniške komiteje (nacionalni komiteji IEC). Cilj IEC je pospeševati mednarodno

sodelovanje v vseh vprašanjih standardizacije s področja elektrotehnike in elektronike. V ta namen poleg

drugih aktivnosti IEC izdaja mednarodne standarde. Za njihovo pripravo so odgovorni tehnični odbori (TC).

Vsak nacionalni komite IEC, ki ga zanima obravnavana tema, lahko sodeluje v tem pripravljalnem delu. Prav

tako lahko v pripravi sodelujejo mednarodne organizacije ter vladne in nevladne ustanove, ki so povezane z

IEC. IEC deluje v tesni povezavi z mednarodno organizacijo za standardizacijo ISO skladno s pogoji,

določenimi v soglasju med obema organizacijama.

2) Uradne odločitve ali sporazumi IEC o tehničnih vprašanjih, pripravljeni v tehničnih odborih, kjer so prisotni vsi

nacionalni komiteji, ki jih tema zanima, izražajo, kolikor je mogoče, mednarodno soglasje o obravnavani temi.

3) Dokumenti imajo obliko priporočil za mednarodno uporabo in so izdani kot standardi, tehnične specifikacije,

tehnična poročila ali vodila ter jih kot takšne sprejmejo nacionalni komiteji IEC.

4) Da bi se pospeševalo mednarodno poenotenje, so nacionalni komiteji IEC v svojih nacionalnih in regionalnih

standardih dolžni čim pregledneje uporabljati mednarodne standarde. Vsako odstopanje med standardom IEC

in ustreznim nacionalnim ali regionalnim standardom je treba v slednjem jasno označiti.

5) IEC ni določil nobenega postopka v zvezi z označevanjem kot znakom strinjanja in ne prevzema nikakršne

odgovornosti za opremo, ki je deklarirana, da ustreza kateremu od njegovih standardov.

6) Opozarjamo na možnost, da bi lahko bil kateri od elementov tega mednarodnega standarda predmet patentnih

pravic. IEC ni odgovoren za identifikacijo nobene od teh patentnih pravic.

Mednarodni standard IEC 60073 je pripravil tehnični odbor IEC/TC 16 Osnovna in varnostna načela za

vmesnik človek-stroj, označevanje in identifikacijo.

Ta šesta izdaja razveljavlja in nadomešča peto izdajo, izdano leta 1996, ter predstavlja tehnično revizijo.

Glavne spremembe v primerjavi s peto izdajo so naslednje:
– področje uporabe je razširjeno in vključuje prikaz na zaslonih;
– pojem “sporočilo” je privzet iz IEC 60050(721);
– pojasnila so podana v 4.2.1 in 5.2.3.2.
Ima status osnovne varnostne publikacije v skladu z IEC Vodilom 104.
Besedilo tega standarda temelji na naslednjih dokumentih:
FDIS Poročilo o glasovanju
16/402/FDIS 16/404/RVD

Celotna informacija o glasovanju za sprejetje tega standarda je na voljo v poročilu o glasovanju,

navedenem v zgornji preglednici.
Ta publikacija je bila pripravljena v skladu s 3. delom Direktiv ISO/IEC.
Dodatek A je sestavni del tega standarda.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
Dodatka B in C sta samo za informacijo.

Odbor se je odločil, da bo vsebina te publikacije ostala nespremenjena do leta 2007. Po tem datumu bo

publikacija:
– ponovno potrjena;
– umaknjena;
– zamenjana z revidirano izdajo ali
– dopolnjena.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
Uvod

Ta osnovna varnostna publikacija je namenjena tehničnim odborom pri pripravi standardov v skladu z

načeli v IEC Vodilu 104 in v ISO/IEC Vodilu 51.

Omeniti je treba, da je ena od odgovornosti tehničnega odbora, da, kadar je mogoče, vključi ali se

sklicuje na zahteve osnovnih varnostnih publikacij v standardih za opremo s svojega področja uporabe.

Posledično se zahteve te osnovne varnostne publikacije uporabljajo samo takrat, kadar so v te

standarde vključene ali se tam nanje sklicuje.

Nadzor in posredovanje sta osnovni nalogi osebja, ki je zadolženo za nadzorovanje in krmiljenje naprav

ali procesov.

Indikator za predstavitev okoliščin in aktivatorske naprave, ki omogočajo posredovanje v normalnem

stanju ter v stanju okvare, so pri tem bistveni.

Predstavljena informacija bi morala uporabniku zadostovati za opravljanje nalog nadzora in krmiljenja,

npr. pri obsežnih industrijskih procesih.

Upoštevati bi bilo treba tudi varnostni in ergonomski vidik. Uporaba samo enega načina kodiranja

pogosto ne zadostuje za zagotavljanje nedvoumne predstavitve informacij.

Poleg nedvoumnega označevanja indikatorskih in aktivatorskih naprav je zahtevan tudi jasen in enoten

sistem kodiranja.

Izbira kode bo odvisna od informacije, ki jo je treba posredovati. Ta se lahko nanaša na stanje opreme

(ali dela opreme), na stanje procesa in/ali na učinke, ki jih ima to stanje na osebe, premoženje in okolje.

Uporabnik se mora odločiti, katero od teh meril naj bo temelj kodiranja za določeno uporabo.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
OSNOVNA IN VARNOSTNA NAČELA ZA VMESNIK ČLOVEK-STROJ,
OZNAČEVANJE IN IDENTIFIKACIJO –
Načela kodiranja za indikatorje in aktivatorje
1 Področje uporabe

Ta mednarodni standard določa splošna pravila za pripisovanje posebnih pomenov določenim vidnim,

zvočnim in taktilnimi indikacijam, da se:

– z varnim nadzorom in krmiljenjem opreme ali procesa poveča varnost oseb, premoženja in/ali

okolja;
– olajša primeren nadzor, krmiljenje in vzdrževanje opreme ali procesa;
– olajša hitro prepoznavanje pogojev krmiljenja in položajev aktivatorjev.
Ta standard je namenjen splošni uporabi:

– od preprostih primerov, kot so indikatorska luč, tipkala, mehanski indikatorji, svetleče diode (LED)

ali videoprikazovalniki, do večjih postaj za krmiljenje, ki lahko vključujejo raznovrstne naprave za

krmiljenje opreme ali procesa;

OPOMBA: Uporaba splošnih načel kodiranja za prikaze na zaslonih naj bi bila izpeljana brez sprememb.

– kjer je vključena varnost oseb, premoženja in/ali okolja in tudi kjer se zgoraj omenjene kode

uporabljajo z namenom olajšanja primernega nadzora in krmiljenja opreme;
– kadar mora tehnični komite pripisati posebni funkciji določen način kodiranja.
2 Zveze s standardi

Pri uporabi tega dokumenta so nujno potrebni naslednji referenčni dokumenti. Pri datiranih sklicevanjih

velja le navedena izdaja dokumenta. Pri nedatiranih sklicevanjih se upošteva zadnja izdaja

referenčnega dokumenta (vključno z vsemi dopolnili).
IEC 60027 (vsi deli) Črkovni simboli za električno tehnologijo

IEC 60050(441) Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar (IEV) – 441. del: Stikalne in krmilne naprave

ter varovalke

IEC 60050(721) Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar (IEV) – 721. del: Telegrafija, faksimile in

podatkovna komunikacija
IEC 60050(845) Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar (IEV) – 845. del: Razsvetljava
IEC 60417 (vsi deli) Grafični simboli za uporabo na opremi
IEC 60447 Vmesnik človek-stroj (MMI) – Načela upravljanja
IEC 60617 (vsi deli) Grafični simboli za načrte

IEC 61310-1 Varnost strojev – Prikaz, oznaka in upravljanje – 1. del: Zahteve za vidne,

zvočne in taktilne signale

IEC Vodilo 104 Priprava varnostnih publikacij ter uporaba osnovnih varnostnih publikacij in

skupinskih varnostnih publikacij
ISO 3864 Varnostne barve in varnostni znaki
ISO 7000 Grafični simboli za uporabo na opremi – Kazalo in pregled
ISO 8201 Akustika – Zvočni signal za evakuacijo v sili
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003

ISO 11429 Ergonomika – Sistem slušnih in vidnih signalov o nevarnosti in informacijah

ISO/IEC Vodilo 51 Varnostni vidiki – Smernice za njihovo vključevanje v standarde

CIE (International Commission on Illumination/Mednarodna komisija za razsvetljavo): Publikacija

št. 2-2 (TC 1.6), Barve svetlobnih signalov
3 Definicije
V tem tem standardu so uporabljene naslednje definicije.
3.1
kodiranje

sistematična predstavitev določenih signalov ali vrednosti z množico drugih signalov, ki morajo ustrezati

določenemu naboru pravil
[IEC 61310-1: 1995, definicija 3.22]
3.2
indikator

mehanska, optična ali električna naprava ali del naprave, ki oddaja vidno, zvočno ali taktilno informacijo

3.2.1
zvočni signal

sporočilo, ki je posredovano s tonom, frekvenco ali prekinjanjem in izvira iz zvočnega vira

3.2.2
taktilni signal

sporočilo, ki je posredovano z vibriranjem, silo, površinsko hrapavostjo, obrisom ali položajem

3.2.3
vidni signal

sporočilo, ki je posredovano s sijavostjo, kontrastom, barvo, obliko, velikostjo ali položajem

3.3
aktivator
del aktivatorskega sistema, ki sprejme človekov poseg za aktiviranje
[IEC 60447: 1993, definicija 3.1]

OPOMBA: Za namene tega standarda se šteje, da je aktivator pri interaktivnem zaslonskem prikazovalniku tisti del

zaslonskega prikazovalnika, ki predstavlja aktivatorsko funkcijo.
3.4
mehanski indikator

indikator kot vgrajeni del mehanske ali elektromehanske stikalne naprave (npr. odklopnik), ki prikazuje,

ali je v položaju SKLENJEN ali ODPRT ali v vmesnem položaju (npr. položaj zvezda pri zaganjalniku

zvezda-trikot), ni pa predviden kot ročni aktivator
3.5
vmesnik človek-stroj

deli opreme, ki so namenjeni zagotavljanju neposredne komunikacije med operaterjem in opremo in

operaterju omogočajo krmiljenje in nadzor delovanja opreme

OPOMBA: Takšni deli lahko vključujejo ročno upravljane aktivatorje, indikatorje in zaslone.

[IEC 60447: 1993, definicija 3.3]
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SIST EN 60073 : 2003
3.6
signalna luč
objekt ali naprava za oddajanje svetlobnega signala
[IEV 845-11-05]
3.7
svetleča dioda (LED)

polprevodniška naprava, v kateri spoj PN oddaja optično sevanje, ko je vzbujena z električnim tokom

[IEV 845-04-40]
3.8
osvetljen aktivator

aktivator z vgrajenim svetlobnim virom, ki oddaja vidno indikacijo z osvetljenostjo. Delovanje

svetlobnega vira je lahko odvisno ali neodvisno od aktivatorske funkcije.
3.9
barvni odtenek

lastnost vidnega zaznavanja, pri katerem se za določeno površino zdi, da je podobna eni od zaznavanih

barv, npr. rdeči, rumeni, zeleni in modri, ali kombinaciji dveh barv
[IEV 845-02-35]
3.10
sijavost

lastnost vidnega zaznavanja, zaradi katerega je videti, da površina oddaja več ali manj svetlobe

[IEV 845-02-28]
3.11
nasičenost
barvitost površine, ocenjena sorazmerno z njeno sijavostjo

OPOMBA: V danih pogojih gledanja in ravneh svetlosti v okviru območja fotopskega vida izraža barvni dražljaj določene

barvnosti približno konstantno nasičenost za vse ravni svetlosti, razen kadar je sijavost zelo velika.

[IEV 845-02-41]
3.12
kontrast

a) v zaznavnem smislu: ocena razlike med videzom dveh ali več delov vidnega polja, gledano hkrati

ali zaporedoma (iz tega: sijavostni kontrast, svetlobni kontrast, barvni kontrast, hkratni kontrast,

zaporedni kontrast itd.)

b) v fizikalnem smislu: veličina, ki naj bi bila soodvisna od zaznanega sijavostnega kontrasta, navadno

določena z eno od formul, ki vključujejo svetlosti obravnavanih dražljajev, npr. ΔL/L blizu

svetlostnega praga ali L1/L2 pri veliko višjih svetlostih
[IEV 845-02-47]
3.13
sporočilo

skupina znakov in zaporedij funkcijskih ukazov, ki se prenese kot celota od oddajnika do sprejemnika,

pri čemer se razvrstitev znakov določi na oddajniški strani
[IEV 721-09-01]
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SIST EN 60073 : 2003
4 Načela kodiranja
4.1 Splošno

Načela kodiranja je treba uvesti v zgodnji fazi snovanja sistema, ker morajo biti usklajena z načeli, ki so

bila uporabljena za drugo opremo v okviru istega obrata ali procesa.

Izbira določene kode je odvisna od nalog osebja in z njimi povezanih delovnih pogojev, v katerih morajo

biti te naloge opravljene.
Priporočljiva je uporaba enega ali več naslednjih načinov kodiranja indikacije.
Vidne kode:
– z barvo,
– z obliko,
– s položajem,
– s spreminjanjem lastnosti v odvisnosti od časa (utripanje).
Zvočne kode:
– z vrsto zvoka,
– s čistim tonom,
– s spreminjanjem lastnosti v odvisnosti od časa.
Taktilne kode:
– z obliko,
– s silo,
– z vibriranjem,
– s položajem,
– s spreminjanjem lastnosti v odvisnosti od časa.
V preglednici 1 so primeri teh načinov kodiranja.

Pomen izbranih kod, ki mora biti enoznačno določen, je treba pojasniti v pripadajoči dokumentaciji za

posamezno opremo ali obrat.
Preglednica 1: Načini kodiranja
Način Lastnost
Vidne kode
– Barvni odtenek
– Nasičenost barve
Barva
– Sijavost
– Kontrast
– Slika (alfanumerična, piktografi, grafični simboli, črte)
Oblika – Vrsta (pisava, velikost, debelina črt)
– Tekstura (vrsta črte, senčenje, posejanost s pikami)
– Pozicija (absolutna, relativna)
Položaj
– Orientacija (z referenčnim sistemom ali brez njega)
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003
Način Lastnost
Spreminjanje v odvisnosti od časa (utripanje):
– sijavost
Čas
– barva
– oblika
– položaj
Zvočne kode
– Ton
Vrsta zvoka – Hrup
– Govorjeno sporočilo
Čisti ton – Izbrana frekvenca
Spreminjanje:
– frekvenčne sestave v odvisnosti od časa
Čas
– jakosti zvoka v odvisnosti od časa
– celotnega trajanja
Taktilne kode
– Vrsta
Oblika
– Površinska hrapavost
Sila – Amplituda
– Amplituda
Vibriranje
– Frekvenca
– Pozicija (absolutna, relativna)
Položaj
– Orientacija (z referenčnim sistemom ali brez njega)
Spreminjanje:
Čas
– sile v odvisnosti od časa
– vibriranja v odvisnosti od časa
4.2 Vidne kode

Barva in spreminjanje lastnosti v odvisnosti od časa sta najbolj učinkovita načina za opozarjanje, zato

je treba te kode uporabljati z enotnimi pomeni; barve za dajanje prednosti in utripanje za opozarjanje.

Če so operaterji osebe z barvno slepoto, je priporočljivo, da barva ni edini način kodiranja.

Če se pomen barve nanaša na varnost oseb ali okolja (glej 4.2.1.1), je treba zagotoviti dopolnilni način

kodiranja.

Če določeni delovni pogoji ne omogočajo uporabe barv v določeni definiciji, je treba zagotoviti

alternativni način kodiranja z barvami (glej 4.2.2 in nadaljnje podtočke v točki 4).

OPOMBA: "Dopolnilni način kodiranja" pomeni "dodatni način" (npr. poleg kodiranja z barvo tudi z obliko). "Alternativni način

kodiranja" pomeni "nadomestni način" (npr. z obliko namesto kodiranja z barvo).
4.2.1 Kodiranje z barvami

Določenim barvam so pripisani določeni pomeni (glej preglednico 2) in te barve morajo biti brez težav

prepoznane in se morajo razlikovati od barve ozadja in vseh drugih uporabljenih barv. Nekatere barve

morajo biti rezervirane za varnostno uporabo.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 60073 : 2003

Zaradi jasnosti je priporočljivo, da je število barv za posamezno uporabo tolikšno, da še omogoča

praktično izvedljivost.

Zaradi jasnosti ta standard obravnava indikatorje in aktivatorje, pri katerih so uporabljene samo

naslednje barve:
RDEČA, RUMENA, ZELENA, MODRA, ČRNA, SIVA, BELA.

OPOMBA 1: ČRNA barva se uporablja tudi za indikatorje, npr. za simbole na videoprikazovalnikih ali za mehanske indikatorje.

OPOMBA 2: Uporabljajo se lahko tudi dodatne barve (npr. za izpolnitev lokalnih zahtev), vendar njihovega pomena ta standard

ne obravnava.

Poleg barvnega odtenka kot prvotnega načina barvnega kodiranja se lahko podrobnejše informacije v

zvezi z določeno barvo podajo z nasičenostjo barve, sijavostjo ali kontrastom.

Če je kodiranje z barvami edini način kodiranja, koordinate določene barve ne smejo odstopati od

priporočenih mej do konca predvidene življenjske dobe indikatorjev in aktivatorjev v okviru določenih

delovnih pogojev.
Natančne definicije je mogoče najti:
– za barve površine: v ISO 3864;
– za oddajanje svetlobe: v CIE Publikaciji št. 2-2.

OPOMBA 3: Zaznana barva je posledica kombinacije učinkov oddane svetlobe, če ta obstaja (npr. signalna luč), in vpadne

...

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