Study Report on Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical Equipment/Systems in the Frequency Range Below 150 kHz

This Technical Report is based on two Study Reports of CLC/SC 205A, having been worked out by their Task Force EMI [1a][1b] and provides the results and findings of these documents. It was created with the help and input from a broad range of involved stakeholders: network operators, equipment manufacturers, universities, accredited test houses and consultants. Beside the actual standardization situation it reflects the current emission situation found in supply networks and installations and describes electromagnetic interference (EMI) cases from twelve countries; investigation and analysis of the latter show a wide range of different types of electrical devices to be considered as a source or a victim of related EMI. This Technical Report highlights the occurrence of high levels of non-intentional emissions (NIE) in the considered frequency range, including values up to and exceeding the standardized limits for intentional signals from mains communicating systems (MCS), which also implies a high potential to cause EMI to other electrical equipment. On the other hand, several types of equipment show susceptibility to related emissions, being insufficiently immune. The Technical Report addresses the following issues: - a number of different types of electrical equipment are generating such emissions and/or are susceptible, to such, thus representing EMI potential, as a source or a victim of such EMI; - the interaction of electrical equipment in a certain supply area respectively installation, with its complex and volatile impedance character, as having an additional EMI potential; that besides NIE from general electrical equipment and signals from MCS and technically being quite different from emissions; - the fact that besides the conducted interference also radiated interference from NIE or signals from MCS, through the magnetic H-field following to related currents on the mains, is to be considered, what is of some importance also for the interference-free operation of broadcast time-signal systems or electronic circuits controlled by such; - the ageing of electronic components in electric equipment, which causes increased emissions and EMI to other electrical equipment as a result of not showing the same EMC characteristics as before being placed on the market, therefore no longer being able to conform with EMC requirements; - the additional aspect of differential mode operation, which should be considered for related immunity and testing specifications. These findings confirm that EMI in this frequency range is not limited to single types of equipment like inverters or MCS; instead a more general electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem concerning a larger spectrum of electrical equipment is identified. Although a case-by-case mitigation of related EMI cases might be seen as appropriate, the increasing application of technologies and systems with related EMI potential requires a more general solution, through standardization, taking a balanced viewpoint of EMC and economics into account. With regard to the actual standardization situation, a review of the actual EMC and Product standards based on the reported results seems to be advisable. After initiating the work in CLC/SC 205A, the now ongoing work in IEC SC 77A, as well as the publication of a related Technical Report on testing electricity meters [2] by CLC/TC 13 and of the new Immunity testing standard EN 61000-4-19 [99], appear as right steps into the right direction but needing further, extended efforts. As stated on European as well as on international EMC standardization level, the availability of compatibility levels for the considered frequency range appears as a key-requirement for future considerations on setting related emission limits and immunity requirements in various standards. A fundamental basis for the co-existence of intentional signals from MCS and NIE needs to be found.

Studienbericht über elektromagnetische Interferenz zwischen elektrische Betriebsmittel/Systeme im Frequenzbereich unter 150 kHz

Rapport d’étude sur les perturbations électromagnétiques entre les équipements / systèmes électriques entre eux dans la plage des fréquences inférieure à 150 kHZ

Študija elektromagnetnih interferenc med električnimi napravami/sistemi v frekvenčnem območju pod 150 kHz - 2. izdaja

To tehnično poročilo dokumentira obstoječe motnje v električnem omrežju, vključno v prostorih stranke. Zajema izdelke, ki se uporabljajo kot viri emisije, in izdelke, ki so dovzetni zanje, vključno s kumulativnimi učinki in učinki staranja komponent, ki so namenjene zmanjšanju emisij.  Zagotavlja tudi informacije o mehanizmih motenj in trenutnem stanju, kar zadeva standardizacijo. Poročilo je osnovano na rezultatih meritev in primerih elektromagnetnih motenj ter povezanih rezultatih preiskav iz dvanajstih držav, ki vključujejo omrežne operaterje, proizvajalce, univerze, akreditirane preskusne laboratorije in svetovalce.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Nov-2015
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
25-May-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50627:2016
01-januar-2016
âWXGLMDHOHNWURPDJQHWQLKLQWHUIHUHQFPHGHOHNWULþQLPLQDSUDYDPLVLVWHPLY
IUHNYHQþQHPREPRþMXSRGN+]L]GDMD

Study Report on Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical Equipment/Systems in

the Frequency Range Below 150 kHz Ed. 2
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CLC/TR 50627:2015
ICS:
33.100.01 Elektromagnetna združljivost Electromagnetic compatibility
na splošno in general
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50627:2016 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CLC/TR 50627:2016
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SIST-TP CLC/TR 50627:2016
TECHNICAL REPORT CLC/TR 50627
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
November 2015
ICS 33.100.01
English Version
Study Report on Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical
Equipment/Systems in the Frequency Range Below 150 kHz

Rapport d'étude sur les perturbations électromagnétiques Studienbericht über elektromagnetische Interferenz

entre les équipements / systèmes électriques entre eux zwischen elektrische Betriebsmittel/Systeme im

dans la plage des fréquences inférieure à 150 kHZ Frequenzbereich unter 150 kHz
This Technical Report was approved by CENELEC on 2015-11-02.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. CLC/TR 50627:2015 E
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Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

3 The frequency range from 2 kHz to 150 kHz ........................................................................................... 8

3.1 Challenges in terms of EMI ............................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Frequency utilization ....................................................................................................................... 10

3.3 The impact of voltage / current shapes ......................................................................................... 12

3.4 Interaction of equipment ................................................................................................................. 16

4 Emissions, measurement and test results ............................................................................................ 16

4.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 16

4.2 Noise measured in a block of flats ................................................................................................ 17

4.3 Lighting equipment ......................................................................................................................... 17

4.3.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 17

4.3.2 Compact lamps ............................................................................................................................ 17

4.3.3 Fluorescent lamps ....................................................................................................................... 18

4.3.4 LEDs .............................................................................................................................................. 19

4.4 Portable mains powered tools ........................................................................................................ 20

4.5.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 21

4.5.2 Austrian lab tests on inverters ................................................................................................... 22

4.5.3 Active Infeed Converters ............................................................................................................ 22

4.5.4 PV inverters .................................................................................................................................. 24

4.5.5 Italian lab and field measurements ............................................................................................ 25

4.5.6 Power electronics in an Intelligent Distribution Station .......................................................... 27

4.6 Power supplies................................................................................................................................. 28

4.6.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 28

4.6.2 Power supply with PLC signal on DC side ................................................................................ 28

4.6.3 Power supply of a TV receiver .................................................................................................... 28

4.6.5 Power supplies in communication technology ........................................................................ 29

4.7 Other equipment — Rectifier in a cell tower ................................................................................. 31

5 EMI cases, measurement and test results ............................................................................................ 32

5.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 32

5.2 EMI due to conducted emissions ................................................................................................... 33

5.2.1 EMI to lighting equipment ........................................................................................................... 33

5.2.2 EMI to electricity meters ............................................................................................................. 33

5.2.3 EMI to mains communicating systems (MCS) .......................................................................... 34

5.2.4 EMI to medical equipment .......................................................................................................... 50

6 Standardization for the frequency range 2 kHz to 150 kHz. Conformity and time ........................... 57

6.1 Standardization situation ................................................................................................................ 57

6.2 Conformity and time ........................................................................................................................ 62

7 Options for improved safeguarding EMC ............................................................................................. 62

7.1 For equipment / systems in general .............................................................................................. 62

7.1.1 Filter application .......................................................................................................................... 62

7.1.2 Move from PLC to RF .................................................................................................................. 63

7.1.3 Frequency allocation management............................................................................................ 63

7.1.4 Move to broadband lines ............................................................................................................ 64

7.1.5 Notching on transmitter side vs. selectivity on receiver side ................................................. 65

7.2 For PLC in particular — Move to higher frequencies................................................................... 67

8 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 69

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9 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................... 74

Annex A (informative) Acronyms and abbreviations ................................................................................... 77

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 80

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European foreword

This document (CLC/TR 50627:2015) has been prepared by CLC/SC 205A "Mains communicating systems".

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This Technical Report provides useful information for standards related to the following European Mandate(s):

M/441, M/490.

This Technical Report is based on the Study Report “Electromagnetic Interference between Electrical

Equipment / Systems in the Frequency Range below 150 kHz” of SC 205A (SC 205A/Sec0339/R:April 2013)

(second edition) [1b], with some update according to the developments that have taken place since.

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Introduction

In April 2010, CLC/SC 205A published their first Study Report on “Electromagnetic Interference between

Electrical Equipment in the Frequency Range below 150 kHz” [1a]. Related studies had been made and

information gathered due to first cases of EM interference, with Touch-dimmer lamps (TDLs) as an EMI victim,

an inverter as an EMI source, and automated meter reading systems using powerline communication (AMR-

PLC) figuring as EMI victims as well as sources.

Following this first CLC/SC 205A Study Report, its second edition [1b] and, based on it, this Technical Report

aims at:

a) highlighting the broad relevance of recognized electromagnetic interference for safeguarding EMC

also in the frequency range 2 kHz – 150 kHz;
b) extending knowledge about:

1) EMI cases having been observed between electrical equipment in the frequency range

2 kHz to 150 kHz, with an emphasis on interference between:
i) electrical equipment and its non-intentional emissions (NIE);
ii) mains communicating systems (MCS) using (powerline
communication) PLC technology with intentional signal injection for the
transmission of information over the electricity supply network;

2) different mechanisms causing interference to electrical equipment due to non-intentional

or intentional voltage/current components in the considered frequency range;

as a basis for evaluating the need for closing the recognized gap in standardization as highlighted in the

first edition, and considering the recent developments; that:

c) without evaluating certain types of electrical equipment concerning applied technology or priority;

d) and with regard to:

1) problems having occurred with operational equipment of distribution network operators

(DNOs), in particular related to smart metering and smart grids control and monitoring

equipment;

2) complaints by network users to deliverers and subsequently by deliverers to DNOs or by

network users directly to their DNO, about degradation or loss of function of certain

electrical equipment;

3) in both cases network users as well as deliverers are primarily annoyed by the troubles

they are experiencing with electrical equipment they have traded or bought, trusting in its

interference-free operability, which they expect due to the CE mark.
This TR is based on:

e) reports on EMI cases and, following related complaints, investigations performed by an accredited

test house, universities, DNOs, manufacturers and consultants;

f) measurements performed by an accredited test house, universities, DNOs, manufacturers and

consultants. In both cases to extend knowledge of emissions from different equipment in the

considered frequency range, in case of the occurrence of EMI:
1) to identify the actual interference source;
2) to clarify the interference mechanism;
3) to evaluate mitigation measures;
g) the present standardization situation and its actual development.
1) CLC/SC 205A Mains communicating systems.
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1 Scope

This Technical Report is based on two Study Reports of CLC/SC 205A, having been worked out by their Task

Force EMI [1a][1b] and provides the results and findings of these documents. It was created with the help and

input from a broad range of involved stakeholders: network operators, equipment manufacturers, universities,

accredited test houses and consultants.

Beside the actual standardization situation it reflects the current emission situation found in supply networks

and installations and describes electromagnetic interference (EMI) cases from twelve countries; investigation

and analysis of the latter show a wide range of different types of electrical devices to be considered as a

source or a victim of related EMI.

This Technical Report highlights the occurrence of high levels of non-intentional emissions (NIE) in the

considered frequency range, including values up to and exceeding the standardized limits for intentional

signals from mains communicating systems (MCS), which also implies a high potential to cause EMI to other

electrical equipment. On the other hand, several types of equipment show susceptibility to related emissions,

being insufficiently immune.
The Technical Report addresses the following issues:

a number of different types of electrical equipment are generating such emissions and/or are susceptible,

to such, thus representing EMI potential, as a source or a victim of such EMI;

the interaction of electrical equipment in a certain supply area respectively installation, with its complex

and volatile impedance character, as having an additional EMI potential; that besides NIE from general

electrical equipment and signals from MCS and technically being quite different from emissions;

the fact that besides the conducted interference also radiated interference from NIE or signals from MCS,

through the magnetic H-field following to related currents on the mains, is to be considered, what is of

some importance also for the interference-free operation of broadcast time-signal systems or electronic

circuits controlled by such;

the ageing of electronic components in electric equipment, which causes increased emissions and EMI to

other electrical equipment as a result of not showing the same EMC characteristics as before being

placed on the market, therefore no longer being able to conform with EMC requirements;

the additional aspect of differential mode operation, which should be considered for related immunity and

testing specifications.

These findings confirm that EMI in this frequency range is not limited to single types of equipment like

inverters or MCS; instead a more general electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem concerning a larger

spectrum of electrical equipment is identified.

Although a case-by-case mitigation of related EMI cases might be seen as appropriate, the increasing

application of technologies and systems with related EMI potential requires a more general solution, through

standardization, taking a balanced viewpoint of EMC and economics into account. With regard to the actual

standardization situation, a review of the actual EMC and Product standards based on the reported results

seems to be advisable.

After initiating the work in CLC/SC 205A, the now ongoing work in IEC SC 77A, as well as the publication of a

related Technical Report on testing electricity meters [2] by CLC/TC 13 and of the new Immunity testing

standard EN 61000-4-19 [99], appear as right steps into the right direction but needing further, extended

efforts.

As stated on European as well as on international EMC standardization level, the availability of compatibility

levels for the considered frequency range appears as a key-requirement for future considerations on setting

related emission limits and immunity requirements in various standards. A fundamental basis for the co-

existence of intentional signals from MCS and NIE needs to be found.
2 General

When talking about EMI in the frequency range 2 kHz to 150 kHz it is appropriate to highlight the development

of electricity application respectively the use of the electricity supply network during the past decades, which is

characteristic for the today’s given situation; this development has led to:
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a) a thorough increase of comfort in the application of electrical energy, including the realization of

some energy saving effects, in particular through the application of power electronics, and with that,

a somehow changed use of the electricity supply network;

b) the deployment of smart metering, in Europe using in the large majority of cases PLC for data

transmission, with at present:
1) more than 50 m PLC endpoints in Europe, from some ten thousand AMR-PLC in
Austria to 36 m in Italy;
2) an expected amount of such smart meters of around 85 m by 2013, 155 m smart
meters by the end of 2016 and 250 m smart meters by the end of 2020 [3], [4];

3) an intermediate status of related projects from beginning of rollout (Spain) to 99 %

(Italy);

c) a further extended use of the supply network for operational electricity suppliers’ information

transmission purposes, in particular with regard to the intended deployment of smart metering and

smart grid solutions [5], [6], comprising the installation of about 200 m smart meters in the next

5 years – 7 years with a cumulative investment of up to 40 bn € for smart meters and about 280 bn €

for other measures to realize smart grids [7];

that technically accompanied by the superposition of additional voltage components on the practically pure

sine wave of the mains voltage.

As a consequence, dependant on the different types of connected equipment/systems at a certain time,

− apparatus/systems using electric energy;
− distributed generation units (DGU) with its ancillary systems;
− MCS;

the original sine wave of the supply develops towards a somehow different shape, which shall be considered

for its possibly disturbing effect on the operation of electrical equipment; with regard to the different types of

such emissions, figuring as disturbances causing EMI, i.e.
− intentional emissions, i.e. signals;
− non-intentional emissions or
− a combination of both ones;

and following to the cumulative effect of the additional voltage components, for ensuring EMC, the need for

appropriate setting of compatibility levels as well as of emission limits and immunity requirements (see also

[64]) is given.

Apart from the technical aspects, but connected with it to a certain extent, several EU Directives and

Standardization Mandates (see e.g. [5] – [12]) figure as a background for these changes in the use of

electricity supply networks. This has also been expressed by the Communication of the Commission on Smart

Cities and Communities – European Innovation Partnership [13], which aims at catalyzing progress in areas

where energy production, distribution and use, mobility and transport and information and communication

technologies (ICT) are intimately interlinked and offer new interdisciplinary opportunities to improve services;

that mainly with regard to the global energy situation which, exceeding the primary and basic goal of supplying

electrical energy by far, requires measures for ensuring a future-proof energy supply including:

− the efficient use of electrical energy in general;

− increased use of renewable energies, with its ancillary systems for coupling to the supply network,

for decentralized generation;

− improved information to the network user about energy consumption together with actual tariffs as

well as extended information for the energy supplier about the actual operational and quality status

of his network, by extensive information exchange from and to smart meters;
− considerations for the realization of smart grids;

− the realization of appropriate IT infrastructure, as the basis for the aforementioned projects.

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3 The frequency range from 2 kHz to 150 kHz
3.1 Challenges in terms of EMI
2) 3)
Regarding EMC (see definition in the EMCD [14] and the IEV [15]), on principle:

− unintentional emissions from non-mains-communicating equipment / systems (NCE) or communication

equipment, or

− communication signals, both figuring as “emissions” and having some potential for causing EMI, or

− a combination of both ones

shall be considered, according to the classical viewpoint in terms of voltage/current levels, that together with:

− the cumulative effect of voltage components from all emitting equipment connected to a supply

network;

− different proliferation of different types of electric equipment and its different times and durations of

operation;
− utilization of the frequency range below 150 kHz (see also 3.2).

To ensure EMC and to meet the Essential Requirements (ERs) of the EMCD, a balanced co-existence of

appropriately set emission limits, appropriately realized equipment immunity to emissions (non-intentional and

signals) and to the supply network characteristics is necessary (see also [16]).

Besides the numerical values of voltage/current levels, at least for the frequency range 2 kHz – 150 kHz, the

voltage/current shape is a character which has some impact on the sensitivity of electrical equipment to EM

disturbances and should therefore be considered when dealing with EMC requirements for this frequency

range in general and with related immunity in particular (see 3.3).

Depending on the levels of such emissions as well as on the voltage shapes of these emissions, the resulting

modification of the supply voltage’s sine wave through NCE or communication equipment can be followed by:

− degradation of function, maloperation or damage of network users’ or energy suppliers’ equipment;

− degradation of performance of MCS, e.g. AMR-PLC;
− display of wrong meter register values.

Table 1 gives an overview of a somehow more detailed grouping of EMI effects (see also [17] – [19]).

Table 1 — Main groups of EMI effects

(Non-intentional) Emissions from network users’ equipment at or close to frequencies

used for MCS interfere with intentional MCS signals, leading to disturbance or loss of

MCS communication

Multiples of (non-intentional) emissions from network users’ equipment, being close to

frequencies applied for MCS may cause interference with the MCS resulting in failed

communication

Distortion of the supply voltage due to discontinuous (non-intentional) currents/

voltages from network users’ equipment or signal voltages from MCS may lead to
degraded performance or maloperation of network users’ equipment

Network users’ equipment representing a low-impedance path at frequencies used for

MCS lead to an attenuation of the intentional MCS signal which might disturb or
interrupt communication (“shunting effect”)

(Non-intentional) emissions from network users’ equipment or (intentional) MCS signal

voltages may result in somehow higher currents, leading to overheating and
accelerated ageing of components in network users’ equipment
2) Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive.
3) International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.
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For the frequency range 2 kHz – 150 kHz, at first sight, it appeared that mainly touch-dimmer-lamps (TDLs),

inverters and AMR-PLC were involved in related interference [1a]. Anyhow, already in Study Report I,

− EMI cases have been mentioned with other types of equipment having been involved as a source

or victim;

− the assumption has been expressed, that somehow more types of equipment could be needed to

be considered as EMI sources or victims.

Summarizing information having been gathered from 12 countries (AT, BE, DE, FI, FR, GB, HU, IT, JP, NL,

NO, SE) about related measurements and investigations on EMI cases and measurement results being

described in Clauses 4 and 5, Tables 2 and 3 give an overview of types of equipment showing high level

emissions in the related frequency band or having already been recognized as a source or victim of such EMI

(see also [1a], [20 – 23]).
Table 2 — Equipment figuring as a source of EMI, Examples
Inverters (e.g. in PV installations) and variable speed drives (VSD),

(e.g. in elevator drives, ski lift drives, heating system circulation pumps, ventilation

systems, household equipment)
Switch-mode power supplies

(e.g. in lighting equipment, PCs, consumer electronic/home entertainment equipment

(e.g. TV, DVD), ICT equipment, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS),
charging devices)
Lighting equipment
(e.g. fluorescent lamps, compact lamps, LEDs)
Household equipment
(e.g. induction cookers, washing machines, electric shavers)
Portable mains operated tools
AMR-PLC
Table 3 — Equipment figuring as an EMI victim, Examples
AMR-PLC
Solid state meters

Electronic control (e.g. touch-controlled equipment like Touch Dimmer lamps (TDL),

alarm systems, traffic control systems, traffic lights, in heating systems, street

lighting, in urinals, for doors, in kitchen appliances (e.g. steam irons, coffee
machines, ceramic hobs)
Communication systems (e. g. Ethernet-system, ISDN-, ADSL-modems, IP network
branch exchange, routers, LAN)
Telephone systems including inductive train radio systems
Earth leakage circuit breakers (ELB)
Contactless magnetic card readers, credit card terminals
Notebooks (cursor position)
Broadcast standard time-signal systems (e.g. DCF77, Japanese system)
Road vehicle smart keys
TV and radio receivers
Mobile radio
Amateur radio

Tables 2 and 3 may need further amendments in future, following further investigations.

Table 4 provides information about different effects of EMI to certain equipment in the considered frequency

range.

4) Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway,

Sweden.
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Table 4 — Effects of EMI to equipment in the frequency range 2 kHz– 150 kHz, Examples

TDLs Unintentional switching (between light steps, OFF, also ON)
Street lighting Unintentional switch-on and –off
Traffic lights Malfunction
Traffic control system for public Malfunction
transportation buses
Solid state meter Displaying wrong meter register values
MCS Temporary or quasi-permanent loss of data transmission
function
Heat control with time basis through Malfunction
DCF77 signal
Heating systems Incorrect alarms due to sensor faults
Contactless magnetic card reader Malfunction of reading function
ADSL modem Loss of link, CRC error
Routers Loss of synchronization (40, 50 and 70 kHz) to the network
Notebooks Disturbed cursor position (37 kHz)
Inductive Train Radio System Audible noise
Ceramic hobs Incorrect relay switching
Coffee cooker Incorrect control lamp function
Steam irons Insufficient heat, water loss, incorrect control lamp blinking
Washing machines Self-restart (some hours) after end of operation phase
Automatic urinal water control switching to permanent operation

Broadcast standard time-signal Electronic clocks: being fast (gaining up to 15 mins per day),

systems
Malfunction of control circuits fed by the time-signal
TV and radio receiver Audible noise (up to 20 kHz)
...

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