Test methods for the characterization of organic transistors and materials

IEC 62860:2013(E) covers recommended methods and standardized reporting practices for electrical characterization of printed and organic transistors. Due to the nature of printed and organic electronics, significant measurement errors can be introduced if the electrical characterization design-of-experiment is not properly addressed. This standard describes the most common sources of measurement error, particularly for high-impedance electrical measurements commonly required for printed and organic transistors. This standard also gives recommended practices in order to minimize and/or characterize the effect of measurement artifacts and other sources of error encountered while measuring printed and organic transistors. Keywords: electrical characterization, FET, flexible electronics, high impedance, nanocomposite, nanotechnology, OFET, organic electronics, organic transistor, printed electronics, printing, transistor

Vocabulaire Electrotechnique International - Chapitre 411: Machines tournantes

Elle a le statut d'une norme horizontale conformément au Guide 108 de la CEI.

Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar - 411. del: Rotacijski stroji

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Aug-2013
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
05-Aug-2013
Completion Date
05-Aug-2013

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IEC 62860
Edition 1.0 2013-08
IEEE Std 1620
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Test methods for the characterization of organic transistors and materials
IEC 62860:2013(E) IEEE Std. 1620-2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62860
Edition 1.0 2013-08
IEEE Std 1620™
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Test methods for the characterization of organic transistors and materials
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 07.030 ISBN 978-2-8322-1014-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– ii – IEC 62860:2013(E)
IEEE Std 1620-2008
Contents

1. Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................ 1

1.3 Electrical characterization overview .................................................................................................... 2

2. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations .................................................................................................. 3

2.1 Definitions ........................................................................................................................................... 3

2.2 Acronyms and abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 6

3. Standard OFET characterization procedures .............................................................................................. 6

3.1 Device structures ................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2 Guidelines for the OFET characterization process .............................................................................. 7

3.3 Electrical standards .............................................................................................................................. 8

3.4 Reporting data.....................................................................................................................................11

3.5 Environmental control and standards .................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Bibliography ............................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) IEEE List of Participants .......................................................................................... 15

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62860:2013(E) – iii –
IEEE Std 1620-2008
TEST METHODS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC
TRANSISTORS AND MATERIALS
FOREWORD

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Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– iv – IEC 62860:2013(E)
IEEE Std 1620-2008

determination of the validity of any patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely

their own responsibility.
International Standard IEC 62860/IEEE Std 1620™-2008 has been processed through
IEC technical committee 113: Nanotechnology standardization for electrical and
electronic products and systems, under the IEC/IEEE Dual Logo Agreement.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
IEEE Std FDIS Report on voting
1620™-2008 113/184/FDIS 113/194/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.
The IEC Technical Committee and IEEE Technical Committee have decided that the

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A bilingual version of this standard may be issued at a later date.
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62860:2013(E) – v –
IEEE Std 1620-2008
IEEE Standard for Test Methods for
the Characterization of Organic
Transistors and Materials
Sponsor
Microprocessor Standards Committee
of the
IEEE Computer Society
Approved 26 September 2008
IEEE-SA Standards Board
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– vi – IEC 62860:2013(E)
IEEE Std 1620-2008

Abstract: Recommended methods and standardized reporting practices for electrical

characterization of printed and organic transistors are covered. Due to the nature of printed and

organic electronics, significant measurement errors can be introduced if the electrical

characterization design-of-experiment is not properly addressed. This standard describes the

most common sources of measurement error, particularly for high-impedance electrical

measurements commonly required for printed and organic transistors. This standard also gives

recommended practices in order to minimize and/or characterize the effect of measurement

artifacts and other sources of error encountered while measuring printed and organic transistors.

Keywords: electrical characterization, FET, flexible electronics, high impedance, nanocomposite,

nanotechnology, OFET, organic electronics, organic transistor, printed electronics, printing,

transistor
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62860:2013(E) – vii –
IEEE Std 1620-2008
IEEE Introduction

This introduction is not part of IEEE Std 1620-2008, IEEE Standard for Test Methods for the Characterization of

Organic Transistors and Materials.

This standard covers recommended methods and standardized reporting practices for electrical

characterization of organic transistors. Due to the nature of organic transistors, significant measurement

errors can be introduced if not properly addressed. This standard describes the most common sources of

measurement error and gives recommended practices in order to minimize and/or characterize the effect of

each.

Standard reporting practices are included in order to minimize confusion in analyzing reported data.

Disclosure of environmental conditions and sample size are included so that results can be appropriately

assessed by the research community. These reporting practices also support repeatability of results so that

new discoveries may be confirmed more efficiently.

The practices in this standard were compiled from research and industry organizations developing organic

transistor devices, materials, and manufacturing techniques. These practices were based on standard

operating procedures utilized in laboratories worldwide.

This standard was initiated in 2002 to facilitate the evolution of organic transistors from the laboratory into

a sustainable industry. Standardized characterization methods and reporting practices create a means of

effective comparison of information and a foundation for manufacturing readiness.

Notice to users
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Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– viii – IEC 62860:2013(E)
IEEE Std 1620-2008

document together with any amendments, corrigenda, or errata then in effect. In order to determine whether

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Patents

Attention is called to the possibility that implementation of this standard may require use of subject matter

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information may be obtained from the IEEE Standards Association.
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62860:2013(E) – 1 –
IEEE Std 1620-2008
Test Methods for the Characterization
of Organic Transistors and Materials

IMPORTANT NOTICE: This standard is not intended to assure safety, security, health, or

environmental protection in all circumstances. Implementers of the standard are responsible for

determining appropriate safety, security, environmental, and health practices or regulatory

requirements.

This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These

notices and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document and may be found under the

heading “Important Notice” or “Important Notices and Disclaimers Concerning IEEE Documents.”

They can also be obtained on request from IEEE or viewed at http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/

disclaimers.html.
1. Overview
1.1 Scope

This standard describes a method for characterizing organic electronic devices, including measurement

techniques, methods of reporting data, and the testing conditions during characterization.

1.2 Purpose

The purpose of this standard is to provide a method for systematically characterizing organic transistors.

These standards are intended to maximize reproducibility of published results by providing a framework

for testing organic devices, whose unique properties cause measurement issues not typically encountered

with inorganic devices. This standard stresses disclosure of the procedures used to measure data and extract

parameters so that data quality may be easily assessed. This standard also sets guidelines for reporting data,

so that information is clear and consistent throughout the research community and industry.

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62860:2013(E)
IEEE Std 1620-2008
1.3 Electrical characterization overview
1.3.1 Testing apparatus

Testing is performed using an electronic device test system with measurement sensitivity sufficient to give

an accuracy of at least ±0.1% (minimum sensitivity at or better than three orders of magnitude below

expected signal level). For example, the smallest current through an organic transistor is often the gate

−12

leakage current. If gate leakage is approximately 1 pA (10 A), the instrument shall have a resolution of

−15

1 fA (10 A) or smaller. Additionally, due to the large (>1 GΩ) impedances encountered in organic

devices, the input impedance of all elements of the test system shall be at least three orders of magnitude

greater than the highest impedance in the device. Commercial semiconductor systems with the capability to

characterize organic devices typically have input impedance values of 10 Ω, which is a recommended

minimum value.

This test method requires that the instrumentation be calibrated against a known and appropriate set of

standards (e.g., National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST). These calibrations may be

performed by the equipment user or as a service by the equipment vendor. Calibration is not performed

against a known organic field-effect transistor (OFET) or other FET-type device; the basic instrument

operations (e.g., voltage, current, and resistance) are calibrated against some method traceable to a NIST

(or similar internationally recognized standards organization) physical standard. Re-calibration is required

according to the instrument manufacturer’s recommendations or when the instrument is moved or when the

testing conditions change significantly (e.g., temperature change greater than 10 °C, relative humidity

change greater than 30%).
1.3.2 Measurement techniques
1.3.2.1 Required measurements

Characterization of the organic transistor requires at minimum the following two primary sets of

measurements:

 The transfer (I vs. V ) curves, which allow for preliminary determination of field-effect

DS GS
mobility, μ, and threshold voltage, V .

 The I versus V output (I vs. V ) curves that provide saturation and general electrical performance

DS DS

information. This curve is used to determine whether the device exhibits FET-like behavior.

 The gate leakage (I vs. V ) curves that characterize the gate dielectric quality and quantify

GS GS

leakage current from the gate to the channel. Leakage measurements are carried out prior to

transfer or I versus V measurements to ensure gate dielectric integrity before subsequent

measurements are performed. Gate leakage characterization is necessary to ensure that its

magnitude is negligible to the magnitude of the drain current, so that reliable and useful device

characteristics may be measured and key parameters extracted.
1.3.2.2 Recommended measurements
The following additional measurement is strongly recommended:

 The stray capacitance values C and C . Stray capacitance values have a negative effect on

GD GS
device switching speed and may affect device electrical characterization.
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62860:2013(E) – 3 –
IEEE Std 1620-2008
1.3.3 Repeatability and reporting sample size

Sample performance between different devices may vary due to variations in the fabrication process.

Additionally, it is critical to determine how repeatable the reported results are. Therefore, sample size is to

be reported thus:

 If no sample size is reported, it is assumed that the data represents a sample size of a single device

(i.e., may not represent repeatable results).

 For sample sizes larger than one, the sample size is reported with the method of sampling (whether

all devices were characterized, a randomly-chosen fraction of the total sample set, etc.).

A description of what the reported data demonstrates (average values, worst-case, etc.) is also required.

1.3.4 Application of low-noise techniques

Generally, lower absolute gate bias voltages cause smaller stress effects, such as shifts in the threshold

voltage, than higher absolute gate biases. Depending on the device structure, this shifting may be reduced

by ensuring that the device under test is properly grounded. This issue may be further improved if this

grounding is through a low-impedance path to system ground.

In order for comparability between different device structures and eventual compatibility to

nanoelectronics, voltages should be referenced to the corresponding film thickness (V ) and channel length

(V ). Sufficient information is to be given so that electrical fields (V/cm) may be determined. Preferably,

electrical field values are specified.

Due to optical sensitivity of some organic semiconducting materials, all measurements should be conducted

inside a light-insulating enclosure that is preferably earth (safety) grounded. Optical isolation is

recommended if exposure to ambient light causes a change of more than 1% from values obtained in the

dark.

Due to the high impedances and extremely low current values being measured, proximity of personnel,

heavy machinery, or other potential electromagnetic/radiofrequency interference (EMI/RFI) sources should

be maintained as far away from the measurement system while in operation. This is of particular concern

when measured voltages are below 1 mV or when current values are less than 1 μA.
2. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations
2.1 Definitions

For the purposes of this standard, the following terms and definitions apply. The Authoritative Dictionary

of IEEE Standards Terms [B1] should be referenced for terms not defined in this clause.

2.1.1 bottom-contact device: A field-effect transistor structure for which the source and drain electrodes

are located closer to the substrate than the semiconductor. Typically in a bottom-contact device, the source

and drain will be located sandwiched between the gate dielectric and the semiconductor material.

The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex A.
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2008 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62860:2013(E)
IEEE Std 1620-2008

2.1.2 bottom-gate device: A field-effect transistor structure for which the gate electrode is closer (or

adjacent) to the substrate than the channel. Devices that utilize a doped substrate (e.g., doped silicon wafer)

as the gate electrode are generally bottom-gate devices.

2.1.3 bulk: Electrical connection to the substrate, and the corresponding voltage applied. Typically, this

bias is applied only during device test through a ground chuck. Current flow is usually negligible through

the substrate; therefore, in most circumstances no voltage will be applied to the bulk during device

operation. However, negligible current flow must be verified during individual device tests. Since most

OFETs reside on an insulating substrate, the electrical properties of the bulk are typically ignored.

2.1.4 characteristic: I vs. V for a fixed V . See also: output curve.
DS DS GS

2.1.5 C : Capacitance measured between the gate electrode and the drain electrode.

2.1.6 C : Capacitance measured between the gate electrode and the source electrode.

2.1.7 conductance (g ): The slope of the output curve, expressed as
g =

2.1.8 drain: Device electrode whose current flow is controlled by the conductivity of the semiconducting

channel. Typically, the drain electrode is identical physically to the source electrode. The sign of the

voltage at which the drain electrode is biased relative to the source electrode depends on the nature of the

majority carriers. The bias is more positive for electrons and more negative for holes.

2.1.9 dwell time: Duration starting at the point in time when the measurement voltage is applied to the time

when the measurement is recorded. Used to minimize measurement errors due to transient noise.

Alternatively, sweep speed can be adjusted.

2.1.10 earth ground: Safety grounding directly to earth ground connection or instrument frame, typically

separate of system/signal ground. Intended for shielding operator from high voltages and provides

additional noise shielding.

2.1.11 EMI/RFI: Electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference, potential contributor to noise in

measurements.

2.1.12 environmental condition: Real or artificial atmospheric conditions immediately surrounding the

device under test. These values are to be measured as close to the device under test as possible, and

performed in a manner which introduces minimal effect on the test environment.

2.1.13 field-effect mobility: In units of cm /V·s, majority carrier mobility of semiconductor material

derived through transfer curve measurement of fabricated d
...

SLOVENSKI SIST IEC 60050-411:1997
prva izdaja
STANDARD
avg 1997
International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Chapter 411: Rotating machines
ICS 01.040.29; 29.160.01 Referenčna številka
SIST IEC 60050-
411:1997(en,fr,de
...

SL OVENSKI SIST IEC 60050(411)
prva izdaja
STANDARD
oktober 1999
Mednarodni elektrotehniški slov ar - Poglavje 411: Rotacijski stroji
(enakovreden IEC 60050(411):1996)
International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Chapter 411: Rotating machines
Vocabul aire Electrotechnique International - Chapitre 411: Machines tournantes
Inter nationales Elektrotechnisches Wőrterbuch - Kapitel 411: Drehende
Maschinen
Re ferenčna številka
ICS 01.040.29; 29.020 SIST IEC 60050(411):1999 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh od 2 do 119

© Standard je založil in izdal Urad Republike Slovenije za standardizacijo in meroslovje pri Ministrstvu za znanost in tehnologijo.

Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
UVOD

Standard SIST IEC 60050(411), Mednarodni elektrotehniški slovar - Poglavje 411: Rotacijski stroji,

prva izdaja, 1999, ima status slovenskega standarda in je enakovreden mednarodnemu standardu

IEC 60050(411) (en), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Chapter 411: Rotating machines,

1996.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Mednarodni standard IEC 60050(411):1996 je pripravil tehnični odbor Mednarodne elektrotehniške

komisije IEC/TC 1 Terminologija.
Slovenski standard SIST IEC 60050(411):1999 je prevod mednarodnega standarda

IEC 60050(411):1996. V primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je

odločilen izvirni mednarodni standard v angleškem jeziku. Slovensko izdajo standarda je pripravil

tehnični odbor USM/TC TRM (Terminologija).

Odločitev za prevzem tega standarda po metodi prevoda je dne 1996-12-18 sprejel tehnični odbor

USM/TC TRM.
Ta slovenski standard je dne 1999-09-06 odobril direktor USM.
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
- Prevzem standarda IEC 60050(411):1996
OPOMBA
- Uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
VSEBINA Stran

Podpoglavje 411-31: Splošni izrazi .......................................................................................................... 4

Podpoglavje 411-32: Generatorji ............................................................................................................. 7

Podpoglavje 411-33: Motorji .................................................................................................................... 8

Podpoglavje 411-34: Posebni stroji........................................................................................................ 14

Podpoglavje 411-35: Stroji za krmilne sisteme...................................................................................... 17

Podpoglavje 411-36: Označevalni izrazi ................................................................................................ 18

Podpoglavje 411-37: Razvrstitev navitij ................................................................................................. 21

Podpoglavje 411-38: Konstrukcija navitij ............................................................................................... 26

Podpoglavje 411-39: Izolacija ................................................................................................................ 31

Podpoglavje 411-40: Magnetni deli........................................................................................................ 34

Podpoglavje 411-41: Ščetke, držala ščetk, komutatorji, drsni obroči, priključki .................................... 36

Podpoglavje 411-42: Ležaji in mazanje ................................................................................................. 40

Podpoglavje 411-43: Mehanske strukture, montažne ureditve, smer vrtenja........................................ 44

Podpoglavje 411-44: Hlajenje ................................................................................................................ 48

Podpoglavje 411-45: Stopnje zaščite, dosežene z okrovi...................................................................... 52

Podpoglavje 411-46: Spremenljivke stanja (stroja) ...............................................................................52

Podpoglavje 411-47: Karakteristike ....................................................................................................... 54

Podpoglavje 411-48: Karakteristične veličine ........................................................................................ 56

Podpoglavje 411-49: Analitične veličine................................................................................................. 63

Podpoglavje 411-50: Parametri ............................................................................................................. 66

Podpoglavje 411-51: Obremenitev, obratovanje, nazivni podatki.......................................................... 70

Podpoglavje 411-52: Obratovanje.......................................................................................................... 74

Podpoglavje 411-53: Preizkušanje......................................................................................................... 81

Podpoglavje 411-54: Vzbujalni sistem in karakteristike glavnega vzbujalnega navitja.......................... 88

Abecedni seznam slovenskih izrazov .................................................................................................... 90

Abecedni seznam angleških izrazov...................................................................................................... 98

Abecedni seznam francoskih izrazov................................................................................................... 105

Abecedni seznam nemških izrazov...................................................................................................... 113

3
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Poglavje 411: Rotacijski stroji
Podpoglavje 411-31: Splošni izrazi
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
Električna naprava za pretvarjanje energije, ki za
411-31-01 − (električni) rotacijski stroj;
svoje delovanje uporablja elektromagnetno
vrteči se (električni) stroj
indukcijo ter ima dele, ki se lahko med seboj
− (electrical) rotating machine
relativno vrtijo.
− machine (électrique)
tournante
Opomba: Izraz se uporablja tudi za električne naprave,
− drehende (elektrische)
ki delujejo na enakih osnovah in so podobno
zgrajene, uporabljajo pa se za druge
Maschine
namene, npr. za regulacijo, dajanje ali
jemanje jalove moči. Ne uporablja se za
elektrostatične stroje.
411-31-02 − homopolarni stroj Stroj, v katerem magnetno polje po vsej površini
zračne reže prehaja od enega do drugega dela v
homopolar machine
isti smeri.
machine homopolaire
Gleichpolmaschine;
Homopolarmaschine
411-31-03 − unipolarni stroj Enosmerni homopolarni stroj.
− acyclic machine
− machine acyclique
− Unipolarmaschine
Stroj z izraženimi ali neizraženimi poli, ki si
411-31-04 − heteropolarni stroj
sledijo z nasprotno polariteto.
− heteropolar machine
− machine hétéropolaire
− Wechselpolmaschine;
Heteropolarmaschine
Stroj z induktovim navitjem, priključenim prek
411-31-05 − enosmerni stroj
vgrajenega komutatorja na enosmerno omrežje,
− direct current machine;
in z magnetnimi poli, ki so vzbujani z virom
d.c. machine
gladkega ali valovitega enosmernega toka, ali pa
− machine à courant continu
so ti poli trajni magneti.
− Gleichstrommaschine
411-31-06 − izmenični stroj Stroj z induktovim navitjem, ki je namenjeno za
priključitev na izmenično omrežje.
− alternating current machine;
a.c. machine
− machine à courant alternatif
− Wechselstrommaschine
Stroj, pri katerem sta navitji na statorju in rotorju
411-31-07 − stroj z dvojnim napajanjem
napajani iz izmeničnih omrežij.
− double-fed machine
− machine à double
alimentation
− doppeltgespeiste Maschine
Izmenični stroj, pri katerem sta frekvenca
411-31-08 − sinhronski stroj
induciranih napetosti in hitrost vrtenja stroja v
− synchronous machine
stalnem razmerju.
− machine synchrone
− Synchronmaschine
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-31-09 − asinhronski stroj Izmenični stroj, pri katerem frekvenca
priključenega omrežja in hitrost vrtenja pri
− asynchronous machine
obremenitvi nista v stalnem razmerju.
− machine asynchrone
− Asynchronmaschine
Asinhronski stroj, pri katerem je napajano samo
411-31-10 − indukcijski stroj
eno navitje.
− induction machine
− machine à induction
− Induktionsmaschine
411-31-11 − induktorski stroj Sinhronski stroj, pri katerem en del, običajno
stator, nosi induktovo in vzbujalno navitje ali
inductor machine
trajne magnete, ki so primerno medsebojno
machine à réluctance
razporejeni, drugi del, običajno rotor, pa ne nosi
variable
nobenega navitja, ampak določeno število
Induktormaschine
enakomerno razporejenih izraženosti.

411-31-12 − stroj s trajnimi magneti Stroj, pri katerem je vzbujalni sistem sestavljen

iz enega trajnega magneta ali več trajnih
− permanent magnet machine
magnetov.
− machine à aimants
permanents
− Maschine mit
Permanentmagneterregung
411-31-13 − enofazni stroj Stroj za proizvodnjo ali uporabo enofazne
izmenične napetosti in toka.
− single-phase machine
− machine monophasée
− Einphasenmaschine
411-31-14 − večfazni stroj Stroj za proizvodnjo ali uporabo večfaznih
izmeničnih napetosti in tokov.
− polyphase machine
− machine polyphasée
− Mehrphasenmaschine
Stroj, pri katerem poli štrlijo iz magnetnega
411-31-15 − stroj z izraženimi poli
jarma v zračno režo.
− salient pole machine
− machine à pôles saillants
− Schenkelpolmaschine

411-31-16 − stroj z masivnimi poli Stroj z izraženimi poli, ki nima lameliranih polovih

čevljev.
− solid pole shoe machine
− machine à pôles massifs
− Maschine mit massiven
Polschuhen

411-31-17 − stroj s cilindričnim Stroj z valjasto obliko rotorja, ki ima lahko na

obodu utore, v katerih so nameščene stranice
rotorjem
tuljav navitja.
− cylindrical rotor machine
− machine à rotor cylindrique
− Maschine mit Vollpolläufer
Stroj s cilindričnim rotorjem, ki je oblikovan za
411-31-18 − turbinski stroj; turbostroj
visoke obodne hitrosti.
− turbine-type machine
− turbo-machine
Opomba: Izraz se največkrat uporablja za izmenični
− Turbomaschine
generator, tj. turbinski generator oziroma
turbogenerator.
5
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
Stroj z rotorjem v obliki diska in z eno aksialno
411-31-19 − diskasti stroj; kolutni stroj
zračno režo ali z več takšnimi režami .
− disc-type machine
− machine à disque
− Scheibenläufermaschine
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Podpoglavje 411-32: Generatorji
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-32-01 − generator Stroj, ki pretvarja mehansko energijo v
električno.
− generator
− génératrice
− Generator
Generator, ki proizvaja izmenične tokove in
411-32-02 − alternator; izmenični
napetosti.
generator
− alternating current generator;
a.c. generator
− alternateur
− Wechselstromgenerator
Sinhronski generator z dvema podobnima
411-32-03 − dvojno navit sinhronski
induktovima navitjema, ki sta nameščeni na isti
generator; dvonavitni
magnetni strukturi indukta in ki zmoreta napajati
sinhronski generator
dve ločeni omrežji.
− double wound synchronous
generator; double-winding
synchronous generator
(USA)
− alternateur synchrone à
double enroulement
− Zweiwicklungs-
Synchrongenerator

411-32-04 − asinhronski generator Asinhronski stroj, ki je priključen na vir reaktivne

moči in obratuje kot generator.
− induction generator
− génératrice asynchrone;
alternateur asynchrone
− Induktionsgenerator
411-32-05 − vzbujalnik Generator, ki daje vso moč ali samo del te moči
glavnemu vzbujalnemu navitju električnega
− exciter
stroja.
− excitatrice
− Erregermaschine
Opomba: Vzbujalniki so lahko enosmerni ali izmenični
stroji in so del vzbujalnega sistema.
411-32-06 − glavni vzbujalnik Vzbujalnik glavnega električnega stroja ali
strojev.
− main exciter
− excitatrice principale
− Haupterregermaschine
411-32-07 − pomožni vzbujalnik; pilotni Vzbujalnik nekega drugega vzbujalnika.
vzbujalnik
− pilote exciter
− excitatrice pilote
− Hilfserregermaschine
7
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Podpoglavje 411-33: Motorji
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-33-01 − motor Stroj, ki pretvarja električno energijo v mehansko
energijo.
− motor
− moteur
− Motor
Motor, ki se napaja z enosmernim tokom ali z
411-33-02 − univerzalni motor
enofaznim izmeničnim tokom običajne omrežne
− universal motor
frekvence.
− moteur universel
− Universalmotor
Sinhronski motor z izraženimi poli, ki nosi v
411-33-03 − sinhronski motor s kletko
polovih čevljih kratkostično kletko za zagon.
− cage synchronous motor
− moteur synchrone à cage
− Synchronmotor mit
Käfigwicklung

411-33-04 − sinhronizirani asinhronski Sinhronski motor s cilindričnim rotorjem in

sekundarnim porazdeljenim tuljavičnim navitjem,
motor
ki je podobno navitju pri asinhronskem motorju z
− synchronous induction motor
drsnimi obroči, in se uporablja za zagon in
− moteur asynchrone
vzbujanje.
synchronisé
− synchronisierter
Induktionsmotor
411-33-05 − reluktančni motor Sinhronski motor z nevzbujenim rotorjem,
vendar z enakomerno razporejenimi
− reluctance motor
izraženostmi na rotorju, ki nosi zagonsko
− moteur à réluctance
kratkostično kletko ali pa je ne nosi.
− Reluktanzmotor

411-33-06 − podsinhronski reluktančni Reluktančni motor z rotorjem, na katerem je

število izraženosti, ki učinkujejo kot izraženi poli,
motor
večje od števila polov, ki jih oblikuje primarno
− subsynchronous reluctance
statorsko navitje. To povzroči, da se motor vrti s
motor
stalno povprečno hitrostjo, ki je enaka količniku
− moteur à réluctance
prave sinhronske hitrosti s celoštevilčnim
subsynchrone
imenovalcem (submultiplu prave sinhronske
− untersynchroner
hitrosti).
Reluktanzmotor

411-33-07 − asinhronski motor s kletko Asinhronski motor z eno sekundarno kletko, ali

več sekundarnimi kletkami.
− cage induction motor; squirrel
cage induction motor (USA)
− moteur asynchrone à cage
(d'écureuil); moteur à
induction à cage
− Käfigläufer-Induktionsmotor
Asinhronski motor z enim sekundarnim
411-33-08 − asinhronski motor z
tuljavičnim navitjem, ali več sekundarnimi
navitim rotorjem
tuljavičnimi navitji.
− wound-rotor induction motor
− moteur asynchrone à rotor
bobiné
− Induktionsmotor mit
gewickeltem Läufer
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
Asinhronski motor z navitim rotorjem, ki ima
411-33-09 − asinhronski motor z
sekundarno navitje priključeno na drsne obroče.
drsnimi obroči
− slip-ring induction motor
− moteur asynchrone à bagues
− Schleifring-Induktionsmotor
Asinhronski motor z navitim rotorjem, ki ima eno
411-33-10 − asinhronski motor z
sekundarno navitje ali več sekundarnih navitij
vgrajenim rotorskim
vezanih neposredno na vgrajeno zagonsko
zaganjalnikom
napravo v rotorju.
− brushless wound-rotor
induction motor
− moteur à démarreur rotorique
incorporé
− bürstenloser Induktionsmotor
mit gewickeltem Läufer
411-33-11 − histerezni motor Sinhronski motor z gladkim valjastim delom iz
magnetnega materiala brez vzbujalnega navitja,
hysteresis motor
ki se zažene zaradi induciranih histereznih izgub
moteur à hystérésis
v tem delu in ki nato zaradi magnetne
Hysteresemotor
remanence tega dela deluje s sinhronsko
hitrostjo.

411-33-12 − motor z zasenčenimi poli; Enofazni asinhronski motor, ki ima eno pomožno

navitje ali več pomožnih navitij v kratkem stiku in
motor z razcepljenimi poli
ki so magnetno odmaknjena od glavnega
− shaded pole motor
navitja. Vsa ta navitja so nameščena na jedru
− moteur à bague de
primarnega dela, navadno na statorju.
déphasage
− Spaltpolmotor
411-33-13 − motor s pomožno fazo Enofazni asinhronski motor s pomožnim
tokokrogom, ki je vezan vzporedno z glavnim
− split-phase motor
navitjem. Ta tokokrog ima pomožno navitje, ki je
− moteur à enroulement
magnetno odmaknjeno od glavnega navitja in
auxiliaire de démarrage
mu je prirejen fazni premik med tokoma v
− Einphasenmotor mit
glavnem in pomožnem navitju.
Hilfswicklung
Opomba: Običajno se pomožni tokokrog prekine, ko
motor doseže primerno hitrost vrtenja.
Motor s pomožno fazo, pri katerem je fazni
411-33-14 − motor z uporovno
premik dosežen z dodatno upornostjo v
pomožno fazo
tokokrogu pomožne faze. Ta dodatna upornost
− resistance start split phase
je lastna (inherentna) pomožnemu navitju ali pa
motor
je dodana kot ločen zaporedno vezan upor.
− moteur à enroulement
auxiliaire et résistence de
démarrage
− Einphasenmotor mit
Hilfswicklung und Widerstand
9
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-33-15 − motor z dušilko in Motor z zagonsko pomožno fazo, pri katerem je
fazni premik dosežen z dodatno induktivnostjo
pomožno fazo
(dušilko) v tokokrogu glavne faze. Dušilka se
− reactor start split phase
veže na kratko ali se dezaktivira na kak drug
motor
način, ko se prekine pomožni tokokrog.
− moteur à enroulement
auxiliaire et réactance de
démarrage
− Einphasenmotor mit
Hilfswicklung und
Drosselspule
Motor s pomožno fazo, pri katerem je fazni
411-33-16 − kondenzatorski motor
premik dosežen z zaporedno vezanim
− capacitor motor
kondenzatorjem v pomožnem tokokrogu.
− moteur à condensateur
− Kondensatormotor
411-33-17 − motor z zagonskim Kondenzatorski motor, pri katerem je pomožni
tokokrog priključen samo med zagonom.
kondenzatorjem
capacitor start motor
moteur à démarrage par
condensateur
Motor mit
Anlaufskondensator
411-33-18 − motor z obratovalnim Kondenzatorski motor, pri katerem je pomožni
tokokrog priključen med zagonom in med trajnim
kondenzatorjem
obratovanjem.
− capacitor start and run motor;
permanent split capacitor
motor (USA)
− moteur à condensateur
permanent
− Motor mit
Betriebskondensator
Motor z obratovalnim kondenzatorjem, ki deluje
411-33-19 − dvokondenzatorski motor
z dvema kapacitivnostma, eno pri zagonu in
− two-value capacitor motor
drugo pri trajnem obratovanju.
− moteur à condensateur à
deux capacités
− Motor mit Anlauf- und
Betriebskondensator
Izmenični motor, pri katerem je večfazno
411-33-20 − večfazni komutatorski
induktovo navitje napajano prek komutatorja.
motor
− polyphase commutator motor
− moteur à collecteur polyphasé
− Mehrphasen-
Kommutatormotor
411-33-21 − enofazni komutatorski Izmenični motor, pri katerem je enofazno
induktovo navitje napajano prek komutatorja.
motor
− single phase commutator
motor
− moteur à collecteur
monophasé
− Einphasen-Kommutatormotor
10
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-33-22 − Schragejev motor Večfazni motor z dvema navitjema na rotorju,
eno navitje dobiva tok iz napajalnega omrežja
− Schrage motor
prek drsnih obročev, drugo navitje pa je zvezano
− moteur Schrage
s komutatorjem. Komutator nosi dve nastavljivi
− Schrage-Motor
skupini ščetk, prek katerih se z nastavljivimi
napetostmi napajajo ločena statorska fazna
navitja, da se dosežejo spremembe hitrosti
vrtenja in spremembe jalove moči iz napajalnega
omrežja.
411-33-23 − repulzijski motor Enofazni indukcijski motor s primarnim navitjem
na statorju, ki je priključeno na napajalno
− repulsion motor
omrežje, in s sekundarnim navitjem na rotorju, ki
− moteur à répulsion
je vezano na komutator, katerega ščetke so
− Repulsionsmotor
vezane v kratek stik in so nameščene tako, da
se lahko spreminja njihova kotna lega.
411-33-24 − Derijev motor Repulzijski motor z dvema skupinama ščetk, od
katerih je ena skupina nepremična, druga pa
− Deri motor
premična.
− moteur Deri
− Deri-Motor

411-33-25 − kompenzirani repulzijski Repulzijski motor, ki ima primarno navitje na

statorju zaporedno vezano z navitjem na rotorju
motor
prek druge skupine ščetk na komutatorju, da se
− compensated repulsion
izboljšata faktor moči in komutacija.
motor
− moteur à répulsion compensé
− kompensierter
Repulsionsmotor
Repulzijski motor, ki ima ščetke vezane na
411-33-26 − asinhronski motor z
kratko ali kako drugače, da pri primerni hitrosti
repulzijskim zagonom
vrtenja učinkujejo kot kratkostična kletka.
− repulsion start induction
motor
− moteur à induction à
démarrage par répulsion
− Induktionsmotor mit
Repulsionsanlauf

411-33-27 − repulzijski asinhronski Repulzijski motor z dodatno kratkostično kletko.

motor
− repulsion induction motor
− moteur à induction et
répulsion
− Repulsions-Induktionsmotor

411-33-28 − zaganjalnik; zaganjalni Pomožni motor, ki olajša zagon in pospeševanje

glavnega stroja, s katerim je mehansko
motor
sklopljen.
− starting motor
− moteur de démarrage
− Anlauf-Hilfsmotor
Motor z rotorjem, ki ima obliko prisekanega
411-33-29 − motor s koničnim rotorjem
stožca.
− conical rotor motor
− moteur à rotor conique
− Motor mit konischem Läufer
11
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
Motor, ki je oblikovan, naveden v seznamu in
411-33-30 − motor za splošno uporabo;
ponujen v standardiziranih velikostih s takimi
navadni motor
obratovalnimi karakteristikami in mehanično
− general purpose motor
konstrukcijo, da je primeren za delo v običajnih
− moteur à usage général
pogojih obratovanja brez omejitev za posebno
− Motor für allgemeine
uporabo ali vrsto uporabe.
Anwendung
411-33-31 − motor za določeno Motor, ki je oblikovan, naveden v seznamu in
ponujen v standardiziranih velikostih s takimi
uporabo; namenski motor
obratovalnimi karakteristikami ali mehanično
− definite purpose motor
konstrukcijo ali obojim, da je primeren za delo pri
− moteur à usage déterminé
posebni uporabi ali vrsti uporabe.
− Motor für bestimmte
Anwendungen
Motor s posebnimi lastnostmi ali posebno
411-33-32 − motor za posebno
konstrukcijo ali z obojim, ki je oblikovan za
uporabo; posebni motor
posebno izbrano uporabo in ne spada pod
− special purpose motor
definicijo motorja za splošno uporabo in motorja
− moteur à usage spécial
za določeno uporabo.
− Motor für
Spezialanwendungen
411-33-33 − motor s standardnimi Motor s takšnimi pritrdilnimi merami, da je
mehanično kot celota zamenljiv s katerimkoli
pritrdilnimi merami
drugim motorjem enake velikosti in enakimi
− motor with standardized
specifikacijami.
mounting dimensions
− moteur de dimensions de
fixations normalisées
− Motor mit genormten
Anbaumaßen
411-33-34 − mali motor Motor, pri katerem nazivna moč ne preseže
1,1 kW pri 1500 vrtljajih na minuto.
− small power motor
− moteur de faible puissance
− Kleinmotor
Motor z lastno stalno ali skoraj stalno hitrostjo pri
411-33-35 − motor s stalno hitrostjo
normalnih obremenitvah.
− constant speed motor
− moteur à vitesse constante
− Motor mit konstanter
Drehzahl
Motor, pri katerem se pri normalnih
411-33-36 − motor s spremenljivo
obremenitvah hitrost vrtenja bistveno spreminja.
hitrostjo
− varying speed motor
− moteur à vitesse variable
− Motor mit veränderlicher
Drehzahl
411-33-37 − večhitrostni motor Motor, ki lahko obratuje s katerokoli od dveh ali
več hitrosti, določenih za dane obremenitve.
− multi-speed motor
− moteur à plusieurs vitesses
− Motor mit mehreren
Drehzahlen
12
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-33-38 − motor z več stalnimi Večhitrostni motor, ki ima pri normalnih
obremenitvah dve določeni lastni hitrosti stalni ali
hitrostmi
skoraj stalni ali je več določenih lastnih hitrosti
− multi constant speed motor
stalnih ali skoraj stalnih,.
− moteur à plusieurs vitesses
constantes
− Motor mit mehreren
konstanten Drehzahlen
Večhitrostni motor, pri katerem se pri normalnih
411-33-39 − motor z več spremenljivimi
obremenitvah dve določeni lastni hitrosti ali več
hitrostmi
določenih lastnih hitrosti bistveno spreminja.
− multi varying speed motor
− moteur à plusieurs vitesses
variables
− Motor mit mehreren
veränderlichen Drehzahlen
411-33-40 − motor z nastavljivo Motor, pri katerem se lahko v določenem
območju hitrost nastavi na katerokoli vrednost.
hitrostjo
adjustable speed motor
moteur à vitesse réglable
Motor mit stellbarer Drehzahl

411-33-41 − motor z nastavljivo stalno Motor z nastavljivo hitrostjo, ki se pri vsaki

nastavljeni hitrosti obnaša kot motor s stalno
hitrostjo
hitrostjo.
− adjustable constant speed
motor
− moteur à vitesse réglable et
constante
− Motor mit stellbaren
konstanten Drehzahlen
Motor z nastavljivo hitrostjo, ki se pri vsaki
411-33-42 − motor z nastavljivo
nastavljeni hitrosti obnaša kot motor s
spremenljivo hitrostjo
spremenljivo hitrostjo.
− adjustable varying speed
motor
− moteur à vitesse réglable et
variable
− Motor mit stellbaren
veränderlichen Drehzahlen
13
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Podpoglavje 411-34: Posebni stroji
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-34-01 − električni dinamometer Električni stroj, ki je opremljen za merjenje
navora in dodatno za merjenje hitrosti, če se
− electrical dynamometer
uporablja za merjenje moči.
− couplemètre ou torsiomètre
électrique
− elektrisches Dynamometer;
Pendelmaschine
Stroj, ki je vključen v tokokrog tako, da se
411-34-02 − napetostni dodajalnik;
njegova napetost dodaja ali odvzema napetosti
buster
drugega vira.
− booster
− survolteur (dévolteur)
− Zusatzmaschine; Booster
Sinhronski stroj, ki teče brez mehanske
411-34-03 − sinhronski kompenzator
obremenitve in izmenjuje z omrežjem reaktivno
− synchronous compensator
(jalovo) moč.
− compensateur synchrone
− synchrone
Blindleistungsmaschine;
Phasenschieber

411-34-04 − pretvorniški sklop; Sklop, ki je sestavljen iz enega ali več motorjev,

mehansko sklopljenih z enim ali več generatorji.
motorgenerator
− motor generator set
− groupe convertisseur
− Umformersatz;
Motorgenerator
411-34-05 − enokotveni pretvornik Stroj s samo enim induktovim navitjem, ki je
vezano na komutator in na drsne obroče ter se
− rotary convertor
uporablja za pretvarjanje izmeničnih tokov v
− commutatrice
enosmerne in obratno.
− Einankerumformer
411-34-06 − kaskadni pretvornik Kombinacija asinhronskega motorja in
enokotvenega pretvornika na skupni gredi, kjer
− motor convertor
teče rotorski tok motorja skozi induktovo navitje
− convertisseur en cascade
enokotvenega pretvornika.
− Kaskadenumformer
Stroj, ki pretvarja električno energijo ene
411-34-07 − frekvenčni pretvornik
frekvence v električno energijo druge frekvence.
− (rotating) frequency convertor
− convertisseur de fréquence
(tournant)
− (drehender)
Frequenzumformer
411-34-08 − komutatorski frekvenčni Večfazni stroj, ki ima na rotorju vezano eno
navitje ali sta dve navitji vezani na skupino
pretvornik
drsnih obročev in na komutator tako, da se pri
− commutator type frequency
napajanju ene skupine ščetk z napetostjo dane
convertor
frekvence dobi na drugi skupini ščetk napetost
− convertisseur de fréquence à
druge frekvence.
collecteur
− Kommutator-Frequenz-
umformer
14
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SIST IEC 60050(411) : 1999
Izraz v slovenščini
Zap. št. Izraz v angleščini Definicija
Izraz v francoščini
Izraz v nemščini
411-34-09 − frekvenčni pretvorniški Pretvorniški sklop, ki pretvarja električno
energijo ene frekvence v električno energijo
sklop
druge frekvence.
− frequency changer set
− groupe convertisseur de
fréquence
− Frequenzumformer-
-Maschinensatz
Asinhronski (indukcijski) stroj z navitim rotorjem,
411-34-10 − indukcijski frekvenčni
pri katerem se pretvorba frekvence doseže z
pretvornik
indukcijo med primarnim in sekundarnim
− induction frequency convertor
navitjem, ki se vrtita drugo proti drugemu. Pri
− convertisseur de fréquence à
tem sekundarno navitje oddaja moč s frekvenco,
induction
ki je proporcionalna relativni hitrosti med
− Drehfeldumformer;
primarnim vrtilnim magnetnim poljem in delom,
Induktionsfrequenzumformer
ki nosi sekundarno navitje.
Stroj z nepremičnim vhodnim navitjem,
411-34-11 − induktorski frekvenčni
napajanim z izmeničnim tokom, ki vzbuja
pretvornik
magnetno polje, in z nepremičnim izhodnim
− inductor frequency convertor
navitjem različnega števila polov, v katerem se
− convertisseur de fréquence à
napetost izhodne frekvence inducira zaradi
réluctance variable
sprememb reluktance magnetnega polja, ki jih
− Induktor-Frequenzumformer
povzročijo enakomerno razporejene izraženosti
na rotorju.

411-34-12 − (vrteči se) fazni pretvornik Stroj, ki pri prenosu električne energije spremeni

število faz.
− (rotating) phase convertor
− convertisseur de phase
(tournant)
− (drehender)
Phasenumformer
411-34-13 − električna sklopka Stroj, ki prenaša navor z ene gredi na drugo
gred na elektromagnetni ali magnetni način.
− electric coupling
− accouplement électrique
Opomba: Relativno hitrost dveh gredi je treba krmiliti.
− elektrische Kupplung
Električna sklopka, pri kateri se navor prenaša z
411-34-14 − indukcijska sklopka
interakcijo med magnetnim poljem, ki ga
− induction coupling
vzbudijo magnetni poli enega vrtečega se de
...

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