Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems - Part 5-3: Safety requirements - Functional, electrical and environmental requirements for encoders

IEC 61800-5-3:2021, which is a product standard, specifies requirements and makes recommendations for the design and development, integration and validation of safety-related encoder (Encoder(SR)) in terms of their functional safety considerations, electrical safety and environmental conditions. It applies to Encoder(SR), being sensors as part of a PDS(SR). This document can also be referred to and used for Encoder(SR) in any other safety-related application, for example safety-related position monitoring.
This document is applicable where functional safety of an encoder is claimed and the Encoder(SR) is operating mainly in the high demand or continuous mode. The requirements of IEC 61800-5-2:2016 for PDS(SR) apply to Encoder(SR) as applicable.
This document includes additional or different requirements for Encoder(SR). It sets out safety-related considerations of Encoder(SR) in terms of the framework of IEC 61508 (all parts), and introduces requirements for Encoder(SR) as subsystems of a safety-related system. It is intended to facilitate the realisation of the electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) and mechanical parts of an Encoder(SR) in relation to the safety performance of safety sub-function(s) of an Encoder(SR).

Entraînements électriques de puissance à vitesse variable - Partie 5-3: Exigences de sécurité - Exigences fonctionnelle, électrique et environnementale pour codeurs

L'IEC 61800-5-3:2021, qui est une norme de produit, spécifie des exigences et donne des recommandations pour la conception et le développement, l'intégration et la validation des codeurs relatifs à la sécurité (codeurs(SR)), au regard de leur sécurité fonctionnelle, de leur sécurité électrique et des conditions d'environnement. Elle s'applique aux codeurs(SR) qui sont des capteurs qui font partie d'un PDS(SR). Le présent document peut également servir de référence et être utilisé pour les codeurs(SR) dans le cadre de toute autre application relative à la sécurité, par exemple la surveillance de position relative à la sécurité.
Le présent document est applicable lorsque la sécurité fonctionnelle d'un codeur est revendiquée et que le codeur(SR) fonctionne principalement en mode à sollicitation élevée ou en mode continu.
Les exigences de l'IEC 61800-5-2:2016 concernant les PDS(SR) s'appliquent aux codeurs(SR), selon le cas. Le présent document comprend des exigences supplémentaires ou différentes pour les codeurs(SR). Il expose des considérations relatives à la sécurité des codeurs(SR), prises dans le cadre de l'IEC 61508 (toutes les parties), et présente des exigences pour les codeurs(SR) en tant que sous-systèmes d'un système relatif à la sécurité. Il est destiné à faciliter la réalisation des parties électriques/électroniques/électroniques programmables (E/E/PE) d'un codeur(SR) en liaison avec la performance de sécurité d'une ou de plusieurs sous-fonctions de sécurité d'un codeurs(SR)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Feb-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
23-Feb-2021
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IEC 61800-5-3
Edition 1.0 2021-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems –
Part 5-3: Safety requirements – Functional, electrical and environmental
requirements for encoders
Entraînements électriques de puissance à vitesse variable –
Partie 5-3: Exigences de sécurité – Exigences fonctionnelle, électrique et
environnementale pour codeurs
IEC 61800-5-3:2021-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61800-5-3
Edition 1.0 2021-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems –
Part 5-3: Safety requirements – Functional, electrical and environmental
requirements for encoders
Entraînements électriques de puissance à vitesse variable –
Partie 5-3: Exigences de sécurité – Exigences fonctionnelle, électrique et
environnementale pour codeurs
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.110; 29.130.99; 29.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-9400-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61800-5-3:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 11

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 12

4 Safety sub-functions ...................................................................................................... 20

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

4.2 Safe incremental position (SIP) ............................................................................. 20

4.3 Safe absolute position (SAP) ................................................................................ 20

4.4 Safe speed value (SSV) ........................................................................................ 20

4.5 Safe acceleration value (SAV) .............................................................................. 20

4.6 Safety sub-functions for evaluation and signalling ................................................. 21

5 Management of functional safety ................................................................................... 21

6 Requirements for design and development .................................................................... 21

6.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 21

6.2 Design standards .................................................................................................. 25

6.3 Fault detection ...................................................................................................... 25

6.4 Design requirements for specific types of Encoder(SR) ......................................... 26

6.4.1 Design requirements for Encoder(SR) with sine and cosine output

signals ........................................................................................................... 26

6.4.2 Design requirements for Encoder(SR) with incremental and absolute

output signals ................................................................................................ 27

6.4.3 Design requirements for Encoder(SR) with square wave signal interface ....... 28

6.4.4 Design requirements for Resolver .................................................................. 28

6.5 Design requirements regarding mechanics ............................................................ 29

6.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

6.5.2 Design requirements for mechanical fastenings ............................................. 29

6.5.3 Design requirements for mechanical connecting elements ............................. 29

6.5.4 Bearings ........................................................................................................ 29

6.6 Design requirements for signal generation ............................................................ 30

6.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 30

6.6.2 Design requirements for signal generation of optical Encoder(SR) ................. 30

6.6.3 Design requirements for signal generation of magnetic Encoder(SR) ............. 30

6.7 Design requirements for signal processing ............................................................ 31

6.8 Design requirements for internal evaluation and signaling ..................................... 31

6.9 Design requirements for software .......................................................................... 31

6.10 Pre-setting ............................................................................................................ 31

6.11 Parameterization ................................................................................................... 31

6.12 Design requirements for thermal immunity ............................................................ 31

6.13 Design requirements for mechanical immunity ...................................................... 31

6.14 Design requirements for integrated connection cables .......................................... 31

7 Information for use ........................................................................................................ 32

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32

7.2 Labels ................................................................................................................... 32

7.3 Information and instructions for safe application of an Encoder(SR) ...................... 32

8 Verification and validation .............................................................................................. 32

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IEC 61800-5-3:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32

8.2 Verification of hardware fault tolerance ................................................................. 32

8.3 Additional verification for Encoder(SR) with sine and cosine output signals........... 32

8.3.1 Verification of diagnostic measures for Encoder(SR) with sine and

cosine output signals with HFT = 0 ................................................................ 32

8.3.2 Suitability for interpolation ............................................................................. 32

8.4 Qualitative FMEDA ............................................................................................... 33

8.5 Quantification........................................................................................................ 34

9 Test requirements .......................................................................................................... 34

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

9.2 Planning of tests ................................................................................................... 34

9.3 Functional testing ................................................................................................. 34

9.4 Electromagnetic (EM) and electrical immunity testing ............................................ 34

9.4.1 Electrical tests ............................................................................................... 34

9.4.2 Electromagnetic (EM) immunity testing .......................................................... 35

9.5 Thermal immunity testing ...................................................................................... 35

9.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

9.5.2 Dry cold ......................................................................................................... 35

9.5.3 Dry heat ........................................................................................................ 35

9.5.4 Damp heat ..................................................................................................... 36

9.5.5 Temperature rise test .................................................................................... 36

9.6 Mechanical immunity testing ................................................................................. 36

9.6.1 Clearances and creepage distances .............................................................. 36

9.6.2 Short-circuit testing of printed wiring boards .................................................. 36

9.6.3 Mechanical fastenings ................................................................................... 36

9.6.4 Mechanical connecting elements ................................................................... 36

9.6.5 Vibration and shock test ................................................................................ 37

9.6.6 Mechanical properties of integrated connecting cables .................................. 38

9.6.7 Testing the non-touchability ........................................................................... 38

9.6.8 Deformation testing ....................................................................................... 38

9.7 Material tests ........................................................................................................ 38

9.8 Suitability of the components and materials used .................................................. 38

9.9 Contamination of solid measure ............................................................................ 39

9.10 Labels ................................................................................................................... 39

9.11 Instructions ........................................................................................................... 39

9.12 Test documentation .............................................................................................. 39

10 Modification ................................................................................................................... 39

Annex A (informative) Types of Encoder(SR) ....................................................................... 40

Annex B (informative) Universal architecture of Encoder(SR) ............................................... 43

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 43

B.2 The universal Encoder(SR) architecture ................................................................ 43

Annex C (informative) Examples of suitable mechanical tests for rotary Encoder(SR) .......... 44

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 44

C.2 Mechanical fastening of the Encoder(SR) ............................................................. 44

C.2.1 Force-locked connection (e.g. by bolted joints) .............................................. 44

C.2.2 Form-locked connection (e.g. by feather key) ................................................ 44

C.3 Mechanical connecting elements of the Encoder(SR) – Stator coupling

(torque support) or shaft-rotor coupling ................................................................. 45

C.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 45

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– 4 – IEC 61800-5-3:2021 © IEC 2021

C.3.2 Axial loads ..................................................................................................... 45

C.3.3 Radial loads .................................................................................................. 45

Annex D (informative) Extended shock testing for rotary Encoder(SR) mounted to

motors .................................................................................................................................. 47

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 47

D.2 Pseudo-velocity shock-response spectrum (PVSRS) ............................................. 47

D.3 Verification of resilience ........................................................................................ 47

D.4 Testing machine ................................................................................................... 48

Annex E (informative) Dimensioning of clearances and creepage distances on printed

wiring boards – Example ....................................................................................................... 50

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 50

E.2 Assumptions ......................................................................................................... 50

E.3 Application of IEC 61800-5-1:2007, 5.2.2.1 ........................................................... 50

Annex F (normative) Information and instructions – Detailed list .......................................... 51

F.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 51

F.2 Detailed list ........................................................................................................... 51

Annex G (informative) Encoder(SR) fault lists and fault exclusions ...................................... 54

Annex H (informative) Quantification .................................................................................... 58

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 58

H.2 Safety architecture and safety-related block diagram ............................................ 58

H.3 Failure rates ......................................................................................................... 59

H.4 Failure rates at realistic working temperatures ...................................................... 60

H.5 Quantitative FMEDA and assessment of diagnostic measures .............................. 61

H.6 Estimation of the common cause factor β (only in case of redundancy) ................. 62

H.7 Estimation of the PFH ........................................................................................... 62

H.8 Safe failure fraction (SFF) ..................................................................................... 62

H.9 Determination of the quantitative SIL capability ..................................................... 63

H.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 63

H.9.2 SIL limit by architectural constraints .............................................................. 63

H.9.3 SIL limit by PFH ............................................................................................. 63

H.10 Additional considerations to comply with ISO 13849-1 .......................................... 64

H.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 64

H.10.2 MTTF of a channel ....................................................................................... 64

H.10.3 Determination of the quantitative category capability ..................................... 64

H.10.4 Determination of the quantitative PL-capability .............................................. 64

Annex I (informative) Digital processing of sine/cosine signals ............................................. 65

I.1 General ................................................................................................................. 65

I.2 Sampling of sine and cosine signals ..................................................................... 65

I.3 Consequences ...................................................................................................... 66

I.4 Measures to improve DC ....................................................................................... 67

Annex J (informative) Single channel architecture with ideal fault detection ......................... 68

J.1 General ................................................................................................................. 68

J.2 Ideal fault detection for Encoder(SR) with sine and cosine output signals ............. 68

Annex K (informative) Specifics for single channel incremental Encoder(SR) with sine

and cosine output signals ..................................................................................................... 70

K.1 General ................................................................................................................. 70

K.2 Single-fault tolerance ............................................................................................ 70

K.3 Undetectable faults ............................................................................................... 70

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IEC 61800-5-3:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

K.4 Fault detection (DC) .............................................................................................. 70

Annex L (normative) Static analysis of signal evaluation and fault detection ........................ 72

L.1 General ................................................................................................................. 72

L.2 Motivation for the analysis of signal evaluation and fault detection ........................ 72

L.3 What does "static analysis of signal processing" mean? ........................................ 72

L.4 Standard test signals ............................................................................................ 76

L.4.1 Make test signal available (step 1) ................................................................. 76

L.4.2 Test signal 1 .................................................................................................. 79

L.4.3 Test signal 2 .................................................................................................. 79

L.4.4 Test signal 3 .................................................................................................. 80

L.4.5 Test signal 4 .................................................................................................. 80

L.4.6 Test signal 5 .................................................................................................. 81

L.5 Simulation of signal processing to specification .................................................... 81

L.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 81

L.5.2 Form differential signals (step 2).................................................................... 83

L.5.3 Form square-wave signals to specification (Schmitt trigger, step 3) ............... 83

L.5.4 Perform specified diagnostics (step 4) ........................................................... 83

L.6 Assessment of the signal processing specification ................................................ 84

L.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 84

L.6.2 Assessment concept for the signal processing specification .......................... 85

L.7 FMEDA Encoder(SR) for verification of the diagnostic coverage ........................... 88

L.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 88

L.7.2 Explanation of the problem ............................................................................ 88

L.7.3 Procedure for FMEDA .................................................................................... 90

L.8 List of variables used for performing static analysis .............................................. 92

L.9 MS Excel tool for performance of static analysis ................................................... 93

Annex M (informative) Aspects of diagnostic measures for obtaining incremental

position values ...................................................................................................................... 94

M.1 General ................................................................................................................. 94

M.2 Obtaining position values from incremental signals ............................................... 94

M.3 Phase error of the sine and the cosine signals ...................................................... 96

M.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 96

M.3.2 Phase errors with absolute values < 90° ........................................................ 96

M.3.3 Phase errors with absolute values > 90° ........................................................ 99

M.4 Threshold errors of the square wave signal shapers ........................................... 100

M.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 100

M.4.2 Asymmetric switching thresholds ................................................................. 101

M.4.3 Unequal switching hysteresis at the square wave shaping for sine and

cosine .......................................................................................................... 101

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 103

Figure 1 – Context of Encoder(SR) ....................................................................................... 11

Figure 2 – Example of hardware architecture of Encoder(SR) with incremental and

absolute output signal ........................................................................................................... 28

Figure B.1 – Universal Encoder(SR) architecture .................................................................. 43

Figure C.1 – Example of an additional ring for assembly with eccentricity x .......................... 46

Figure D.1 – Sample shock and corresponding PVSRS on 4CP ............................................ 47

Figure D.2 – Testing machine ............................................................................................... 48

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– 6 – IEC 61800-5-3:2021 © IEC 2021

Figure I.1 – Digital sampling of sine and cosine signals – Hardware architecture,

example ................................................................................................................................ 65

Figure I.2 – Lissajous figures of the sine and cosine signals A and B .................................... 66

Figure L.1 – Static analysis concept ...................................................................................... 73

Figure L.2 – Static analysis procedure (for one test signal) with variable

denominations ...................................................................................................................... 76

Figure L.3 – Substitute circuit for Encoder(SR)’s outbound interface ..................................... 77

Figure L.4 – Example of a circuit for evaluation of the output signals and diagnostics

of Encoder(SR) faults ........................................................................................................... 82

Figure L.5 – Lissajous diagrams (representation of signal B over signal A) in two fault

cases .................................................................................................................................... 90

Figure L.6 – Examples of the dual effect of a single compone
...

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