Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification - Identification of equipment terminals, conductor terminations and conductors

IEC 60445:2021 is available as IEC 60445:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 60445:2021 applies to the identification and marking of terminals of electrical equipment such as resistors, fuses, relays, contactors, transformers, rotating machines and, wherever applicable, to combinations of such equipment (e.g. assemblies), and also applies to the identification of terminations of certain designated conductors. It also provides general rules for the use of certain colours or alphanumeric notations to identify conductors with the aim of avoiding ambiguity and ensuring safe operation. These conductor colours or alphanumeric notations are intended to be applied in cables or cores, busbars, electrical equipment and installations. This basic safety publication is primarily intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51. It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.
IEC 60445:2021 cancels and replaces the sixth edition published in 2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) the definitions have been aligned with IEC 60050-195:2021 and IEC 60050-826;
b) the provisions for colour to be used for identification of certain designated conductors are made requirements and not only recommendations;
c) introduction of a new subclause on marking of protective terminals for multiple power supply inputs on equipment.

Principes fondamentaux et de sécurité pour les interfaces hommes-machines, le marquage et l’identification - Identification des bornes de matériels, des extrémités de conducteurs et des conducteurs

IEC 60445:2021 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60445:2021 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.L'IEC 60445:2021 s’applique à l’identification et au marquage des bornes de matériels électriques, tels que résistances, coupe-circuits à fusibles, relais, contacteurs, transformateurs, machines tournantes et, chaque fois que cela est possible, à des combinaisons de tels matériels (par exemple des ensembles). Il s’applique également à l’identification des extrémités de certains conducteurs désignés. Il prévoit également des règles générales concernant l’utilisation de certaines couleurs ou de certains caractères alphanumériques pour identifier les conducteurs dans le but d’éviter toute ambiguïté et d’assurer la sécurité de fonctionnement. Ces couleurs et caractères alphanumériques destinés aux conducteurs sont prévus pour être appliqués aux noyaux, aux barres omnibus et aux matériels électriques, ainsi qu’aux câbles ou installations. La présente publication fondamentale de sécurité axée sur les exigences de sécurité essentielles est principalement destinée à être utilisée par les comités d’études lors de l’élaboration des normes conformément aux principes énoncés dans le Guide 104 de l’IEC et le Guide ISO/IEC 51.
L'IEC 60445:2021 annule et remplace la sixième édition parue en 2017. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a) les définitions ont été harmonisées avec l’IEC 60050-195:2021 et l’IEC 60050-826;
b) les dispositions relatives aux couleurs à utiliser pour l’identification de certains conducteurs désignés sont à présent des exigences et ne sont plus de simples recommandations;
c) introduction d’un nouveau paragraphe sur le marquage des bornes de protection pour des entrées d’alimentation multiples sur un matériel.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jul-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
16-Jul-2021
Ref Project

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IEC 60445
Edition 7.0 2021-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and
identification – Identification of equipment terminals, conductor terminations
and conductors
Principes fondamentaux et de sécurité pour les interfaces homme-machine,
le marquage et l’identification – Identification des bornes de matériels,
des extrémités de conducteurs et des conducteurs
IEC 60445:2021-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60445
Edition 7.0 2021-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and
identification – Identification of equipment terminals, conductor terminations
and conductors
Principes fondamentaux et de sécurité pour les interfaces homme-machine,
le marquage et l’identification – Identification des bornes de matériels,
des extrémités de conducteurs et des conducteurs
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 01.080.20; 13.110; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-9921-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 6

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 6

4 Methods of identification .............................................................................................. 10

5 Application of identification means ............................................................................... 10

6 Identification by colours ............................................................................................... 11

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 11

6.2 Use of single colours ........................................................................................... 11

6.2.1 The use of the single colours GREEN and YELLOW ..................................... 11

6.2.2 Neutral or mid-point conductor ..................................................................... 12

6.2.3 Line conductor in AC system ........................................................................ 12

6.2.4 Line conductor in DC system ........................................................................ 12

6.2.5 Functional earthing conductor ...................................................................... 12

6.3 Use of bi-colour combinations .............................................................................. 12

6.3.1 Permitted colours ......................................................................................... 12

6.3.2 Protective conductor .................................................................................... 12

6.3.3 PEN conductor ............................................................................................. 13

6.3.4 PEL conductor ............................................................................................. 13

6.3.5 PEM conductor ............................................................................................ 14

6.3.6 Protective bonding conductor ....................................................................... 14

7 Identification by alphanumeric notation ......................................................................... 14

7.1 General ............................................................................................................... 14

7.2 Equipment terminal identification – Marking principles .......................................... 14

7.3 Identification of certain designated conductors ..................................................... 17

7.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 17

7.3.2 Neutral conductor ......................................................................................... 17

7.3.3 Protective conductor .................................................................................... 17

7.3.4 PEN conductor ............................................................................................. 17

7.3.5 PEL conductor ............................................................................................. 17

7.3.6 PEM conductor ............................................................................................ 17

7.3.7 Protective bonding conductor ....................................................................... 17

7.3.8 Functional earthing conductor ...................................................................... 18

7.3.9 Functional bonding conductor ....................................................................... 18

7.3.10 Mid-point conductor ..................................................................................... 18

7.3.11 Line conductor ............................................................................................. 18

7.3.12 System-referencing-conductor ...................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Colours, alphanumeric notations and graphical symbols used

for identification of conductors and terminals ....................................................................... 19

Annex B (informative) List of notes concerning particular conditions in certain

countries ............................................................................................................................ 21

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 1 – Single element with two terminals ....................................................................... 15

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

Figure 2 – Single element with four terminals: Two endpoints and two intermediate

points ................................................................................................................................. 15

Figure 3 – Three-phase equipment with six terminals ........................................................... 15

Figure 4 – Three-element equipment with twelve terminals: Six endpoints and six

intermediate points ............................................................................................................. 16

Figure 5 – Equipment with groups of elements ..................................................................... 16

Figure 6 – Interconnection of equipment terminals and certain designated conductors .......... 17

Table A.1 – Colours, alphanumeric notations and graphical symbols used for

identification of conductors and terminals ............................................................................ 19

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
BASIC AND SAFETY PRINCIPLES FOR MAN-MACHINE
INTERFACE, MARKING AND IDENTIFICATION –
IDENTIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT TERMINALS,
CONDUCTOR TERMINATIONS AND CONDUCTORS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60445 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 3: Documentation, graphical symbols

and representations of technical information. It is an International Standard.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

This seventh edition cancels and replaces the sixth edition published in 2017. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) the definitions have been aligned with IEC 60050-195:2021 and IEC 60050-826:— ;

_____________

Third edition under preparation. Stage at time of publication: IEC FDIS 60050-826:2021.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

b) the provisions for colour to be used for identification of certain designated conductors are

made requirements and not only recommendations;

c) introduction of a new subclause on marking of protective terminals for multiple power supply

inputs on equipment.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
3/1491/FDIS 3/1517/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The reader's attention is drawn to the fact that Annex B lists all of the "in-some-country" clauses

on differing practices of a less permanent nature relating to the subject of this standard.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021
BASIC AND SAFETY PRINCIPLES FOR MAN-MACHINE
INTERFACE, MARKING AND IDENTIFICATION –
IDENTIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT TERMINALS,
CONDUCTOR TERMINATIONS AND CONDUCTORS
1 Scope

This document applies to the identification and marking of terminals of electrical equipment

such as resistors, fuses, relays, contactors, transformers, rotating machines and, wherever

applicable, to combinations of such equipment (e.g. assemblies), and it also applies to the

identification of terminations of certain designated conductors. It also provides general rules for

the use of certain colours or alphanumeric notations to identify conductors with the aim of

avoiding ambiguity and ensuring safe operation. These conductor colours and alphanumeric

notations are intended to be applied on cores, busbars, and electrical equipment, and in cables

or installations.

This basic safety publication focusing on safety essential requirements is primarily intended for

use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles

laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51.

It is not intended for use by manufacturers or certification bodies. One of the responsibilities of

a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications in the

preparation of its publications. The requirements of this basic safety publication will not apply

unless specifically referred to or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60417, Graphical symbols for use on equipment (available at http://www.graphical-

symbols.info/equipment)

IEC 60617, Graphical symbols for diagrams (available at http://std.iec.ch/iec60617)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
NOTE The terms are sorted in alphabetical order in the English language.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3.1
earthing
grounding, US
electric connections between conductive parts and local earth
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-24]
3.2
earthed protective bonding conductor
protective bonding conductor which has a conductive path to local earth
3.3
electrical equipment

item used for generation, conversion, transmission, distribution or utilization of electric energy

Note 1 to entry: Examples of such items are electric machines, transformers, switchgear and controlgear,

measuring instruments, protective devices, wiring systems, current-using equipment.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-826:—, 826-16-01]
3.4
electrical safety
freedom from risk that is not tolerable and which is caused by electricity
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-20]
3.5
equipotential bonding

set of electric connections intended to achieve equipotentiality between conductive parts

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-10]
3.6
equipotentiality
state when conductive parts are at a substantially equal electric potential
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-09]
3.7
functional bonding conductor
conductor provided for functional-equipotential-bonding
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-16]
3.8
functional earthing
functional grounding, US
earthing for purposes other than electrical safety
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-13]
3.9
functional earthing conductor
functional grounding conductor, US
conductor provided for functional earthing
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-15]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021
3.10
functional-equipotential-bonding
equipotential bonding for reasons other than electrical safety
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-16]
3.11
line conductor

conductor intended to be energized and capable of contributing to the transmission or

distribution of electric energy but which is not a neutral conductor or mid-point conductor

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-08, modified – Note 1 to entry removed.]
3.12
local earth
local ground, US

part of the Earth that is in electric contact with an earth electrode and that has an electric

potential not necessarily equal to zero
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-03]
3.13
mid-point

common point between two symmetrical circuit elements of which the opposite ends are

electrically connected to different line conductors of the same circuit
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-04]
3.14
mid-point conductor

conductor electrically connected to the mid-point and capable of contributing to the distribution

of electric energy
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-07]
3.15
neutral conductor

conductor electrically connected to the neutral point and capable of contributing to the

distribution of electric energy
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-06]
3.16
neutral point
common point of a star-connected polyphase system
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-05]
3.17
PEL conductor

conductor combining the functions of both a protective earthing conductor and a line conductor

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-14]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.18
PEM conductor

conductor combining the functions of both a protective earthing conductor and a mid-point

conductor
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-13]
3.19
PEN conductor

conductor combining the functions of both a protective earthing conductor and a neutral

conductor
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-12]
3.20
protective bonding conductor
protective conductor provided for protective-equipotential-bonding
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-10]
3.21
protective conductor
equipment grounding conductor, US
grounding electrode conductor, US
conductor provided for purposes of electrical safety

Note 1 to entry: The terms "equipment grounding conductor" and "grounding electrode conductor" are used in the

US depending on their application.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-09, modified – Two synonyms and Note 1 to entry

have been added.]
3.22
protective earthing
protective grounding, US
earthing for purposes of electrical safety
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-11]
3.23
protective earthing conductor
PE conductor
protective grounding conductor, US
protective conductor provided for protective earthing
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-11]
3.24
protective-equipotential-bonding
equipotential bonding for the purposes of electrical safety
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-15]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021
3.25
protective terminal

terminal provided on equipment and intended for the electric connection with a protective

conductor
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-43]
3.26
system-referencing-conductor

conductor between a live conductor and the earthing arrangement to enable the live conductor

to be substantially at the same potential as the Earth
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-826: —, 826-13-38]
3.27
terminal

conductive part of electrical equipment provided for connecting that electrical equipment to one

or more external conductors

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-12-12, modified – "device, electric circuit or electric

network" is replaced by "electrical equipment", and Note 1 to entry is removed.]
3.28
unearthed protective bonding conductor
protective bonding conductor which is isolated from the Earth
4 Methods of identification

Where the identification of equipment terminals and of terminations of certain designated

conductors is considered necessary, it shall be effected by the use of one or more of the

following methods:

– the physical or relative location of the equipment terminals or of terminations of certain

designated conductors;

– a colour code for equipment terminals and terminations of certain designated conductors in

accordance with Clause 6;

– graphical symbols in accordance with IEC 60417. If additional symbols are required, these

shall be consistent with IEC 60617;
– an alphanumeric notation in accordance with the system laid down in Clause 7.

To keep consistency with the documentation, conductor and equipment terminal designation,

the alphanumeric notation is recommended.

NOTE 1 It is recognised that for complex systems and installations additional marking and labelling are used for

reasons other than safety, see for example IEC 62491.

NOTE 2 Annex A contains Table A.1 which provides an overview of identifications of certain designated conductors

and equipment terminals to which these conductors are likely to be connected.
5 Application of identification means

The identifying colour, graphical symbol or alphanumeric notation shall be located on, or

adjacent to, the corresponding terminal.

When more than one identification method is used and confusion is possible, the correlation

between the methods shall be clarified in the associated documentation.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60445:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –

When no confusion is possible, the juxtaposition of numerical and alphanumeric notation may

be applied.

Terminals and conductors used for earthing or equipotential bonding are divided according to

their purpose of earthing/bonding into the two basic concepts of protective purposes and

functional purposes:

– If a terminal or conductor fulfils the requirements for both protective purposes and functional

purposes, it shall be designated as a protective terminal or protective conductor,

respectively.

– If the requirements for protective purposes are not met by a terminal or conductor intended

for functional purposes, the terminal or conductor shall not be marked with an identification

of a protective terminal or protective conductor, respectively.

– The requirements for functional earthing or functional-equipotential-bonding shall be defined

by the manufacturer or the relevant product committee and should be specified within the

documentation of the equipment.

NOTE 1 For example, requirements for handling electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues.

NOTE 2 Annex A contains Table A.1 which provides an overview of identifications of certain designated conductors

and equipment terminals to which these conductors are likely to be connected.
6 Identification by colours
6.1 General
For identification of conductors, only the following colours shall be used:
BLACK, BROWN, RED, ORANGE, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE, VIOLET, GREY, WHITE,
PINK, TURQUOISE.
NOTE This list of colours is derived from IEC 60757.

The identification by colour shall be used at terminations and preferably throughout the length

of the conduct
...

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