Information technology - Sensor network - Guidelines for design in the aeronautics industry: Active air-flow control

This Technical Report describes the concepts, issues, objectives, and requirements for the design of an active air-flow control (AFC) system for commercial aircraft based on a dense deployment of wired and wireless sensor and actuator networks. It focuses on the architecture design, module definition, statement of objectives, scalability analysis, system-level simulation, as well as networking and implementation issues using standardized interfaces and service-oriented middleware architectures.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Oct-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
12-Oct-2017
Completion Date
12-Oct-2017
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ISO/IEC TR 22560
Edition 1.0 2017-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Information technology – Sensor network – Guidelines for design in the
aeronautics industry: active air-flow control
ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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ISO/IEC TR 22560
Edition 1.0 2017-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Information technology – Sensor network – Guidelines for design in the
aeronautics industry: active air-flow control
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.110; 49.060 ISBN 978-2-8322-4920-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols (and abbreviated terms) .................................................................................... 9

5 Motivations for active air-flow control (AFC)................................................................... 11

5.1 Skin drag .............................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Approaches for Aircraft Skin Drag Reduction ........................................................ 12

6 Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 13

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 Fuel efficiency ...................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Hybrid dense wired-wireless sensor and actuator networks ................................... 13

6.4 Standardized and service oriented wireless sensor architecture ............................ 13

6.5 Re/auto/self- configuration .................................................................................... 13

6.6 Communication protocols and scalability ............................................................... 13

6.7 Smart actuation profiles and policies ..................................................................... 14

6.8 High rate sensor measurement, synchronous operation and data

compression ......................................................................................................... 14

6.9 Troubleshooting and fail safe operation ................................................................ 14

6.10 Enabling of wireless communication technologies in aeronautics industry ............. 14

6.11 Integration of wireless technologies with the internal aeronautical

communication systems ........................................................................................ 14

6.12 Design of bidirectional wireless transmission protocols for relaying of

aeronautical bus communication traffic ................................................................. 14

6.13 Matching of criticality levels of aeronautics industry .............................................. 14

6.14 Internetworking and protocol translation between wireless and wireline

aeronautical networks ........................................................................................... 14

7 System description ........................................................................................................ 15

7.1 Overview of system operation ............................................................................... 15

7.2 Patch design ......................................................................................................... 16

7.3 Internal aeronautics network ................................................................................. 17

8 Micro-sensors and actuators .......................................................................................... 18

8.1 Micro-sensors ....................................................................................................... 18

8.2 Actuators .............................................................................................................. 19

9 High level architecture for aeronautical WSANs ............................................................. 21

9.1 Bubble concept ..................................................................................................... 21

9.2 Layered model ...................................................................................................... 21

9.3 Mapping to ISO/IEC 29182 Sensor Networks Reference Architecture (SNRA) ....... 23

10 Requirements for AFC design ........................................................................................ 28

10.1 Sensing and actuation .......................................................................................... 28

10.1.1 BL position detection and space-time resolution ............................................ 28

10.1.2 Efficient flow control actuation ....................................................................... 28

10.1.3 Patch intra and inter-communication .............................................................. 29

10.1.4 Patch sensor data pre-processing, fusion, management and storage. ............ 29

10.1.5 Patch configuration, redundancy, and organization ........................................ 29

10.1.6 Sensors synchronicity .................................................................................... 30

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ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 3 –

10.1.7 Low power sensor-actuator (patch) consumption ........................................... 30

10.1.8 Patch data rate and traffic constraints ............................................................ 30

10.1.9 Patch low complexity ..................................................................................... 30

10.2 Sensor Network Communications .......................................................................... 31

10.2.1 Interference ................................................................................................... 31

10.2.2 Wireless range and connectivity .................................................................... 31

10.3 Aeronautical Network and On-Board Systems ....................................................... 31

10.3.1 Full-duplex communications ........................................................................... 31

10.3.2 Compatibility with avionics internal network (ARINC 664) .............................. 31

10.3.3 AFC interface ................................................................................................ 32

10.3.4 GS interface .................................................................................................. 32

11 Testing platform and prototype development ................................................................. 32

12 Scalability ...................................................................................................................... 33

Annex A (informative) System level simulation ................................................................... 36

A.1 Architecture of the simulator and module description ............................................ 36

A.1.1 Fluid modelling domain .................................................................................. 36

A.1.2 Sensor and actuators configuration: patches ................................................. 36

A.1.3 Wing design, aircraft configuration, and propagation modelling ...................... 36

A.1.4 Radio resource management ......................................................................... 37

A.2 Simulation metrics ................................................................................................ 38

A.2.1 AFC metrics ................................................................................................... 38

A.2.2 WSN metrics.................................................................................................. 39

Annex B (informative) Turbulent flow modeling ................................................................... 40

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 44

Figure 1 – Drag breakdown in commercial aircraft ................................................................ 11

Figure 2 – Boundary layer (BL) transition exemplified with a wing profile .............................. 12

Figure 3 – Operation mode of the AFC system ...................................................................... 15

Figure 4 – Architecture of the AFC system ............................................................................ 16

Figure 5 – Array(s) of patches of sensors/actuators .............................................................. 17

Figure 6 – Interaction with internal avionics networks ........................................................... 18

Figure 7 – Flow control actuators classified by function [22] .................................................. 20

Figure 8 – Flow control actuators: a) SJA; b) Fliperon ........................................................... 21

Figure 9 – HLA mapping AFC system.................................................................................... 22

Figure 10 – Mapping AFC system to the ISO domain reference architecture view ................. 24

Figure 11 – Mapping AFC system to the ISO layered reference architecture view ................. 25

Figure 12 – Mapping AFC system to the ISO sensor node reference architecture ................. 25

Figure 13 – Mapping AFC system to the ISO physical reference architecture ........................ 26

Figure 14 – Prototype implementation AFC system ............................................................... 33

Figure 15 – Data rate vs patch size. ...................................................................................... 35

Figure A.1 – Simulator architecture ....................................................................................... 38

Figure B.1 – Characteristics of turbulent flow with different Reynolds numbers

(reproduced from [31]) .......................................................................................................... 41

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– 4 – ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017

Table 1 – Mapping of AFC system to the HLA layered model ................................................ 23

Table 2 – Mapping of AFC architecture to ISO architecture entity and functional models....... 27

Table 3 – Mapping of AFC system to ISO architecture interface model ................................. 28

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ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 5 –
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – SENSOR NETWORK –
GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN IN THE AERONAUTICS
INDUSTRY: ACTIVE AIR-FLOW CONTROL
FOREWORD

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Standard, for example "state of the art".

ISO/IEC TR 22560, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by subcommittee 41:

Internet of Things and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1:

Information technology.

This Technical Report has been approved by vote of the member bodies, and the voting

results may be obtained from the address given on the second title page.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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– 6 – ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

The number of wireless connections is growing exponentially around the world. Wireless

communications are expanding to areas previously reluctant to use this type of technology. In

the field of aeronautics, wireless intra-avionics applications are just recently gaining

acceptance both in industrial and academic arenas. This late adoption is mainly because

wireless transmissions have been conventionally associated with reliability and interference

issues. Aeronautics applications on board aircraft are highly critical and therefore the inherent

randomness of wireless technologies created lots of skepticism, particularly for sensing,

monitoring and control of critical aeronautical subsystems. In addition, uncontrolled wireless

transmissions can potentially create interference to other aeronautical subsystems, thus

leading to malfunctions and unsafe operation. However, recent interference and reliability

studies with state-of-the-art wireless standards suggest safe operation and thus the feasibility

of a relatively new research area called wireless avionics intra-communications (WAICs). In

the last few years, wireless technology has started to be used on board for systems that

conventionally used only wire-line infrastructure (i.e., as replacement of cables). It is also

being used for applications which are now only possible thanks to the wireless component

(e.g., indoor localization, tracking and wireless power transfer). Examples of potential

applications of wireless avionics intra-communications are the following: structure health

monitoring, avionics bus communications, smoke sensors, interference monitoring, logistics,

identification, replacing of cables, fuel tank sensors, automatic route control based on

optimized fuel consumption and weather monitoring, automatic turbulence reduction or active

air-flow control, EMI (electromagnetic interference) monitoring, and flexible wiring redundancy

design.

The avionics industry will experience a wireless revolution in the years to come. The concept

of “fly-by-wireless” opens several issues in design, configuration, security, spectrum

management, and interference control. There are several advantages in the use of wireless

technologies for the aeronautics industry. They permit reduction of cables in aircraft design,

thus reducing weight. Reduction of weight also leads to increased payload capacity, longer

ranges, faster speeds, and mainly savings in fuel consumption. The reduction of cables can

also improve the flexibility of aircraft design (less manpower for designing complex cabling

infrastructure). Additionally, wireless technologies can reach places of aircraft that are difficult

to reach by cables, while being relatively immune to electrical cable malfunctions. Wireless

technology also provides improved configuration and troubleshooting with over-the-air

functionalities of modern radio standards.

This document presents the application of wireless sensor and actuator networks for the

dynamic tracking and compensation of turbulent flows across the surface of aircraft. Turbulent

flow formation and the associated skin drag effect are responsible for the inefficiency of

airplane design and thus act as major factors in increased fuel consumption. The area of

active air-flow control represents the convergence of several scientific fields such as: fluid

mechanics, sensor networks, control theory, computational fluid dynamics, and actuator

design. Due to the high speeds experienced by modern commercial aircraft, dense networks

of sensors and actuators are necessary to accurately track the formation of turbulent flows

and for counteracting their effects by convenient actuation policies. The use of wireless

technologies in this field aims to facilitate the management of the information generated by

the large number of sensors, and reduce the need for cables to interconnect all the nodes or

groups of nodes (patches) in the network. Additionally, the use of the wireless components

opens new issues in joint propagation and turbulence flow modelling. This document presents

the design principles of active air-flow control systems using dense wireless/wired sensor

networks compliant with the ISO sensor network reference architecture (SNRA). Standardized

interfaces will help developers create smart cloud avionics applications that will improve fleet

management, optimized route traffic, and computation of actuation profiles for different

moments of an aircraft mission. This also lies within the context of future technological

concepts such as Internet of things, Big Data, and cloud computing.
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ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 7 –
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – SENSOR NETWORK –
GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN IN THE AERONAUTICS
INDUSTRY: ACTIVE AIR-FLOW CONTROL
1 Scope

This document describes the concepts, issues, objectives, and requirements for the design of

an active air-flow control (AFC) system for commercial aircraft based on a dense deployment

of wired/wireless sensor and actuator networks. The objective of this AFC system is to track

gradients of pressure across the surface of the fuselage of aircraft. This collected information

will be used to activate a set of actuators that will attempt to reduce the skin drag effect

produced by the separation between laminar and turbulent flows. This will be translated into

increased lift-off forces, higher vehicle speeds, longer ranges, and reduced fuel consumption.

The document focuses on the architecture design, module definition, statement of objectives,

scalability analysis, system-level simulation, as well as networking and implementation issues

using standardized interfaces and service-oriented middleware architectures. This document

aims to serve as guideline on how to design wireless sensor and actuator networks compliant

with ISO/IEC 29182.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
ISO/IEC 29182-2:2013, Information technology – Sensor networks: Sensor Network
Reference Architecture (SNRA) – Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology
ISO/IEC 29182-3:2014, Information technology – Sensor networks: Sensor Network
Reference Architecture (SNRA) – Part 3: Reference architecture views
ISO/IEC 29182-4:2013, Information technology – Sensor networks: Sensor Network
Reference Architecture (SNRA) – Part 4: Entity models
ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013, Information technology – Sensor networks: Sensor Network
Reference Architecture (SNRA) – Part 5: Interface definitions
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 29182-2:2013

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org.obp
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
3.1
active air-flow control
AFC

ability to manipulate a flow field to improve efficiency or performance adding energy to the

flow by an actuator and using a sensor or sensors to adjust, optimize, and turn on/off the

actuation policy
3.2
ARINC 664
A664

standard that defines the electrical and protocol specifications (IEEE 802.3 and ARINC 664,

Part 7) for the exchange of data between avionics subsystems [1]
3.3
boundary layer

region in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface in which the velocity of a flowing fluid

increases rapidly from zero and approaches the velocity of the main stream [2]
3.4
boundary layer separation
detachment of a boundary layer from the surface into a broader wake [3], [4]
3.5
bubble

higher level abstraction of a heterogeneous wireless sensor network with different underlying

technologies that enables semantic interoperability between them and with the external world

using standardized interfaces and flexible middleware application program interfaces

3.6
computational fluid dynamics
CFD
art of using a computer to predict how gases and liquids flow [5]
3.7
drag

force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding

fluid [29]
3.8
fly-by-wireless

paradigm where avionics subsystems usually controlled or linked by means of cables will use

now a wireless connection
3.9
fuselage
aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo [6]
3.10
laminar flow

flow regime that typically occurs at the lower velocities where the particles of fluid move

entirely in straight lines even though the velocity with which the particles move along one line

is not necessarily the same as along another line [7]
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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ISO/IEC TR 22560:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 9 –
3.11
patch

array of sensors and actuators wired together with a central or distributed control scheme

3.12
Reynolds number

number that characterizes the relative importance of inertial and viscous forces in a flow

Note 1 to entry: It is important in determining the state of the flow, whether it is laminar or turbulent [7].

3.13
shear force

force acting on a substance in a direction perpendicular to the extension of the substance,

acting in a direction to a planar cross section of a body [8]
3.14
skin friction drag

effect that arises from the friction of the fluid against the "skin" of the object that is moving

through it [30]
3.15
synthetic jet actuator

type of actuator whose main effect is produced by the interactions of a train of vortices that

are typically formed by alternating momentary ejection and suction of fluid across an orifice

such that the net mass flux is zero [8]
3.16
turbulence

type of flow where the paths of individual particles of fluid are no longer everywhere straight

(as in laminar flow) but are sinuous, intertwining and crossing one another in a disorderly

manner so that a thorough mixing of fluid takes place [2]
3.17
viscosity

resistance of a fluid to a change in shape, or to the movement of neighbouring portions

relative to one another [9]
3.18
wireless avionics intra-communications
type of wireless communications within an aircraft [10]
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Abbreviated terms
AFC Active air-Flow Control
A664 ARINC 664
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port
AOC Airline Operation Control
ARINC Aeronautical Radio INC.
BL Boundary Layer
CAD Computer Aided Design
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
GS Ground Systems
HLA High-Level Architecture
---------------
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