Guiding principles and framework for the sharing economy

IWA27:2017 provides guiding principles and a framework for decision making and action to address key social, environmental, and economic impacts and opportunities of the sharing economy.

Principes directeurs et cadre de travail pour l'économie du partage

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Sep-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
07-Aug-2017
Completion Date
18-Sep-2017
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INTERNATIONAL IWA
WORKSHOP 27
AGREEMENT
First edition
2017-09
Guiding principles and framework for
the sharing economy
Principes directeurs et cadre de travail pour l'économie du partage
Reference number
IWA 27:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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IWA 27:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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IWA 27:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Guiding principles — Platform operators and providers .......................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Integrity ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3 Transparency ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.4 Accountability .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.5 Accessibility and inclusion ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.6 Responsiveness ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.7 Health, safety and environment ............................................................................................................................................... 3

4.8 Confidentiality, privacy and security.................................................................................................................................... 3

4.9 Capacity ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.10 Competence ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.11 Continual improvement .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Sharing economy decision-making and action framework ..................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Customers.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Labour ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Government ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5 Environment ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.6 Broader economic, societal and community impacts and opportunities ............................................. 5

6 Feedback, review and continual improvement ..................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (informative) Operationalizing the principles ................................................................................................................... 6

Annex B (informative) Guidance on handling comments and complaints .................................................................... 8

Annex C (informative) Guidance for platform operators ................................................................................................................ 9

Annex D (informative) Guidance for providers ......................................................................................................................................10

Annex E (informative) Guidance from the customer’s perspective ...................................................................................11

Annex F (informative) Guidance for interested parties .................................................................................................................12

Annex G (informative) International guidelines ...................................................................................................................................13

Annex H (informative) Workshop contributors .....................................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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IWA 27:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

International Workshop Agreement IWA 27 was approved at a workshop hosted by the Standards

Council of Canada (SCC), in association with the CSA Group and the federal government’s Innovation,

Science and Economic Development Canada – Office of Consumer Affairs (OCA), held in Toronto, Canada,

in March 2017.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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IWA 27:2017(E)
Introduction

A combination of technological and other factors have enabled the sharing economy. The rise in global

usage of mobile devices together with changing consumer behaviour are driving its growth. This

document provides principles and a practical implementation framework with the intention of making

participation in the sharing economy a positive experience for all interested and affected parties.

The activities associated with the sharing economy in some ways challenge traditional business

models. The sharing economy includes transactions for a fee or free, matching often-underused assets

and skills with customer needs, and can provide reserve capacity for managing impacts of planned and

unforeseen events. Customers and providers are typically unknown to one another and trust is often

initially absent. Sharing economy participants often use reviews, customized for specific products and

services and usually involving mutual ratings of providers and customers in addition to other trust-

building mechanisms, such as guarantees of compensation for non-conformance.
The sharing economy presents both opportunities and challenges:

— customers can find improved prices, options and social interaction, but question trustworthiness,

quality, safety, reliability and validity of online reviews;

— providers can welcome flexible work arrangements and access to new income opportunities, but face

challenges with respect to benefits, insurance, security and other economic and safety protections;

— platform providers can seek broader market access and economic opportunities, but can face

challenges with respect to meeting legal requirements while assuring technological reliability, data

integrity, securing customer privacy and safeguarding consumer rights;

— governments can welcome the broader contributions to economic growth, innovation and improved

social trust networks associated with the sharing economy, but can also need to formulate public

policy that is responsive to the changes associated with the sharing economy, develop new

taxation mechanisms, and address collateral disruptions and transformations affecting traditional

businesses; and

— other parties that are not directly involved in sharing economy activities can find the activities to

be socially disruptive, but can also find new opportunities and positive environmental impacts as

the sharing economy evolves.

This document is the result of an open and transparent multi-stakeholder process involving experts

from different countries representing a variety of different perspectives. It is a voluntary guidance

document intended for global use. This document, in its present or revised form, could also provide the

basis for a future ISO standard or for future private sector, institutional or government guidelines.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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International Workshop Agreement IWA 27:2017(E)
Guiding principles and framework for the sharing economy
1 Scope

This document provides guiding principles and a framework for decision making and action to address

key social, environmental, and economic impacts and opportunities of the sharing economy.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
sharing economy

form of economic activity where platforms (3.2) enable providers (3.4) and customers (3.5) to exchange,

often underutilized, goods and services using information technology
Note 1 to entry: It is
a) often peer-to-peer;
b) for a fee or for free;
c) often sequential use; and
d) mutually beneficial.
3.2
platform

information technology mechanisms that facilitate the ability for transactions to take place between

those who have assets and services and those who want to use those assets and services

3.3
platform operator
individual or entity that administers a sharing economy (3.1) platform (3.2)
3.4
provider

individual or entity that provides assets or services to customers (3.5) who want access to those assets

or services, using a sharing economy (3.1) platform (3.2)
3.5
customer

person or organization that uses a sharing economy (3.1) provider’s (3.4) assets or services

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, the term “customer” includes potential customers.

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IWA 27:2017(E)
3.6
interested party

person or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or

activity
4 Guiding principles — Platform operators and providers
4.1 General

In their activities associated with the sharing economy, platform operators and providers should adhere

to the following guiding principles:
a) integrity;
b) transparency;
c) accountability;
d) accessibility and inclusion;
e) responsiveness;
f) health, safety and environment;
g) confidentiality, privacy and security;
h) capacity;
i) competence; and
j) continual improvement.

NOTE 1 Guiding principles are also applicable to the relationship between platform operators and providers.

NOTE 2 See Annex A for guidance on operationalizing the principles.
4.2 Integrity

Decisions and activities are conducted in an honest, respectful and courteous manner, taking into

account the interests of customers, and are communicated accurately.
4.3 Transparency

Decisions and activities affecting customers and others are findable, usable, relevant, timely and

accurate to allow customers and others to make informed decisions.
4.4 Accountability

Decisions and activities and their impacts and opportunities with respect to customers and others are

open to scrutiny by governing bodies, legal authorities, and other interested parties.

4.5 Accessibility and inclusion

The products and services are available to the widest possible range of customers and others, fairly and

without discrimination contrary to human rights obligations.
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IWA 27:2017(E)
4.6 Responsiveness

Decisions and activities are made in a culturally sensitive manner and reflect the evolving needs and

expectations of customers and others.
4.7 Health, safety and environment

The health and safety of customers and others and their environmental expectations are given priority

at the operational level.
4.8 Confidentiality, privacy and security

Personal information is treated in a confidential manner, respecting the privacy of the customer,

disclosing information to others only where the consent of the customer is provided, and that

information is stored in a secure manner.
4.9 Capacity

Resources provided are sufficient to carry out all their decisions and activities in an effective, efficient,

consistent, courteous and responsible manner.
4.10 Competence

Knowledge, skills and attributes and education training and experience permit decisions and activities

to be carried out in a responsible and effective manner reflecting the needs and interests of customers

and others.
4.11 Continual improvement

Decisions and activities lead to continual improvement in meeting the needs and interests of customers

and others.
5 Sharing economy decision-making and action framework
5.1 General

Platform operators and providers should structure and implement their activities in accordance with a

decision-making and action framework. The framework should include

a) commitments or codes of conduct to be communicated to customers and others affected by their

activities,

b) policies and processes for fair, effective and efficient operation and continuous evaluation of same,

c) mechanisms for ensuring compliance with commitments, policies and processes and related laws

and regulations,

d) approaches for selection and deployment of appropriate people, and adequate training, resourcing

for people and other activities,
e) approaches for obtaining feedback, and
f) complaints handling and dispute resolution.

NOTE 1 There could be a single decision-making and action framework that applies to both the platform

operator and its providers.
NOTE 2 See Annex B for guidance on handling comments and complaints.
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IWA 27:2017(E)

The framework and its implementation should operate in accordance with the guiding principles and

address the following:
a) customers;
b) labour;
c) government;
d) environment;
e) broader economic, societal, and community impacts and opportunities.
5.2 Customers

Consideration should be given to the rights, protections, interests and expectations of customers, taking

into account applicable laws and regulations and international standards including those pertaining to:

a) consumer protection;
b) false and misleading advertising;
c) guarantees;
d) provision of insurance;
e) information disclosure expectations and requirements;
f) identity-related authentication;
g) pricing, taxation, charges and fees;
h) customer responsibilities;
i) personal information protections and financial information security;
j) health, safety, and environmental expectations and requirements;
k) non-discriminatory access and other anti-discrimination protections;
l) reputational information provision processes; and
m) complaints handling and dispute resolution, refunds, recalls.

NOTE With respect to these elements of the framework, a number of ISO standards can provide useful

guidance, including those in the ISO 9000 quality management series pertaining to customer satisfaction codes

of conduct (ISO 10001), complaints handling (ISO 10002), external dispute resolution (ISO 10003), business to

consumer electronic commerce (ISO 10008), and other ISO standards such as pertaining to online consumer

reviews (ISO 20488 ), environmental management (ISO 14000), and ISO 26000 (social responsibility). See

Annex G for information on the scope of some of the ISO standards.
5.3 Labour

Consideration should be given to the rights, protections, interests and expectations of those providing

sharing economy activities (including employer-employee relationships, independent contractors, or

other), taking into account applicable laws and regulations and international norms concerning:

a) remuneration;
b) collective bargaining;
c) occupational health and safety protections;
1) To be published.
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IWA 27:2017(E)
d) benefits and other protections;
e) anti-discrimi
...

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