Gap analysis for standardization on sustainable and human-centred societies enabled with cyber physical systems

This document provides a gap analysis between existing areas of standardization and the needs of human-centred sustainable societies enabled by cyber physical systems. This document does not cover the technical requirements of cyber physical systems.

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Gap analysis for standardization
on sustainable and human-centred
societies enabled with cyber physical
Reference number
IWA 39:2022(E)
© ISO 2022

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IWA 39:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Published in Switzerland
  © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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IWA 39:2022(E)
Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Overview . 2
4.1 General . 2
4.2 Existing standardization . 3
4.3 Categories of standardization . 3
5 How human-centred aspects are impacted by CPS . 3
5.1 Relevant issues and practices . 3
5.2 Existing documents . 6
6 How sustainability (environmental and social) is impacted by CPS .8
6.1 Relevant issues and practices . 8
6.2 Existing documents . 11
7 What issue linkages are and how CPS can help .13
7.1 Relevant issues and practices . 13
7.2 Existing documents . 14
8 How CPS can be implemented to resolve the identified issues .15
8.1 Relevant issues and practices .15
8.2 Existing documents . 17
9 Gap analysis .22
10 Future standardization areas .23
Annex A (informative) Workshop contributors .26
Bibliography .29
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IWA 39:2022(E)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the
World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see
International Workshop Agreement IWA 39 was approved at a series of workshops hosted by the
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC), in association with Japanese Standards Association
(JSA), held virtually in February 2021, May 2021, September 2021 and February 2022.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at
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IWA 39:2022(E)
The seventeen UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a shared blueprint for peace and
prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. ISO, IEC and other standards development
organizations (SDOs) are making efforts to contribute to SDGs through the development of international
standards and deliverables.
Sustainability is important for many reasons including environmental quality; to have healthy
communities, clean air, natural resources, and a nontoxic environment. Sustainability is most often
defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet theirs. It has three main pillars: Economic, Environmental, and Social. These three pillars as
shown in Figure 1 are informally referred to as people, planet and profit. However, it refers to four
distinct areas: Human, Social, Economic and Environmental.
Three overlapping circles model Triple nested dependency model
Figure 1 — The triple nested dependency model of sustainability
In this triple nested dependency model, the three sectors are co-dependent and it is recognized that the
economy is a wholly owned subsidiary of the society which in turn is a wholly owned subsidiary of the
environment. They not only co-exist but interact. Rather than the three sectors competing, this model
reminds us that without clean water, fresh air and healthy ecosystems the society and the economy
cease to function.
The importance of environmental issues (e.g., climate action) is widely recognized around the world,
and many international standardization and international initiatives are trying to resolve these issues.
This, however, does not expand quickly since it requires fundamental behavioural changes which are
difficult to scale beyond individuals, and across organizations and nations. One of the major reasons
for this difficulty is that some of the actions for achieving sustainability goals have conflicts with each
other, which are called issue linkages, typically between human-centred aspects and environmental
sustainability aspects which need to be resolved and harmonized.
Human needs are a powerful explanation of human behaviour and social interaction. All individuals
have needs that they strive to satisfy.
Technologies such as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) have the potential
to help create a society in which people enjoy their lives without feeling any restrictions, while
contributing to the improvement of social, environmental and economic sustainability.
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IWA 39:2022(E)
However, there is a concern that CPS can have adverse effects, which is an issue to be considered when
a CPS is introduced into society.
Issues related to human-centred aspects and other sustainability aspects have been discussed in
documents developed by ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, in International Standards such as
ISO 26000, and in initiatives led by international organizations such as the World Business Council
for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Economic Forum (WEF). However, there is no
current area of standardization which addresses a holistic view of this landscape and how to resolve
those issues enabled by CPS, which also consider any adverse impacts.
Humans need to radically change our relationship, not just with the planet, but with the objects with
which we fill our lives to advance the progress we can make towards sustainability. We need to change
how we think about technology and innovation. Rather than allowing technological advancement to
steer our narratives, innovation and technology should help us build bridges between the worlds we
inhabit now and the ones we imagine for tomorrow.
This document was developed at a series of workshops whose participants conducted a gap analysis
between the existing areas of standardization and the goal of achieving human-centred sustainability.
This document is the result of an open and transparent multi-stakeholder process involving experts
from different countries representing a variety of different perspectives. It is a voluntary guidance
document intended for global use.
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International Workshop Agreement IWA 39:2022(E)
Gap analysis for standardization on sustainable and
human-centred societies enabled with cyber physical
1 Scope
This document provides a gap analysis between existing areas of standardization and the needs of
human-centred sustainable societies enabled by cyber physical systems. This document does not cover
the technical requirements of cyber physical systems.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
cyber physical system
system with digital, analogue, cyber, physical and human components interacting with each other,
engineered to function through integrated physics and logic
system of systems
set of operationally and managerially independent systems that coordinate their work together to
achieve one or more common stated purposes
Note 1 to entry: Each constituent is a useful system by itself, having its own management, goals, and resources,
and coordinates within the SoS to provide the unique capability of the SoS.
[SOURCE: IEC Electropedia, IEV 871-05-03, modified — The words “are operated together for a period
of time” have been replaced by “coordinate their work together” and the word “common” has been
added in the definition; the original Note 1 to entry has been replaced by a new Note 1 to entry adapted
from ISO/IEC/IEEE 24748-1:2018, 3.56.]
issue linkage
conflict between some of the actions for achieving different sustainability goals
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IWA 39:2022(E)
human-centred sustainable society
society that is highly sustainable supporting human well-being and dignity
Note 1 to entry: In this document, the state of a human-centred sustainable society is referred to as “human-
centred sustainability”. Sustainability in a broader sense can include a part of human-centred aspects, however,
it does not cover all of them, and includes issue linkages (3.3) between human-centred aspects and others. For
this reason, the term “human-centred sustainability” is used in this document.
4 Overview
4.1 General
The society envisioned in this document is a human-centred sustainable society contributing to UN SDGs
and other relevant issues. This document focuses specifically on how human-centred sustainability and
other sustainability (e.g. environmental sustainability) is enabled or impacted by CPS (both beneficially
and adversely), and on how the issue linkages between SDGs and other relevant issues can be resolved
and harmonized by CPS.
Interactions between a physical (or real) space and cyberspace, beneficial or adverse, are intrinsic
properties of CPS. On the contrary, feedback from the real space to CPS in terms of human-centred and
other sustainability aspects are investigated in this document. If the CPS has a beneficial impact, the
feedback should be positive to enhance the impact even more, but if the impact is adverse, the feedback
should be negative to suppress the impact (see Figure 2).
Figure 2 — Perspectives of the gap analysis
This document outlines issues and practices and provides lists of related standards, based on the
following four perspectives:
— how human-centred aspects are impacted by CPS (see Clause 5);
— how sustainability (environment and society) is impacted by CPS (see Clause 6);
— what the issue linkages are and how CPS can help (see Clause 7);
— how CPS can be implemented to resolve the identified issues (see Clause 8).
Table 1 list issues and practices related to human-centred sustainability together with their relevance
to SDGs, indicating beneficial impacts or adverse impacts. Referenceable documents for subjects of
each perspective are listed in the subsequent tables, indicating the relevant SDGs and type of standards
defined in 4.3.
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IWA 39:2022(E)
4.2 Existing standardization
A number of international standards have already been published by ISO, IEC and ITU-T on human-
centred sustainability and CPS. In addition to the published standards, this document also cites work
items under development for reference.
4.3 Categories of standardization
In this document, international standards published by ISO, IEC and ITU-T are categorized as follows
(see Figure 3).
— Type 1: Standardization addressing human-centred sustainability which apparently has a potential
relevance to CPS.
— Type 2: Standardization addressing CPS which apparently has a potential relevance to human-
centred sustainability.
— Type 3: Standardization addressing both human-centred sustainability and CPS.
Figure 3 — Existing standardization mapping on human-centred sustainability with CPS
The results of the gap analysis between fields of existing standardization and the goals of pursuing
sustainability and improvement for human-centred aspects are given in Clause 9.
5 How human-centred aspects are impacted by CPS
5.1 Relevant issues and practices
Human-centred aspects constitute a broad concept that includes many aspects of our daily lives.
It encompasses financial well-being, relationships with family and friends, harmony with nature,
emotional and physical health and spiritual wealth. It is relevant to activities at work and recreation,
how people feel about their community and personal safety.
By using a variety of technologies, e.g. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and IoT sensors, CPS supports the
automation of repetitive and cognitively difficult tasks across several activities, while also being
focused on delivering an improved society.
The new society envisioned is not intended to simply replace human beings with automation, but also
to create new and higher quality jobs. Automation is not intended to take the place of human beings but
to support them, using robots and other intelligent technology that interacts with people to prevent
them from carrying out activities that are dangerous or burdensome to the mental and physical health
of the individual.
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IWA 39:2022(E)
In addition to protecting human beings from harmful activities, CPS allows the accumulation of societal
knowledge which can be used to establish a collective intelligence and be made available to society for
the purpose of solving various problems.
While CPS has a great potential to be beneficial to human-centred aspects in society, it also creates
concerns because of its adverse impacts or issues related to basic human rights.
Table 1 shows examples of how human-centred aspects are impacted by CPS. Even though the CPS issues
and practices can be seen to deliver beneficial impact for the SDGs listed below, the CPS perspective
also gives a holistic view of the impact and issues of technology in terms of both beneficial and adverse
effects on other SDGs.
— SDG 3 Good health and well-being
— SDG 4 Quality education
— SDG 5 Gender equality
— SDG 7 Affordable and clean energy
— SDG 8 Decent work and economic growth
— SDG 9 Industry, innovation and infrastructure
— SDG 10 Reduced inequalities
— SDG 12 Responsible consumption and production
— SDG 16 Peace, justice and strong institutions
Ethical concerns and the impact on privacy are also included in the CPS perspective. This is important
as ethical concerns and any unintended consequences which can result are not explicitly included in
the seventeen SDGs but will have a social impact on how human-centred sustainable initiatives are
impacted by CPS.
Table 1 — Issues and practices impacted by CPS
Issues/practices SDGs with benefi- SDGs with adverse
cial impact impact
Avatars SDG 3 SDG 16
With the declining birth-rate and increasing aging population, it is Good health and Peace, justice and
expected that the growth of the working population will decline in the well-being strong institutions
future. By utilizing avatars, it is possible to carry out dangerous work
SDG 5 Gender equal-
or manage labour shortages. In addition, it is expected that AI will
improve performance across economies. Robots can use AI without
any human intervention, whilst the use of avatars is a human-centred
approach which it is hoped will extend or enhance human capabilities.
Decent work and eco-
Currently society is restricted to using technology which depends on
nomic growth
physical locations where people live, but avatars can be used to access
any location.
The presence of avatars in the Metaverse has the potential to overcome
gender differences, the presence or absence and degree of disabilities.
Cyborgs SDG 3
Cyborg technology (e.g., next-gen prosthesis) can benefit humans (SDG Good health and
3 and SDG 8) because it can restore/enhance/complement the body’s well-being
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IWA 39:2022(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Issues/practices SDGs with benefi- SDGs with adverse
cial impact impact
Brain machine interface SDG 4 SDG 3
The level that a brain machine interface can alter the data in the brain. Quality education Good health and
Brain machine interface can boost education by installing new knowl- well-being
edge (SDG 4.), but overuse of it can cause an altered personality.
Proton Beam Therapy SDG 3
The new particle accelerator for Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) will be Good health and
smaller than the synchrotron already in use in healthcare. It will be well-being
connected to a mechanical structure that allows the proton beams to
rotate around the patient and to remove a tumour from multiple direc-
tions. Utilizing sensing data from multiple installed devices as well as
3D real-time modelling of the precise shape of the target tumour, this
treatment is particularly suitable for tumours that are inoperable or
that are located near delicate organs and structures such as the brain,
heart, head, neck, prostate and spinal cord.
Measurement of happiness SDG 3
A large amount of data related to body movements replaced by 0s and Good health and
1s was collected from thousands of people. Various questions were well-being
asked to determine if they were experiencing happiness. AI was used
to analyse the correlation between the data on body movements and
happiness. As a result, a complex but unique array of 0s and 1s which
appears to show how people experience happiness was discovered.
AI service for mental health SDG 3
This is a new approach to using the new provisions for Age-Appropriate Good health and
Design under the UK General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to well-being
create an AI service which helps young people understand the impact
on their mental health. They are designing the service using regulations
not applying the regulations after the technology is built. Building in
safety into an AI service which has the concerns and the safety of the
citizens at the core.
Estate and Building service with CPS SDG 9
This service uses CPS technology to ensure buildings are Covid safe, Industry, Innovation
including protecting arriving visitors and personnel working within and Infrastructure
buildings on all floors, and in meeting rooms. It can be directly connect-
ed to all building management and room booking systems to always
ensure the safety and well-being of all visitors and occupants.
CPS to protect human rights SDG 3
A considerable amount of the world's economies are still exploiting Good health and
forced labour, child labour, human trafficking and modern slavery. Key well-being
reasons for this are the pressure to compete on price for products, the
SDG 10
lack of visibility of the entire value chain and in particular the multiple
jurisdictions that are used to 'hide' these practices. Information transfer
Reduced inequalities
to support eradication of these practices has been difficult but CPS can
SDG 16
help. CPS can support collaboration across nations using the data created
in a CPS enabled value chain to provide transparent and trustworthy
Peace, justice and
information exchanges across multiple jurisdictions. CPS can be used
strong institutions
to identify victims and support investigations and prosecutions.
An example use case - The use of AI to find signatures of trafficking
with the CPS value chain. Often these are images which contain par-
ticular objects with the addition of a specific tattoo that traffickers
use to brand their victims.
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IWA 39:2022(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Issues/practices SDGs with benefi- SDGs with adverse
cial impact impact
Blockchain Traceability Platform to combat child labour SDG 8 SDG 12 Responsible
consumption and
This Platform equips businesses and other stakeholders with tools Decent work and eco-
to trace their supply chains by blockchain technology, thereby sup- nomic growth
porting the business sector’s efforts to source materials untainted
by child labour.
Hearing aid used as connected device SDG 3
The Hearing Aid not only compensates the hearing ability of persons Good health and
with hearing difficulties but provides them with more convenience well-being
in their life than persons without hearing difficulties; with the
Hearing Aid, for example, they can connect wirelessly to any modern
smartphone and get access to our wide range of accessories with
direct streaming of stereo sound.
Côte d’Ivoire data system for traceability SDG 8
A pilot project aimed at building data systems that are owned by the Decent work and
cooperatives themselves, provide important information about where economic growth
their cocoa comes from, and strengthen their position as trading partners.
There is a gap between advanced economies and developing countries. SDG 8
This gap suggests the need to address the following issues.
Decent work and
—  How will the transition of societies like the ones of developing economic growth
countries take place and how much resource will it take?
—  Millions of people in the developing world will be left without jobs
and incomes as they are mainly groups of manual workers, unskilled
farmers and unskilled industrial workers.
—  Will they be trained? Will they be subsidized? How will they adapt
so that they can cope?
—  How policymaking will be affected by the human-centred sustain-
ability enabled by CPS?
5.2 Existing documents
Tables 2 to 7 list existing documents related to following topics, categorized as follows:
a) Human and organizational aspects (see Table 2)
b) Health and well-being (see Table 3)
c) Education (see Table 4)
d) Water service (see Table 5)
e) Industry and innovation (see Table 6)
f) Ethical concerns and trustworthiness (see Table 7)
The documents that are not, for the moment, directly relevant to CPS are included if their subjects can
potentially be impacted by CPS in the future (i.e. Type 1).
Table 2 — Existing documents related to Human and organizational aspects
Document Title Committee SDG Type
The human-centred organization —
ISO 27501:2019 ISO/TC 159/SC 1 1
Decent work and economic
Guidance for managers
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IWA 39:2022(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Document Title Committee SDG Type
Security and resilience — Business
ISO 22301:2019 continuity management systems — ISO/TC 292 1
Decent work and economic
Basic human rights and
ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on social responsibility ISO 1
ethical concerns
SDG 8 1
Human resource management — Guide-
ISO 30414:2018 lines for internal and external human ISO/TC 260
Decent work and economic
capital reporting
Table 3 — Existing documents related to Health and well-being
Document Title Committee SDG Type
Air quality — Definition and determi- SDG 3
ISO 9169:2006 nation of performance characteristics ISO/TC 146/SC 4 3
Good health and well-being
of an automatic measuring system
Health informatics — Information se- SDG 3 3
curity management for remote mainte-
Good health and well-being
nance of medical devices and medical
ISO/TR 11633-2:2021 ISO/TC 215
information systems — Part 2: Imple-
mentation of an information security
management system (ISMS)
SDG 3 3
ISO/IEEE 11073 (all Health informatics — Personal health
ISO/TC 215
parts) device communication
Good health and well-being
Medical electrical equipment — Part SDG 3 3
2-77: Particular requirements for the
IEC 80601-2-77: 2019 IEC/TC 62 Good health and well-being
basic safety and essential performance of
robotically assisted surgical equipment
SDG 3 3
Interoperability design guidelines for
ITU-T H.810

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