Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems - Part 5: Image projectors

This part of IEC 62471 provides requirements regarding photobiological safety of the optical
radiation emitted by image projectors. This part of IEC 62471 does not deal with other
hazards such as electrical, mechanical or fire hazards.
This part of IEC 62471 provides requirements regarding:
• optical radiation safety assessment of image projectors;
• projector risk groups;
• testing conditions and measurement conditions;
• manufacturer’s requirements including user information.
The scope of this part of IEC 62471 is photobiological safety of image projectors including the
emissions from laser-illuminated projectors that fulfill the requirements as specified in
IEC 60825-1:2014, 4.4 and for which visible light emission has been excluded from
classification in IEC 60825-1.
This part of IEC 62471 does not address safety requirements for laser display products where
collimated laser beams — generally scanned — are employed. It does address those laserilluminated
projectors that employ a laser source to illuminate, for example, a micro-electromechanical
system (MEMS) without scanned beams or crystal-based display projector system.
NOTE Image projectors containing lasers are subject to those provisions of IEC 60825-1 applicable to the
embedded laser. See IEC 60825-1:2014, 4.4 for which visible light emission has been excluded from the laser
product classification.
This part of IEC 62471 includes projectors for only visible image projection and does not
include ultraviolet (UV) projectors, infrared (IR) projectors, general lighting service (GLS)
lamps (GLS; defined in IEC 62471) or projector lamp systems used for general lighting, which
are treated in separate International Standards.

Photobiologische Sicherheit von Lampen und Lampensystemen - Teil 5: Photobiologische Sicherheit von Lampensystemen für Bildprojektoren

Sécurité photobiologique des lampes et des appareils utilisant des lampes – Partie 5: Projecteurs d’images

IEC 62471-5:2015 fournit des exigences concernant la sécurité photobiologique du rayonnement optique émis par les projecteurs d'images. Elle inclut les exigences de fabrication qui peuvent être exigées par suite de l'affectation d'un groupe de risques particulier à un appareil utilisant un projecteur d'images.  Par conséquent, la présente partie de l’IEC 62471 fournit des exigences de sécurité pour les appareils utilisant des lampes qui sont destinés à générer des rayonnements optiques visibles projetés, tels que les projecteurs cinématographiques, les projecteurs d'image-écran et les projecteurs à usage domestique. Le groupe de risques affecté d'un projecteur peut également être utilisé par les fabricants de projecteurs pour faciliter les appréciations du risque, par exemple dans le cas de l'exposition professionnelle sur les lieux de travail. Il peut exister des exigences nationales pour l'évaluation des appareils ou de l'exposition professionnelle.

Fotobiološka varnost sijalčnih sistemov - 5. del: Slikovni projektorji

Ta del standarda IEC 62471 določa zahteve glede fotobiološke varnosti optičnega sevanja slikovnih projektorjev. Ta del standarda IEC 62471 ne obravnava drugih nevarnosti (npr. električne, mehanske ali požarne nevarnosti).
Ta del standarda IEC 62471 določa zahteve glede:
• ocena tveganja pri optičnem sevanju slikovnih projektorjev;
• tvegane skupine projektorjev;
• preskusni in meritveni pogoji;
• zahteve proizvajalca, vključno z uporabniškimi informacijami.
Področje uporabe tega dela standarda IEC 62471 je fotobiološka varnost slikovnih projektorjev, vključno
z emisijami projektorjev z lasersko osvetlitvijo, ki izpolnjujejo zahteve, določene v točki
4.4 standarda IEC 60825-1:2014, in za katere so bile emisije vidne svetlobe izključene iz
klasifikacije, podane v standardu IEC 60825-1.
Ta del standarda IEC 62471 ne obravnava varnostnih zahtev za laserske prikazovalnike,
pri katerih se uporabljajo kolimirani laserski žarki (celostno skenirani). Obravnava projektorje z lasersko osvetlitvijo,
ki z laserskim virom osvetlijo na primer mikro elektromehanski
sistem (MEMS) brez skeniranih žarkov ali projekcijski sistem z zaslonom iz tekočih kristalov.
OPOMBA: Slikovni projektorji, ki vključujejo laserske žarke, so predmet določil standarda IEC 60825-1, ki se uporabljajo za
vgrajen laser. Glej točko 4.4 standarda IEC 60825-1:2014 glede tega, katere emisije vidne svetlobe so bile izključene iz
klasifikacije laserskih izdelkov.
Ta del standarda IEC 62471 vključuje projektorje samo za vidno slikovno projekcijo in ne
vključuje ultravijoličnih (UV) projektorjev, infrardečih (IR) projektorjev, sijalk za splošno uporabo v razsvetljavi (GLS;
določeno v standardu IEC 62471) ali sistemov projektorskih sijalk, ki se uporabljajo za splošno razsvetljavo
in so obravnavani v ločenih mednarodnih standardih.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Nov-2015
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Nov-2015
Due Date
10-Jan-2016
Completion Date
10-Nov-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62471-5:2015
01-december-2015
)RWRELRORãNDYDUQRVWVLMDOþQLKVLVWHPRYGHO6OLNRYQLSURMHNWRUML
Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems - Part 5: Image projectors
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62471-5:2015
ICS:
29.140.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi z Other standards related to
žarnicami lamps
37.040.10 Fotografska oprema. Photographic equipment.
Projektorji Projectors
SIST EN 62471-5:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62471-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2015
ICS 29.140
English Version
Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems - Part 5:
Image projectors
(IEC 62471-5:2015)

Sécurité photobiologique des lampes et des appareils Photobiologische Sicherheit von Lampen und

utilisant des lampes - Partie 5: Projecteurs d'images Lampensystemen - Teil 5: Photobiologische Sicherheit von

(IEC 62471-5:2015) Lampensystemen für Bildprojektoren
(IEC 62471-5:2015)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2015-07-14. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62471-5:2015 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62471-5:2015
EN 62471-5:2015
European Foreword

The text of document 76/519/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62471-5, prepared by IEC/TC 76 "Optical

radiation safety and laser equipment" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved

by CENELEC as EN 62471-5:2015.
The following dates are fixed:
– latest date by which the document has to be implemented at (dop) 2016-04-16
national level by publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting with (dow) 2018-07-14
the document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62471-5:2015 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
EN 62471-5:2015
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050 series International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - - series
IEC 60065 - Audio, video and similar electronic EN 60065 -
apparatus - Safety requirements
IEC 60825-1 2014 Safety of laser products -- Part 1: EN 60825-1 2014
Equipment classification and requirements
IEC 60950-1 - Information technology equipment - Safety EN 60950-1 -
-- Part 1: General requirements
IEC 62471 - Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp EN 62471 -
systems
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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
IEC 62471-5
Edition 1.0 2015-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems –
Part 5: Image projectors
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-2737-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62471-5:2015
– 2 – IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 8

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 9

4 General ....................................................................................................................... 15

4.1 Basis for risk groups ........................................................................................... 15

4.2 Example applications .......................................................................................... 16

4.2.1 RG0 / RG1 projectors ................................................................................... 16

4.2.2 RG2 projectors ............................................................................................. 16

4.2.3 RG3 projectors ............................................................................................. 16

4.3 Projector lamps ................................................................................................... 16

4.4 Assessment criteria (background) ........................................................................ 16

5 Risk group determination ............................................................................................. 17

5.1 Test conditions .................................................................................................... 17

5.2 Measurement conditions for image projectors ...................................................... 18

5.2.1 Measurement throw ratio .............................................................................. 18

5.2.2 Measurement distance ................................................................................. 18

5.3 The position and size of apparent source, the calculation of angular

subtense ............................................................................................................. 18

5.4 Measurement of irradiance – specified apertures ................................................. 19

5.5 Measurement of radiance .................................................................................... 19

5.6 Accessible emission limits ................................................................................... 20

5.6.1 For CW emission.......................................................................................... 20

5.6.2 For pulsed emission ..................................................................................... 21

5.6.3 Spectral weighting functions ......................................................................... 22

5.7 Applying information from the lamp manufacturers ............................................... 23

5.7.1 General ....................................................................................................... 23

5.7.2 Limits provided in irradiance/radiant exposure .............................................. 24

5.7.3 Limits provided in radiance or radiance dose ................................................ 24

6 Manufacturer’s requirements ........................................................................................ 24

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 24

6.2 Determination of HD (hazard distance) ................................................................ 25

6.3 Safety feature "soft start" .................................................................................... 25

6.4 Optional safety features ...................................................................................... 25

6.4.1 Projection of warning message ..................................................................... 25

6.4.2 Power reduction by sensor system ............................................................... 25

6.5 Labelling on products .......................................................................................... 25

6.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 25

6.5.2 RG0 projector .............................................................................................. 26

6.5.3 RG1 projector .............................................................................................. 26

6.5.4 RG2 projector .............................................................................................. 27

6.5.5 RG3 projector .............................................................................................. 28

6.6 User information .................................................................................................. 28

6.6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 28

6.6.2 Assessment of user accessible area ............................................................. 29

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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

6.6.3 User information (user manual) .................................................................... 29

6.6.4 User information for maintenance ................................................................. 30

6.7 Labelling and user information for image projectors where the risk group will

be changed by interchangeable lens .................................................................... 30

6.7.1 General ....................................................................................................... 30

6.7.2 Labelling on the projector ............................................................................. 30

6.7.3 Mark on the interchangeable lens ................................................................. 32

6.7.4 The user information in the user manual of the projector ............................... 32

6.7.5 The user information in the user manual of the interchangeable lens ............. 32

7 Information for service ................................................................................................. 33

Annex A (normative) Test scheme for lamp types ............................................................... 34

Annex B (informative) Example of calculations ................................................................... 35

B.1 Radiance calculations ......................................................................................... 35

B.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 35

B.1.2 Calculation from measured irradiance ........................................................... 35

B.1.3 Calculation from luminous output .................................................................. 36

B.2 Calculation example of risk group (CW) ............................................................... 37

B.2.1 Example of a 5 000 lm projector ................................................................... 37

B.2.2 10 000 lm professional-use projector with an apparent source of small

subtense angle (CW) .................................................................................... 39

B.2.3 2 000 lm projector with small apparent source (CW) ...................................... 40

B.3 Calculation example of risk group (pulsed emission) ............................................ 41

B.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 41

B.3.2 14 000 lm projector with one peak ................................................................ 41

B.3.3 14 000 lm projector with two peaks ............................................................... 44

Annex C (informative) Example of intra-beam of projector sources with millimetre

scale .................................................................................................................................. 47

Annex D (informative) Measurement distance ..................................................................... 48

Annex E (informative) Hazard distance as a function of modifying optics ............................. 50

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 51

Figure 1 – Exit pupil in projector .......................................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Examples of the application of the definition of pulse duration ............................. 13

Figure 3 – Definition of throw ratio....................................................................................... 15

Figure 4 – Diameter of the apparent source ......................................................................... 18

Figure 5 – RG1 label (optional) ........................................................................................... 26

Figure 6 – RG2 label ........................................................................................................... 27

Figure 7 – RG2 caution symbol ........................................................................................... 27

Figure 8 – Sample design of RG2 caution pictogram ............................................................ 27

Figure 9 – RG3 label ........................................................................................................... 28

Figure 10 – Optical radiation warning symbol ...................................................................... 28

Figure 11 – "Not for household use" symbol ........................................................................ 28

Figure 12 – RG2 label with the caution for RG3 ................................................................... 31

Figure 13 – RG2 caution label with the caution for RG3 ....................................................... 31

Figure 14 – RG2 pictogram with the caution for RG3 ........................................................... 32

Figure B.1 – Image of the apparent source and measurement condition ............................... 37

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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
– 4 – IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015

Figure B.2 – Picture of the apparent source of a projector at the exit pupil of the

projection lenses with a scale .............................................................................................. 37

Figure B.3 – Example with one peak of pulsed emission ...................................................... 42

Figure B.4 – Example with two peaks of pulsed emission ..................................................... 44

Figure C.1 – Examples of intra-beam images of projector sources with millimetre scale ........ 47

Figure E.1 – Hazard distance as a function of modifying optics (example) ............................ 50

Table 1 – Measurement criteria — field of view (angles of acceptance) for CW source ......... 19

Table 2 – Measurement criteria — field of view (angles of acceptance) for pulsed

source ................................................................................................................................ 19

Table 3 – AEL (accessible emission limits) for risk groups of lamps and lamp systems

emitting CW optical radiation ............................................................................................... 20

Table 4 – Time base values associated with the risk groups and hazards ............................. 20

Table 5 – Basic retinal thermal emission limit ...................................................................... 20

Table 6 – The values of C and α for AEL calculation .......................................................... 21

Table 7 – Pulse duration dependent values of α ............................................................ 22

max

Table 8 – Spectral weighting functions B(λ) and R(λ) for assessing retinal hazards .............. 23

Table 9 – Labelling on products .......................................................................................... 26

Table 10 – User information in user manual ......................................................................... 29

Table A.1 –Required evaluations ......................................................................................... 34

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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
_____________
PHOTOBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF LAMPS AND LAMP SYSTEMS –
Part 5: Image projectors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62471-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 76:

Optical radiation safety and laser equipment.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
76/519/FDIS 76/521/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62471-5:2015
– 6 – IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Most lamps and lamp systems are safe and do not pose photobiological risks except under

unusual exposure conditions. This also is the case for optical image projectors where

experience shows that even high power cinema projectors may be safe for accidental

momentary viewing and can only under some conditions pose optical hazards at close

distances or for intentional 'long-duration' staring into the source. The rapid development of

solid-state and other lamps or lamp systems has permitted new projector products, and

generated the need for a photobiological safety standard for this group of lamp systems.

Optical radiation hazards from all types of lamps and lamp systems are currently assessed by

the application of IEC 62471:2006 (CIE S 009:2002), Photobiological safety of lamps and

lamp systems. IEC 62471 covers LEDs, incandescent, low- and high-pressure gas-discharge,

arc and other lamps. Following the concept of vertical standards, the risk group classification

system in IEC 62471 for lamps is to be adapted for specific product groups such as image

projectors.

This part of IEC 62471 provides a risk group classification system for image projectors, and

measurement conditions for optical radiation emitted by image projectors. It includes

manufacturing requirements that may be required as a result of an image projector system

being assigned to a particular risk group. Therefore, this part of IEC 62471 provides safety

requirements for lamp systems that are intended to produce projected visible optical radiation,

such as theatre projectors, data projectors and home-use projectors. The assigned risk group

of a projector product also may be used by projector manufacturers to assist with any risk

assessments, e.g. for occupational exposure in workplaces. National requirements may exist

for the assessment of products or occupational exposure.

The emission limits provided in this part of IEC 62471 are derived from the exposure limits

specified by ICNIRP in their 2013 Guidelines for incoherent visible and infrared radiation [1] .

These exposure limits are also the basis for the emission limits to be specified in the future

International Standard IEC 62471-1 .
______________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
Revision of IEC 62471:2006.
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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
– 8 – IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015
PHOTOBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF LAMPS AND LAMP SYSTEMS –
Part 5: Image projectors
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62471 provides requirements regarding photobiological safety of the optical

radiation emitted by image projectors. This part of IEC 62471 does not deal with other

hazards such as electrical, mechanical or fire hazards.
This part of IEC 62471 provides requirements regarding:
• optical radiation safety assessment of image projectors;
• projector risk groups;
• testing conditions and measurement conditions;
• manufacturer’s requirements including user information.

The scope of this part of IEC 62471 is photobiological safety of image projectors including the

emissions from laser-illuminated projectors that fulfill the requirements as specified in

IEC 60825-1:2014, 4.4 and for which visible light emission has been excluded from

classification in IEC 60825-1.

This part of IEC 62471 does not address safety requirements for laser display products where

collimated laser beams — generally scanned — are employed. It does address those laser-

illuminated projectors that employ a laser source to illuminate, for example, a micro-electro-

mechanical system (MEMS) without scanned beams or crystal-based display projector system.

NOTE Image projectors containing lasers are subject to those provisions of IEC 60825-1 applicable to the

embedded laser. See IEC 60825-1:2014, 4.4 for which visible light emission has been excluded from the laser

product classification.

This part of IEC 62471 includes projectors for only visible image projection and does not

include ultraviolet (UV) projectors, infrared (IR) projectors, general lighting service (GLS)

lamps (GLS; defined in IEC 62471) or projector lamp systems used for general lighting, which

are treated in separate International Standards.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 62471, Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems

IEC 60825-1:2014, Safety of laser products – Part 1: Equipment classification and

requirements
IEC 60050 (all parts), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (available at
http://www.electropedia.org)

IEC 60950-1, Information technology equipment – Safety – Part 1: General requirements

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SIST EN 62471-5:2015
IEC 62471-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 9 –
IEC 60065, Audio, video and similar electronic apparatus – Safety requirements
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 62471,
IEC 60050-845 [2] and the following apply.
3.1
accessible emission

level of radiation determined at a certain distance from the product and with measurement

conditions described in Clause 5

Note 1 to entry: The accessible emission is compared with the AEL (see 3.2) to determine the risk group of the

product.
3.2
accessible emission limit
AEL
maximum accessible emission permitted within a particular risk group
3.3
angle of acceptance
plane angle within which a detector will respond to optical radiation

Note 1 to entry: The angle of acceptance is usually measured in radians (SI unit).

Note 2 to entry: This angle of acceptance may be controlled by apertures or optical elements in front of the

detector. The angle of acceptance is also sometimes referred to as the field of view (see 3.12).

Note 3 to entry: The angle of acceptance should not be confused with the angular subtense of the source

(see 3.4) or the beam divergence.
3.4
angular subtense
visual angle subtended by the app
...

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