Buoyant aids for swimming instruction - Part 4: In water performance, requirements and test procedures for Class B swimming devices

This European Standard specifies safety and performance requirements regarding the in-water behaviour of Buoyant aids for swimming instruction according to prEN 13138 -1:2018. It specifies in-water test methods based on the application of test manikin as well as on human test subjects.
This document applies only in connection with prEN 13138-1:2018.

Auftriebshilfen für das Schwimmenlernen - Teil 4: Wassertechnische Anforderungen und Prüfungen für Produkte der Klasse B

Diese Europäische Norm legt sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Wirksamkeitsanforderungen für das Verhalten von Auftriebshilfen im Wasser für das Schwimmenlernen nach prEN 13138-1:2018 fest. Sie legt Prüfverfahren für Wassereignungsprüfungen basierend auf der Verwendung von Prüfpuppen sowie von menschlichen Prüfpersonen fest.
Dieses Dokument gilt ausschließlich in Verbindung mit prEN 13138-1:2018.

Aides à la flottabilité pour l'apprentissage de la natation - Partie 4: Performances dans l'eau, éxigences et méthodes d'essai pour classe B de portées au corps

Plavajoči pripomočki za učenje plavanja - 4. del: Lastnosti, zahteve in postopki preskušanja v vodi za pripomočke razreda B

General Information

Status
Not Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Apr-2018
Current Stage
4020 - Public enquire (PE) (Adopted Project)
Start Date
14-Feb-2018
Due Date
04-Jul-2018
Completion Date
07-May-2018

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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
01-april-2018
3ODYDMRþLSULSRPRþNL]DXþHQMHSODYDQMDGHO/DVWQRVWL]DKWHYHLQSRVWRSNL
SUHVNXãDQMDYYRGL]DSULSRPRþNHUD]UHGD%

Buoyant aids for swimming instruction - Part 4: In water performance, requirements and

test procedures for Class B swimming devices

Auftriebshilfen für das Schwimmenlernen - Teil 4: Wassertechnische Anforderungen und

Prüfungen für Produkte der Klasse B

Aides à la flottabilité pour l'apprentissage de la natation - Partie 4: Performances dans

l'eau, éxigences et méthodes d'essai pour classe B de portées au corps
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 13138-4
ICS:
13.340.70 5HãLOQLMRSLþLY]JRQVND Lifejackets, buoyancy aids
SRPDJDODLQSODYDMRþL and floating devices
SULSRPRþNL
97.220.40 Oprema za športe na Outdoor and water sports
prostem in vodne športe equipment
oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 13138-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2018
ICS 13.340.70; 97.220.40
English Version
Buoyant aids for swimming instruction - Part 4: In water
performance, requirements and test procedures for Class
B swimming devices

Aides à la flottabilité pour l'apprentissage de la Auftriebshilfen für das Schwimmenlernen - Teil 4:

natation - Partie 4: Performances dans l'eau, éxigences Wassertechnische Anforderungen und Prüfungen für

et méthodes d'essai pour classe B de portées au corps Produkte der Klasse B

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 162.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 13138-4:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
prEN 13138-4:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Safety and performance requirements ................................................................................................... 7

5 Testing ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (normative) Dimensions of test manikins I to III ......................................................................... 11

A.1 Dimensions of manikins I…III .................................................................................................................. 11

A.2 Functional residual lung volume ............................................................................................................ 14

A.3 Mass and density of components of manikins I…III ......................................................................... 14

A.4 Centre of gravity of manikins I…III ........................................................................................................ 14

A.4.1 Location ........................................................................................................................................................... 14

A.5 Calibration on land (dry), manikins I…III ........................................................................................... 15

Annex B (normative) Dimensions of manikins IV to VII ............................................................................. 16

B.1 Dimensions of manikins IV to VII ........................................................................................................... 16

B.2 Density of manikin components ............................................................................................................. 20

B.3 Functional residual lung capacity (FRC) .............................................................................................. 21

B.4 Calibration underwater (wet), manikins I … VII ............................................................................... 21

Annex C (normative) In-water performance test, measuring devices fitted to free floating

manikins I…VII, measurement of floating angle ............................................................................... 23

C.1 In-water performance test, measuring devices fitted to free floating manikins I…VII,

measurement of freeboard ....................................................................................................................... 23

C.2 In-water performance test, measuring devices fitted to free floating manikins I…VII,

measurement of freeboard ....................................................................................................................... 24

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Regulation (EU) 2016/425 of the European Parliament and of the

Council of 9 March 2016 on personal protective equipment aimed to be covered.............. 26

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 28

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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
prEN 13138-4:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 13138-4:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 162

“Protective clothing including hand and arm protection and lifejackets”, the secretariat of which is held

by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directives, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

EN 13138, Buoyant aids for swimming instruction, consists of the following parts dealing with buoyant

devices for swimming instructions for the various stages of the learning process:

— Part 1: Safety requirements and test methods for buoyant aids to be worn
— Part 2: Safety requirements and test methods for buoyant aids to be held
— Part 3: Safety requirements and test methods for swim seats
— Part 4: In-water performance testing of buoyant aids to be worn
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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
prEN 13138-4:2018 (E)
Introduction

Over more than two decades of standardisation work in this field it was not possible to establish test

methods to verify “Buoyant Aids for Swimming Instruction” with regard to their in-water performance.

Do they provide help when learning to swim? Is a user supported in a way that he/she can adopt easily

the optimal floating angle for chest strokes? Which type is best for what category of users? Do

swimming devices prevent a passive user from sinking unstoppable to the ground? With regard to

babies, infants and young children all this could only be estimated but never objectively measured. In-

water tests were only possible with school kids and even here the behaviour of young children cannot

be considered as “standard-test-method”-conform.

With the submission of prEN 13138-4:2018 these problems have been solved. All above mentioned

crucial parameters can be measured objectively. The allocation of a type of swimming device to a user

group – defined by body weight and body size – can be based on objective performance data. Tests gave

prove: Due to their comparatively heavy heads babies and infants are the most demanding users. The

centre of gravity – in particular when immersed – is positioned high on the body. They are “top-heavy”!

More over there is little space on the tiny bodies to attach a swimming device above the immersed

centre of gravity so that a positive torque can be applied to support the heavy heads. These problems

diminish with increasing age/weight/body size. The increased body height stretches the space to attach

swimming devices on the torso and lowers the centre of gravity. The influence of head weight in

relation to bod weight gets lesser and lesser. A swimming device can be positioned near the chest and

even belly area without losing the desired support when learning to swim.

The performance criterion of a swimming device is the floating angle achieved with a swimming device

done. According to this standard this final floating angle is required to be 0° or above. Prevention from

sinking is measured as freeboard at head. This freeboard is 0 mm or more. The performance unit is the

so-called TLC (TURNING-LIFTING-CAPACITY) of a swimming device. It is measured in angle degrees

and means that for the top heavy kids the device has to turn and to lift the body from a head

downwards in-water positon to at least the horizontal. To reproduce the top heaviness of small kids the

test manikins are calibrated to a negative sinking angle. Manikins representing older users are

calibrated to only −10° and finally 0°. Here it matters most that the swimming device does not create a

downwards torque. The natural sinking angle of older kids and adults is positive, i.e. they sink feet first.

The manikin tests specified in this standard end with the age/weight group of 6-7 years and 30 kg.

From that size on human tests can be applied. The tests subjects are requested to behave like the

manikins and simulate a passive user. Passive user? Learning process? Yes! A standard test method

striving for objective and reproducible product related performance measurements has to eliminate

subjective factors. Not the skills of a user to cope with a product can be measured but sole and purely

the product properties and their performance data.

All test conditions simulate a worst case situation, i.e. a passive user. The manikin’s head however is

immersed and receives buoyancy during all tests. In praxis children still have to struggle to generate

sufficient dynamic buoyancy to keep the head above water and to move forwards. Swimming aids are

no live preservers, they do not protect against drowning! But they help and give a certain protection

without releasing the user from the efforts when learning to swim.
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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
prEN 13138-4:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies safety and performance requirements regarding the in-water

behaviour of Buoyant aids for swimming instruction according to prEN 13138-1:2018. It specifies in-

water test methods based on the application of test manikin as well as on human test subjects.

This document applies only in connection with prEN 13138-1:2018.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

prEN 13138-1:2018, Buoyant aids for swimming instruction — Part 1: Safety requirements and test

methods for buoyant aids to be worn
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
buoyancy

resultant upthrust of a swimming device when totally submerged in fresh water with its uppermost

part just below the water surface
3.2
inherent buoyancy

upthrust provided by material which is less dense than water or by sealed chambers that are not

inflatable and are filled with air or gas
3.3
buoyant aid for swimming instruction (in brief "swimming device")

garment or device which when worn or held correctly will provide the buoyancy required to become

familiar with movement through the water, assist with learning to swim or to improve swimming

strokes
3.4
minimum buoyancy
least buoyancy required by the standard
3.5
original buoyancy
buoyancy provided by the complete device when first tested
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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
prEN 13138-4:2018 (E)
3.6
class A device

buoyant device in which the child is in contact with the water positioned inside the buoyant structure

so that it will keep the passive user in a stable floating position where the base of the chin is at or above

the surface of the water.

Note 1 to entry: This device is intended to allow the user to become familiar with the water environment.

3.7
class B device

buoyant swimming device intended to be worn, to be securely attached to the body and to introduce the

active user to the range of swimming strokes
3.8
class C device

device intended to be held either in the hands or by the body and to assist with swimming strokes

and/or improving specific elements of the strokes
3.9
device to be worn

device having either inherent buoyancy or may be inflated to provide buoyancy and which is securely

attached to the body in such a way that it cannot be accidentally removed and so as to provide the user

with buoyancy
3.10
device to be held

device held either in the hands or by the body and provides buoyancy whilst it is being held by the user

3.11
conditioning

process to which the complete device shall be submitted that includes immersion in chlorinated

swimming pool water and storage in cold and hot conditions and comprising a number of cycles, to

simulate the conditions to which the device is likely to be subjected in normal use and storage

3.12
component

sub group of the entire device which contributes to either buoyancy, function or safety

3.13
swim seat

buoyant device intended to introduce the user to the aquatic environment and to build water

confidence as a pre-requisite to learning to swim.

Note 1 to entry: Swim seats provide safety for the user but do not guarantee protection against drowning.

Note 2 to entry: Swim seats are learning aids and should not be mistaken with aquatic toys as defined in

EN 71-1.
3.14
swim seat system

all integrated components (parts) of a swim seat which contribute to stable floating conditions and to

safety during normal use or after an emergency capsizing
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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
prEN 13138-4:2018 (E)
3.15
escape

complete separation between the test dummy and the swim seat in case of a deliberate capsizing of the

swim seat or swim seat system
3.16
assessment panel

group of three people who are appointed by a test house, all of whom are experienced in assessing

buoyant swimming devices
3.17
kick board

buoyant device designed to be held in the hands or by the arms in order to support the body in the

water to assist the user to improve swimming strokes
3.18
Turning-Lifting-Capacity
TLC

Turning-Lifting-Capacity of a swimming device r its capability to turn the user’s body into a specified

floating angle and to lift it to a level where the body floats at least just on equal level with the water

surface or above

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed the angle between calibrated sinking angle and floating angle achieved by the

device
3.19
sinking angle

sinking angle is the angle to which a test manikin is intentionally calibrated when hung on its center of

gravity and completely immersed under water.
4 Safety and performance requirements
4.1 General

Swimming devices when correctly worn shall assist the active wearer in his/her attempts to learn to

swim. The device shall support the immersed body in a way that it does not exert forces or torques

which are counterproductive to the basic swimming techniques. If the active user becomes passive the

swimming device shall prevent the user from sinking no further than just below the water surface. In

order to satisfy this requirement the provision of the minimum buoyancy as specified in

prEN 13138-1:2018 requires the correct fit and positioning to be adhered too. Safety and performance

requirements as well as in-water testing in paragraphs 4.3 to 4.6 below have been specified.

All tests shall be performed in chest stroke position of the test manikin / human test subject and in calm

fresh water. Depending of the type of swimming aid to be tested, manikins shall be fitted with the

appropriate arm stumps as shown in Annex A, Figure A.1, Key number 1.

Test manikins as specified in Annexes A and B already provide the adequate residual functional lung

volume and the required body posture.

If swimming aids of an equal design series cover more than one mass range only the lowest and highest

mass range needs to be tested in order to meet the requirements for the entire series.

4.2 Category of users, test manikins, human test subjects

Safety and performance requirements as specified in Clause 5 shall be verified according the allocation

of test manikin or human test subject to the appropriate swimming aid as specified in Table 1.

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oSIST prEN 13138-4:2018
prEN 13138-4:2018 (E)
Table 1 — Category of user in combination of test manikin or human test subject
Category of user
Test manikin / human test subject / devices
Age Mass range
All types of swimming aids as specified in prEN 13138-1:2018
years kg
Up to 1 Up to 11 a
Apply test manikin I according to prEN 13138-4:2018, Annex A
1 to 2 11 to 15 a
Apply test manikin II according to prEN 13138-4:2018, Annex A
Apply test manikin III according to prEN 13138-4:2018, Annex A
2 to 3 15 to 18
Testing by extrapolation manikin II results according to 5.3.2
may be applied
3 to 6 18 to 30
Apply test manikin VII according to prEN 13138-4:2018, Annex B
Apply human test subject 1 with a body mass of 50 kg to 60 kg with body
6 to 12 30 to 60
mass index of 20 – 24
Apply human test subject 2 with a body mass of 60 kg to 80 kg with body
Over 12 Over 60
mass index of 20 – 24

NOTE It is essential that the max value of the mass range corresponds to the weight of the test manikin /

human test subject. The anthropometric definitions/settings cover a continuous subsequence including all ages /

weight from year 1 to year 7 (10 kg to 30 kg) and manikins in these ranges can be needed for special

applications.

Swimming devices are classified for user groups. Testing aims to consider the lowest and highest category of

users not intermediate users.
4.3 Prevention from sinking

With the swimming aid correctly fitted to the appropriate test manikin or human test subject it shall be

...

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