Thermal spraying - Terminology, classification (ISO 14917:2017)

This standard defines processes and general terms for thermal spraying. It also classifies the thermal spraying processes according to type of spray material, to type of operation, to type of energy carrier.

Thermisches Spritzen - Begriffe, Einteilung (ISO 14917:2017)

Projection thermique - Terminologie, classification (ISO 14917:2017)

ISO 14917:2017 définit les procédés et les termes généraux relatifs à la projection thermique. Il classe les procédés de projection thermique en fonction du type de matériau d'apport, du mode de projection et du type de source d'énergie. Il spécifie les abréviations associées aux procédés de projection, aux revêtements obtenus par projection et aux étapes de fabrication.

Vroče brizganje - Terminologija, razvrstitev (ISO 14917:2017)

Ta standard določa procese in splošne izraze za vroče brizganje. Razvršča tudi procese vročega brizganja glede na vrsto materiala za brizganje, vrsto delovanja, vrsto energetskega nosilca.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Sep-2015
Publication Date
17-May-2017
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Apr-2017
Due Date
30-Jun-2017
Completion Date
18-May-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
01-junij-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 657:2005
9URþHEUL]JDQMH7HUPLQRORJLMDUD]YUVWLWHY ,62
Thermal spraying - Terminology, classification (ISO 14917:2017)
Thermisches Spritzen - Begriffe, Einteilung (ISO 14917:2017)
Projection thermique - Terminologie, classification (ISO 14917:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14917:2017
ICS:
01.040.25 Izdelavna tehnika (Slovarji) Manufacturing engineering
(Vocabularies)
25.220.20 Površinska obdelava Surface treatment
SIST EN ISO 14917:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
EN ISO 14917
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.25; 25.220.20 Supersedes EN 657:2005
English Version
Thermal spraying - Terminology, classification (ISO
14917:2017)

Projection thermique - Terminologie, classification Thermisches Spritzen - Begriffe, Einteilung (ISO

(ISO 14917:2017) 14917:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 March 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14917:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
EN ISO 14917:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
EN ISO 14917:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14917:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107 "Metallic

and other inorganic coatings" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 240 “Thermal

spraying and thermally sprayed coatings” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 657:2005.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14917:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14917:2017 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14917
Second edition
2017-03
Thermal spraying — Terminology,
classification
Projection thermique — Terminologie, classification
Reference number
ISO 14917:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
ISO 14917:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
ISO 14917:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Process variations ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Classification according to the type of spray material .......................................................................................... 1

4.2 Classification according to the operation......................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.1 Manual spraying ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Mechanized spraying ................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.3 Automatic spraying ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3 Classification and abbreviations for thermal spraying, coatings and their

technological properties, post-treatments ..................................................................................................................... 2

4.3.1 Thermal spraying, coatings and properties .............................................................................................. 2

4.3.2 Condition of spray coatings and post-treatments ............................................................................... 2

4.3.3 Classification according to the energy carrier and/or to the type of spray
material — Abbreviations for spray processes and special surfacing

processes by welding ................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Process descriptions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 Flame spraying ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Wire flame spraying (Combustion wire spray) ..................................................................................... 4

5.1.3 Powder flame spraying ............................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 High velocity flame spraying ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 High velocity flame spraying with gaseous fuel .................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 High velocity flame spraying with liquid fuel ......................................................................................... 6

5.2.3 High velocity flame suspension spraying ................................................................................................... 6

5.2.4 Detonation spraying...................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Cold spraying (Cold gas spraying) .......................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Arc spraying processes — Arc spraying ............................................................................................................................ 9

5.5 Plasma spraying processes ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5.1 Atmospheric plasma spraying .............................................................................................................................. 9

5.5.2 Plasma suspension spraying ...............................................................................................................................10

5.5.3 Plasma spraying in chambers ............................................................................................................................10

5.6 Other plasma spraying processes ........................................................................................................................................11

5.6.1 Water-stabilized plasma spraying .................................................................................................................11

5.6.2 Induction plasma spraying — Inductively coupled plasma spraying .............................12

5.6.3 Plasma transferred wire arc spraying ........................................................................................................13

5.7 Laser cladding .......................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.8 Plasma transferred arc surfacing (PTA) .........................................................................................................................15

6 Thermal spraying — Terms ....................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1.1 Coatability ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1.2 Coating suitability ........................................................................................................................................................16

6.1.3 Spray suitability — Sprayability ......................................................................................................................17

6.1.4 Coating functionality .................................................................................................................................................17

6.1.5 Coating feasibility.........................................................................................................................................................17

6.1.6 Accompanying specimens .....................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Thermal spraying equipment, terms ................................................................................................................................17

6.2.1 Spray gun, torch .............................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.2 Spray nozzle ......................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.3 Supplementary nozzle .............................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
ISO 14917:2017(E)

6.2.4 Contact tube ......................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.5 Wire feed mechanism ...............................................................................................................................................18

6.2.6 Powder feeder .................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.7 Powder injector .................. .................................................... ........................................................................................18

6.3 Process specific terms of thermal spraying, terms ...............................................................................................18

6.3.1 Spray material .................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.2 Carrier gas ..........................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.3 Atomizing gas...................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.4 Propellant gas ..................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.5 Spray jet ................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.6 Spray particles ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.7 Splat .........................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.8 Spray deposit....................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.9 Spray distance .................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.10 Spray angle .........................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.11 Spray velocity ...................................................................... .............................................................................................19

6.3.12 Spray trace overlapping ..........................................................................................................................................19

6.3.13 Spray spot ...........................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.14 Deposition rate ...............................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.15 Spray losses .......................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.16 Deposition efficiency .................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.17 Masking .................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.18 Sealing ....................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.19 Thermal treatment ......................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.20 Fusing of sprayed deposits ...................................................................................................................................19

6.4 Coating specific terms ....................................................................................................................................................................19

6.4.1 Sprayed coating ..............................................................................................................................................................19

6.4.2 Substrate ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.3 Bond coat .............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.4 Top coat .................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.5 Interface ...............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.6 Non-melted particles ........................................................................................................................................... ......20

6.4.7 Re-solidified particles ...............................................................................................................................................20

6.5 Properties of thermally sprayed deposits, terms ...................................................................................................20

6.5.1 Tensile adhesive strength, R .............................................................................................................................

H 20

6.5.2 Cohesive strength .........................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.3 Hardness ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.4 Shear load resistance ................................................................................................................................................21

6.5.5 Other properties ............................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Master chart of thermal spraying processes — Classification

according to the energy carriers used for spraying ......................................................................................................22

Annex B (informative) Keyword index ............................................................................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
ISO 14917:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14917:1999), which has been technically

revised.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
ISO 14917:2017(E)
Introduction

Requests for official interpretations of technical aspects of this document should be directed to the

Secretariat of ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings, via your national standards body; a

listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14917:2017(E)
Thermal spraying — Terminology, classification
1 Scope

This document defines processes and general terms for thermal spraying. It classifies thermal spraying

processes according to type of spray material, to type of operation and to type of energy carrier. It

specifies abbreviations for spray processes, sprayed coatings, and manufacturing steps.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 17836, Thermal spraying — Determination of the deposition efficiency for thermal spraying

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
thermal spraying

process in which surfacing materials are heated to the plastic or molten state, inside or outside of the

spraying gun/torch, and then propelled onto a prepared surface

Note 1 to entry: The substrate may undergo some localized surface melting in the particle impact area only.

Note 2 to entry: To obtain specific properties of the deposit, a subsequent thermal, mechanical or sealing

treatment may be used.
4 Process variations
4.1 Classification according to the type of spray material
Distinction of the following variations:
— wire spraying;
— rod spraying;
— cord spraying;
— powder spraying;
— suspension spraying.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
ISO 14917:2017(E)
4.2 Classification according to the operation
4.2.1 Manual spraying
All operations typical of the spraying process are manual.
4.2.2 Mechanized spraying
All operations typical of the spraying process are mechanized.
4.2.3 Automatic spraying

All operations typical of the spraying process are fully mechanized including all handling, e.g. work-

piece loading and unloading, and are integrated in a programmed system. Also, monitoring and

controlling of the entire spraying process can be included according to the closed loop method.

4.3 Classification and abbreviations for thermal spraying, coatings and their
technological properties, post-treatments
4.3.1 Thermal spraying, coatings and properties
See Table 1.

Table 1 — Thermal spraying, coatings and properties (abbreviations in capital letter)

Abbreviation Item Specified in section Specified in a standard
TS Thermal spraying (in general) 3.1 —
BC Bond coat 6.4.3 —
TC Top coat 6.4.4 —
SF Self-fluxing alloy ISO 14920/ISO 14232
DE Deposition efficiency 6.3.16 ISO 17836
R Tensile adhesive strength 6.5.1 ISO 14916
4.3.2 Condition of spray coatings and post-treatments
See Table 2.

Table 2 — Condition of spray coatings and post-treatments (abbreviations in small letters)

Abbreviation State Specified in standard resp. described in section
as as sprayed 6.4.1
f fused ISO 14920
sm linished ISO 14924
m/c machined ISO 14924
s sealed ISO 14924

4.3.3 Classification according to the energy carrier and/or to the type of spray material —

Abbreviations for spray processes and special surfacing processes by welding

In classification according to the energy carrier, sub-classifications are necessary due to different spray

materials. Figure A.1 provides a master chart of the spray processes with sub-classifications. See also

Tables 3 and 4.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14917:2017
ISO 14917:2017(E)

Table 3 — Classification and abbreviations of spray processes (abbreviations in capital letters)

Process
Process
Standard spray processes description in
abbreviations
section
TS by means of gaseous Flame spray processes 5.1
or liquid fuels
Wire flame spraying (Combustion wire WFS 5.1.2
spray)
Cord flame spraying CFS 5.1.2
Rod flame spraying RFS 5.1.2
Powder flame spraying PFS 5.1.3
High velocity flame spraying 5.2
High velocity oxy-fuel spraying HVOF 5.2.1
High velocity air fuel spraying HVAF 5.2.1
High velocity flame suspension spraying HVFS
...

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