Textiles and textile products - Self-declared environmental claims - Use of terms

This Technical Specification establishes guidelines for the development and use of self-declared
environmental claims for textile products, which includes principles, methodology and rules for some terms
commonly used in environmental claims for textile products.
This Technical Specification does not substitute any legal requirements applicable to the textile product,
related with environmental information, claims or labelling, or any other applicable legal requirements.
The purpose of this Technical Specification is to give a robust basis in order to get a better knowledge of
certain used terms, and then select and choose the textile products which are the most respectful of the
environment and to make the textile professionals, especially from SMEs, aware of the principles for sincere
and precise environmental claims.

Textilien und textile Erzeugnisse - Umweltbezogene Anbietererklärung - Verwendung von Begriffen

Diese Technische Spezifikation legt Leitlinien für die Entwicklung und Verwendung umweltbezogener Anbietererklärungen für Textilien (z. B. Fasern, Garne, Flächengebilde), Textilprodukte (z. B. Bekleidung) und textile Produktteile (z. B. Polsterstoff bei Möbeln) fest, die die Grundlagen, Methodik und Vorschriften für einige, in Umwelterklärungen üblicherweise verwendete Begriffe einschließt.
Diese Technische Spezifikation bietet keinen Ersatz für irgendwelche, auf Textilprodukte anwendbare gesetzliche Anforderungen, die sich auf Umweltinformationen, Umweltaussagen oder Umweltkennzeichnungen oder auf eine sonstige gesetzliche Anforderung beziehen.

Textiles et produits textiles - Auto-déclarations environnementales - Emploi des termes

La présente Spécification technique établit des lignes directrices concernant l’élaboration et l’utilisation d’autodéclarations environnementales relatives aux textiles (par exemple, fibres, fils, étoffes), aux produits textiles (par exemple, vêtements) et aux composants de produits (par exemple, tissus d’ameublement). Ces lignes directrices regroupent des principes, une méthodologie et des règles relatifs à certains termes couramment employés dans les déclarations environnementales.
La présente Spécification technique ne saurait se substituer à toute exigence légale applicable aux produits textiles, relative aux informations, aux déclarations et aux marquages environnementaux, ou à toute autre exigence légale.

Tekstilije in tekstilni izdelki - Okoljsko samodeklariranje - Uporaba izrazov

Ta tehnična specifikacija določa smernice za razvoj in uporabo okoljskega samodeklariranja za tekstilne izdelke, ki vključujejo načela, metodologijo in pravila za nekatere izraze, ki se pogosto uporabljajo v okoljskih deklaracijah za tekstilne izdelke. Ta tehnična specifikacija ne nadomešča zakonskih zahtev za tekstilne izdelke, povezanih z okoljskimi informacijami, deklaracijami ali označevanjem, ali drugih veljavnih zakonskih zahtev. Namen te tehnične specifikacije je zagotoviti trdno podlago, da bi bilo mogoče boljše razumeti nekatere uporabljene izraze ter nato izbrati tekstilne izdelke, ki so najbolj okolju prijazni, in opozoriti strokovnjake v tekstilni panogi, zlasti iz malih in srednje velikih podjetij, na načela odkritosrčnega in natančnega okoljskega deklariranja.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Apr-2015
Publication Date
08-Dec-2015
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Nov-2015
Due Date
30-Jan-2016
Completion Date
09-Dec-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16822:2016
01-januar-2016
Tekstilije in tekstilni izdelki - Okoljsko samodeklariranje - Uporaba izrazov

Textiles and textile products - Self-declared environmental claims - Use of terms

Textilien und textile Erzeugnisse - Umweltbezogene Anbietererklärung - Verwendung

von Begriffen

Textiles et produits textiles - Auto-déclarations environnementales - Emploi des termes

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 16822:2015
ICS:
13.020.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi z Other standards related to
varstvom okolja environmental protection
59.080.01 Tekstilije na splošno Textiles in general
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16822:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16822:2016
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16822:2016
CEN/TS 16822
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
November 2015
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 13.020.50; 59.080.01
English Version
Textiles and textile products - Self-declared environmental
claims - Use of the terms

Textiles et produits textiles - Autodéclarations Textilien und textile Erzeugnisse - Umweltbezogene

environnementales - Utilisation des termes Anbietererklärung - Verwendung von Begriffen

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 22 May 2015 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 16822 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Guidance on the use of terms in relation to self-declared environmental claims ................... 8

4.1 Objective ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Fundamental principles ................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.2 Principle of accurate information ............................................................................................................. 8

4.2.3 Principle of verifiable methods.................................................................................................................. 8

4.2.4 Principle of significant impact.................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Methodology for developing self-declared environmental claims ............................................... 9

4.3.1 Methodology ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Terms frequently used in self-declared environmental claims for textile products........... 10

5.1 List of the terms frequently used............................................................................................................ 10

5.2 Terms: explanation and allowance ........................................................................................................ 11

5.2.1 Organic ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.2 Respect the environment, environmentally friendly, eco-friendly, ecological and

lower environmental impact ................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.3 Bio-based ......................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.4 Recycled, recyclable .................................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.5 Biodegradable ............................................................................................................................................... 14

5.2.6 Compostable .................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.2.7 Renewable ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.2.8 Natural ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.2.9 Eco-designed .................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.2.10 Green................................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.2.11 Sustainable ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.2.12 "Substance" free............................................................................................................................................ 16

5.2.13 Carbon neutral .............................................................................................................................................. 16

5.2.14 “Less water used” ......................................................................................................................................... 16

5.2.15 “Less energy used” ....................................................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Consideration of the terms "organic", “biological”, “biology” and

“ecological” ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

A.2 Etymology and definitions from reference dictionaries ................................................................ 18

A.2.1 "organic" (English) ...................................................................................................................................... 18

A.2.2 "biological" (English), "biology" (English) .......................................................................................... 18

A.2.3 "ecological" (English) .................................................................................................................................. 19

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A.3 Considerations ............................................................................................................................................... 19

A.4 European Regulation 834/2007/EC, Community Ecolabel for textile products and

the translations in the different European languages ..................................................................... 19

A.5 Useful links ...................................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex B (informative) European/International standards related to environmental

aspects .............................................................................................................................................................. 22

B.1 Generalities ..................................................................................................................................................... 22

B.2 Organization-related standards .............................................................................................................. 22

B.2.1 EN ISO 14001- series of standards .......................................................................................................... 22

B.2.2 EN ISO 19011- series of standards .......................................................................................................... 22

B.2.3 EN ISO 14031+ series of standards ........................................................................................................ 22

B.2.4 EN ISO 14063- series of standards .......................................................................................................... 22

B.3 Product-specific standards ....................................................................................................................... 22

B.3.1 EN ISO 14020- series of standards .......................................................................................................... 22

B.3.2 EN ISO 14040- series of standards .......................................................................................................... 23

B.3.3 Technical Report ISO/TR 14062 ............................................................................................................. 23

B.3.4 EN ISO 14064 (all parts) and CEN ISO/TS 14067 ............................................................................... 23

Annex C (informative) Methods frequently used to verify claims related to the terms as

mentioned in Clause 5 ................................................................................................................................. 24

Annex D (informative) Flow chart check-list when drafting a self-declared environmental

claim .................................................................................................................................................................. 25

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 26

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 16822:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 248

“Textiles and textile products”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

This Technical Specification has been written to help companies within the textile supply chain to

define self-declared environmental claims for textile products based on accurate and verifiable

information and to harmonize the use of self-declared environmental claims and, therefore, to promote

to the final consumer the purchase of textile products with less negative environmental impact and to

increase environmental consciousness.

It is essential that the self-declared environmental claims for textile products are reliable, based on a

clear, transparent, accurate and documented methodology.

The self-declared environmental claims for textile products can be carried out by any entity from the

textile chain, including manufacturers, importers, distributors, retailers, etc.

In many sectors, including the textile sector, the offers of "ecological" products are numerous and their

number is increasing. The environment is now the spot light on which many companies focus their

strategy.

However, this tendency leads to a proliferation of claims about textile products and these claims are

sometimes difficult to understand correctly, such as "sustainable", "responsible", "organic", "natural",

"biodegradable", or may even be abusive, for example "greenwashing".

The purpose of this Technical Specification is to answer the following questions: What is the meaning of

these terms and what can they really guarantee? How can we know exactly the environmental

characteristics of the textile products concerned? What are the practical conditions for using these

terms?

The environmental claims for textile products may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on

product or package labels, or in product literature such as technical bulletins, company advertising,

promotional material, etc.
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1 Scope

This Technical Specification establishes guidelines for the development and use of self-declared

environmental claims for textiles (e.g. fibres, yarns, fabrics), textile products (e.g. clothing) and textile

components of products (e.g. upholstery fabric in furniture), which includes principles, methodology

and rules for some terms commonly used in environmental claims.

This Technical Specification does not provide any substitute for any legal requirements applicable to

textile products, related to environmental information, environmental claims or labelling, or any other

legal requirement.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 14006, Environmental management systems - Guidelines for incorporating ecodesign (ISO 14006)

EN ISO 14021:2001 , Environmental labels and declarations — Self-declared environmental claims (Type

II environmental labelling)

EN ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework (ISO

14040:2006)

EN ISO 14044, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines (ISO

14044)

CEN ISO/TS 14067, Greenhouse gases - Carbon footprint of products - Requirements and guidelines for

quantification and communication (ISO/TS 14067)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
textile product
term covering "textiles", textile products and "textile components of products"
3.2
environmental claim

statement, symbol or graphic that indicates an environmental aspect of a product, a component or

packaging
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14021]

Note 1 to entry: An environmental claim may be made on product or packaging labels, through product

literature, technical bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as through digital or electronic media

such as the Internet [EN ISO 14021]. Some brand names or visual drawings which call to mind the protection of

the environment may be considered as environmental claims.

1) This document is currently impacted by the stand-alone amendment EN ISO 14021:2001/A1:2011.

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3.3
self-declared environmental claim

environmental claim that is made, without independent third-party certification, by manufacturers,

importers, distributors, retailers or anyone else likely to benefit from such a claim

[SOURCE: EN ISO 14021:2001, 3.1.13 ]
3.4
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation of

natural resources to the final disposal
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, 3.1]
3.5
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product

system throughout its life cycle
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, 3.2]
3.6
environmental aspect

element of an organization's activities, products or services, which can interact with the environment

[SOURCE: EN ISO 14020:2001, 2.3]
3.7
environmental impact

any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an

organization's activities or products
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14021:2001, 3.1.5 ]
3.8
explanatory statement

any explanation which is needed or given so that an environmental claim can be properly understood

by a purchaser, potential purchaser or user of the product
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14021:2001, 3.1.6 ]
3.9
functional unit
quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, 3.20]

2) The numbering of the original definitions in EN ISO 14021:2001 was impacted by the stand-alone amendment

EN ISO 14021:2001/A1:2011.
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4 Guidance on the use of terms in relation to self-declared environmental claims
4.1 Objective

This Technical Specification has been written to help companies within the textile supply chain to

define self-declared environmental claims for textile products based on accurate and verifiable

information and to harmonize the use of those self-declared environmental claims and therefore, to

promote to the final consumer the purchase of textile products with less negative environmental impact

and to increase environmental consciousness.
4.2 Fundamental principles
4.2.1 General

The self-declared environmental claims for textile products (including processes) shall be accurate

(4.2.2), verifiable (4.2.3) and relevant (4.2.4), which means that they shall be based on measurable

information, substantiated in data that can be checked and is relevant to that particular product.

No environmental claim shall be based on a mere restatement of fact, e.g. natural cotton.

4.2.2 Principle of accurate information

The self-declared environmental claims shall not be ambiguous, misleading or result, in any way, in a

misinterpretation. It shall not, directly or by implication, suggest an environmental improvement that

does not exist, or enlarge the environmental aspect.

The self-declared environmental claims shall be accompanied by an explanatory statement, which

should clearly indicate the environmental benefit, especially if the claim alone is likely to result in

misunderstanding.

The self-declared environmental claims shall be defined and presented in a manner that clearly

indicates its range of application (complete product, part of the product, packaging, service, etc.).

The self-declared environmental claims shall be updated, when necessary, to reflect any circumstances

that can affect the accuracy of the claim.
4.2.3 Principle of verifiable methods

The self-declared environmental claims shall be based on scientifically verifiable methods, which are

accepted and information on them shall be provided upon request to all interested parties.

NOTE Tracking of the production, known as product traceability, is an integral part of these verifiable

methods.

The claim shall be justified by practical, measurable, relevant, meaningful and verifiable elements (e.g.

in terms of eco-design, of limitation of the use of polluting substances or emissions of greenhouse gas, of

management control of the natural resources, energy and waste, etc.), in order to demonstrate that

negative environmental impacts related to the concerned activities have been significantly reduced or

that positive environmental impacts exist.
Justification may be provided by an independent body.

The informative Annex C lists the most frequent verifiable methods related to the terms mentioned in

Clause 5.
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4.2.4 Principle of significant impact

Whatever the environmental claims, they shall address significant environmental impacts of the textile

product. The claimed advantage shall not create or exacerbate other environmental impacts of the

product, at any stage of its life cycle.

The development of self-declared environmental claims for textile products shall take into

consideration the life cycle of the textile product, in order to identify all relevant aspects and study the

potential for increasing one environmental impact in the process of decreasing another (this does not

mean that a life cycle assessment shall be carried out according to EN ISO 14040).

4.3 Methodology for developing self-declared environmental claims
4.3.1 Methodology
4.3.1.1 General

The methodology for developing the self-declared environmental claims for textile products shall be

based on an accurate study that shall be documented and shall consider the following steps:

NOTE Further information can be found in EN ISO 14044 and, related to the general framework, in Annex D.

4.3.1.2 Objective (goal) and scope

The specific objective (goal) of the study, the target group (consumer, industrial customers, etc.) and

the scope shall be defined.

In the scope, some of the following shall be considered: the functional unit, the supply chain of the

product (including the material sources, production processes, transport and end use), the complete

process flow with inputs and outputs of each unit process (e.g. raw material, accessories, chemicals,

water, energy, textile product, wastewater, atmospheric emissions and wastes) and the existing

difficulties (e.g. in quantitative values, lack of information).

As a result, the study system boundary (see EN ISO 14044 for definition) and assumptions shall be

defined. The system boundary shall consider all unit processes, inputs or outputs that are relevant to

the study objective (goal). Whenever unit processes, inputs or outputs are not considered in the system

boundary this shall be clearly stated, and the reasons and implications for their omission shall be given.

4.3.1.3 Inventory analysis

After the system boundary and assumptions have been defined, all necessary data to quantify the inputs

and outputs of each unit process shall be collected. The data collected shall be measured, calculated or

estimated and, for each case, the source of the data and other relevant information related to the data

quality shall be referenced.

The necessary calculations shall be carried out in order to relate the collected data to each functional

unit.

As a result, the quantified inputs and outputs relating to each functional unit shall be defined.

4.3.1.4 Impact assessment

Based on the inventory analysis, the significance of potential environmental impacts associated with the

inputs and outputs shall be evaluated. For that, the environmental impact evaluation process

(environmental impact categories, indicators and decision about significance), including the positive

and negative impacts shall be defined. All information relevant to the impact assessment shall be

referenced.
As a result, the significance of all environmental impacts shall be defined.
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4.3.1.5 Environmental claim definition

Based on the results from the inventory analysis and impact assessment and considering the objective

(goal) and scope of the study, the self-declared environmental claim and the respective explanatory

statement shall be defined. The environmental claim shall consider the most significant environmental

impacts (positive or negative) of the product.

Before deciding the content of any self-declared environmental claim, the content may be checked

against the document sources as described in the flow chart (see Annex D, Figure D.1).

5 Terms frequently used in self-declared environmental claims for textile
products
5.1 List of the terms frequently used

Table 1 lists examples of the terms frequently used in self-declared environmental claims, which are

categorized as related to process and/or related to product. The list is not exhaustive.

NOTE The terms listed are common examples found on textile products. 5.2 gives an explanation of each term

and describes what is allowed. However, the principles of EN ISO 14020 and EN ISO 14021 take priority.

Table 1 — Examples of terms frequently used in self-declared environmental claims

Term Related to process Related to product Sub-clause
organic X 5.2.1
respect the environment, X X 5.2.2
environmentally friendly, eco-friendly
and ecological
bio-based X 5.2.3
recycled, recyclable X 5.2.4
biodegradable X 5.2.5
compostable X 5.2.6
renewable X 5.2.7
natural X 5.2.8
eco-designed X X 5.2.9
green X X 5.2.10
sustainable X X 5.2.11
"Substance" free X 5.2.12
carbon neutral X X 5.2.13
less water used X X 5.2.14
less energy used X X 5.2.15

Attention is drawn to EU legislation for fibre composition labelling. Where an environmental claim is

attached to a textile product, it should comprise a separate label that is less prominent than the fibre

composition label.
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5.2 Terms: explanation and allowance
5.2.1 Organic

NOTE For further consideration related to the word "organic" (English), see Annex A.

5.2.1.1 Explanation

Only certified organic agricultural products according to European regulation can use the term

"organic".

The production of raw agricultural textile fibres such as vegetable or animal fibres, is within the scope

of the European organic regulation.

For processed textile products (such as yarns, fabrics, clothes, etc.), the use of the term "organic" is not

regulated.
5.2.1.2 Allowance
Only unprocessed vegetable or animal fibres shall be described as "organic".

Environmental claims of “made with organic…” can be used in textile processed products but only if the

content of organic vegetable or animal fibres, expressed in percentage, is stated (application of the

accurate information principle). The percentage of "organic" fibres shall not be confused with the fibre

composition marking. For example, it is not the T-shirt that is claimed as "organic" but the cotton, and

the T-shirt may be labelled "made from x % organic cotton where x is the amount of organic cotton in

the article".

NOTE For certain categories of products (textiles, etc.), there are private and voluntary approaches that

provide for the incorporation of certified organic fibres in the product. These approaches can be subject to control

by an independent body (leading to certificate).

Fibres, such as cotton, hemp, flax, wool, silk, etc. are considered as agricultural non-food products, for

which the production can be controlled to ensure that the production is organic. In this case, the

production of "organic" fibre can be compared with a non-organic one, and then the qualification

"organic" is applicable.
Table 2 summarises acceptable expression(s) an
...

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