SIST EN 16214-1:2012(Main)
Sustainably produced biomass for energy applications - Principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers for biofuels and bioliquids - Part 1: Terminology
Sustainably produced biomass for energy applications - Principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers for biofuels and bioliquids - Part 1: Terminology
This European Standard defines the terminology to be used in the field of sustainably produced biomass for energy applications. It covers specifically biofuels and bioliquids. This European Standard specifically considers some relevant terms and definitions used in the European Commission Directive 2009/28/EC, referred to as Renewable Energy Directive (RED), or in other European regulations.
Nachhaltig produzierte Biomasse für Energieanwendungen - Grundsätze, Kriterien, Indikatoren und Prüfer für Biokraftstoffe und flüssige Biobrennstoffe - Teil 1: Terminologie
Die Richtlinie 2009/28/EG  der Europäischen Kommission für die Förderung der Nutzung von Energie aus erneuerbaren Quellen, die als Erneuerbare Energien Richtlinie (RED Richtlinie, en: Renewable Energy Directive) bezeichnet wird, umfasst weitergehende Verbindlichkeiten des Nachhaltigkeitskonzepts für Biokraft¬stoffe und flüssige Biobrennstoffe auf dem Europäischen Markt. Sie enthält verbindliche Nachhaltigkeits¬kriterien für Treibhausgaseinsparungen, Flächen mit großer biologischer Vielfalt, Flächen mit hohem Kohlen¬stoffbestand und Agrarumweltprogramme. In einigen Abschnitten der RED werden Anforderungen an die europäischen Mitgliedsstaaten und Unternehmen angegeben.
Nachhaltigkeitskriterien für die Qualität von Otto und Dieselkraftstoffen werden auch in der Richtlinie 98/70/EG in Verbindung mit der Änderung der Richtlinie 2009/30/EG (Spezifikationen für Otto-, Diesel- und Gasölkraftstoffe und die Einführung eines Systems zur Überwachung und Verringerung der Treibhausgas-emissionen) mandatiert. Die Richtlinie 98/70/EG wird als Kraftstoffqualitätsrichtlinie (FQD Richtlinie, en:Fuels Quality Directive) bezeichnet.
Im Mai 2009 ersuchte die Europäische Kommission CEN, die Erarbeitung von Normen zu veranlassen. Die Europäische Kommission und CEN stimmten darin überein, dass Normen eine wichtige Rolle bei der Umsetzung des EU Nachhaltigkeitskonzepts für Biokraftstoffe und flüssige Biobrennstoffe spielen können. In den Mitteilungen der Kommission über die praktische Umsetzung des EU Nachhaltigkeitskonzepts für Biokraftstoffe und flüssige Biobrennstoffe sowie zu den Berechnungsregeln für Biokraftstoffe (2010/C 160/02, ) erfolgt die Kenntnisnahme der CEN Arbeiten.
Es ist weitgehend akzeptiert, dass die Nachhaltigkeit in ihrer Gesamtheit Umwelt-, soziale und wirtschaftliche Aspekte umfasst. Die Europäischen Richtlinien machen die Einhaltung der verschiedenen Nachhaltigkeits¬kriterien für Biokraftstoffe und flüssige Biobrennstoffe verbindlich.
Biomasse produite de façon durable pour des applications énergétiques - Principes, critères, indicateurs et vérificateurs pour biocarburants et bioliquides - Partie 1: Terminologie
La présente Norme européenne définit la terminologie à utiliser dans le domaine de la biomasse produite de façon durable pour des applications énergétiques. Elle concerne spécifiquement les biocarburants et les bioliquides.
La présente Norme européenne considère spécifiquement certains termes et définitions pertinents utilisés dans la Directive 2009/28/CE de la Commission européenne , désignée en tant que Directive sur les énergies renouvelables (ENR), ou dans d'autres réglementations européennes.
Trajna proizvodnja biomase za energijsko uporabo - Načela, merila, kazalniki in preskuševalniki biogoriv in biotekočin - 1. del: Terminologija
Ta evropski standard določa terminologijo, ki se bo uporabljala na področju trajne proizvodnje biomase za energijsko uporabo. Pokriva posebno biogoriva in biotekočine. V tem evropskem standardu so posebej obravnavani nekateri pomembni izrazi in definicije, uporabljeni v Direktivi Evropske komisije 2009/28/ES (direktiva o obnovljivih virih energije) ali v drugih evropskih predpisih.
Standards Content (sample)
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Nachhaltig produzierte Biomasse für Energieanwendungen - Grundsätze, Kriterien, Indikatoren und Prüfer für Biokraftstoffe und flüssige Biobrennstoffe - Teil 1: TerminologieBiomasse produite de façon durable pour des applications énergétiques - Principes, critères, indicateurs et vérificateurs pour biocarburants et bioliquides - Partie 1: TerminologieSustainably produced biomass for energy applications - Principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers for biofuels and bioliquids - Part 1: Terminology27.190Biološki viri in drugi alternativni viri energijeBiological sources and alternative sources of energy01.040.27Prenos energije in toplote (Slovarji)Energy and heat transfer engineering (Vocabularies)ICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16214-1:2012SIST EN 16214-1:2012en,fr,de01-november-2012SIST EN 16214-1:2012SLOVENSKISTANDARD
SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2012 ICS 01.040.75; 27.190; 75.160.20 English Version
Sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications - Principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers - Part 1: Terminology
Critères de durabilité de la production des biocarburants et bioliquides pour des applications énergétiques - Principes, critères, indicateurs et vérificateurs - Partie 1: Terminologie Nachhaltigkeitskriterien für die Herstellung von Biokraftstoffen und flüssigen Biobrennstoffen für Energieanwendungen - Grundsätze, Kriterien, Indikatoren und Prüfer - Teil 1: Terminologie This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 July 2012.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels © 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 16214-1:2012: ESIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................41Scope ......................................................................................................................................................52Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5Annex A (normative)
Guidance on the identification of residues to use ................................................... 18Annex B (informative)
Decision tree ............................................................................................................... 19Annex C (informative)
Translation of terms................................................................................................... 20Annex D (informative)
A–deviations ............................................................................................................... 23Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 24Index .................................................................................................................................................................. 26 SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 16214-1:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 383 “Sustainably produced biomass for energy applications”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This European Standard comprises the following parts: − EN 16214-1, Sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications — Principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers — Part 1: Terminology; − prEN 16214-2, Sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications — Part 2: Conformity assessment including chain of custody and mass balance; − EN 16214-3, Sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications — Principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers — Part 3: Biodiversity and environmental aspects related to nature protection purposes; − prEN 16214-4, Sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications — Part 4: Calculation methods of the greenhouse gas emission balance using a life cycle analysis. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 4 Introduction Directive 2009/28/EC  of the European Commission on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, referred to as the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), incorporates an advanced binding sustainability scheme for biofuels and bioliquids for the European market. The RED contains binding sustainability criteria to greenhouse gas savings, land with high biodiversity value, land with high carbon stock and agro-environmental practices. Several articles in the RED present requirements to European Member States and to economic operators in Europe. Non-EU countries may have different requirements and criteria on, for instance, the GHG emission reduction set-off. The sustainability criteria are also mandated in Directive 98/70/EC  relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels, via the amending Directive 2009/30/EC  (as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions). Directive 98/70/EC is referred to as the Fuels Quality Directive (FQD).
In May 2009, the European Commission requested CEN to initiate work on standard(s) on: the implementation, by economic operators, of the mass balance method of custody chain management; the provision, by economic operators, of evidence that the production of raw material has not interfered with nature protection purposes, that the harvesting of raw material is necessary to preserve grassland's grassland status, and that the cultivation and harvesting of raw material does not involve drainage of previously undrained soil; the auditing, by Member States and by voluntary schemes of information submitted by economic operators. Both the EC and CEN agreed that these may play a role in the implementation of the EU biofuel and bioliquid sustainability scheme. In the Communication from the Commission on the practical implementation of the EU biofuels and bioliquids sustainability scheme and on counting rules for biofuels (2010/C 160/02, ), awareness of the CEN work is indicated. It is widely accepted that sustainability at large encompasses environmental, social and economic aspects. The European Directives make mandatory the compliance of several sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids. This European Standard has been developed with the aim to assist EU Member States and economic operators with the implementation of EU biofuel and bioliquids sustainability requirements mandated by the European Directives. This European Standard is limited to certain aspects relevant for a sustainability assessment of biomass produced for energy applications. Therefore compliance with this standard or parts thereof alone does not substantiate claims of the biomass being produced sustainably. Where applicable, the parts of this standard contain at the end an annex that informs the user of the link between the requirements in the European Directive and the requirements in the CEN Standard. SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard defines the terminology to be used in the field of sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications. This European Standard specifically considers some relevant terms and definitions used in the European Commission Directive 2009/28/EC , referred to as Renewable Energy Directive (RED), and in the European Commission Directive 2009/30/EC  referred to as Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), or in other European regulations. 2 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 2.1 accreditation third-party attestation related to a conformity assessment body conveying formal demonstration of its competence to carry our specific conformity assessment tasks [SOURCE: EN ISO/IEC 17000:2004, 5.6] 2.2 accreditation body authoritative body that performs accreditation NOTE 1 to entry: The authority of an accreditation body is generally derived from government. [SOURCE: EN ISO/IEC 17000:2004, 2.6] 2.3 actual value greenhouse gas emission or greenhouse gas emission savings for some or all of the steps of a specific biofuel production process calculated in accordance with a methodology compliant with applicable regulations
NOTE 1 to entry: As per 2009/28/EC . NOTE 2 to entry: See also default value (2.27), disaggregated default value (2.28), typical value (2.80). 2.4
agro-biodiversity component of biodiversity that contributes to food and agriculture production, encompassing within species, species and ecosystem diversity NOTE 1 to entry: Derived from FAO Glossary WFE 2005. 2.5 allocation partitioning the input or output flows of a process or a product system between the product system under study and one or more other product systems [SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, 2.17] 2.6 area for nature protection purposes area designated by law or other equivalent competent legal authority for the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and biodiversity values SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 6 NOTE 1 to entry: Within MCPFE classification long-term is minimum 20 years for forests and can be different in other ecosystems and regions . NOTE 2 to entry: Some clauses or elements of classification schemes might fall out under this definition, for example IUCN scheme . 2.7
audit systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the criteria are fulfilled NOTE 1 to entry: Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization itself for management review and other internal purposes, and may form the basis for an organization’s self-declaration of conformity. In many cases, particularly in smaller organizations, independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited. NOTE 2 to entry: Adapted from EN ISO 19011:2011 . 2.8 biofuel liquid or gaseous fuel for transport produced from biomass NOTE 1 to entry:
As per 2009/28/EC . 2.9 biofuel production transformation of biomass or of an intermediate product derived from biomass into a biofuel 2.10 biofuel producer
organization or unit responsible for the production of the biofuel NOTE 1 to entry: Adapted from EN 14588:2010 . 2.11 bioliquid liquid fuel for energy purposes other than for transport, including electricity and heating and cooling, produced from biomass NOTE 1 to entry: As per 2009/28/EC . NOTE 2 to entry: Includes viscous liquids such as waste cooking oil, animal fats, palm oil, crude tall oil and tall oil pitch. 2.12 bioliquid production transformation of biomass or of an intermediate product derived from biomass into a bioliquid 2.13 biomass biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste NOTE 1 to entry: As per 2009/28/EC . NOTE 2 to entry: The following definition is used in EN 14588:2010 : material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or transformed to fossil. SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 7 2.14 blending process of defined intentional mixing of a biofuel or a bioliquid with a fossil fuel or of a biofuel with a biofuel or a bioliquid with a bioliquid NOTE 1 to entry: See also mixture (2.54). 2.15 certificate attestation document issued by an independent third-party certification body [SOURCE: ISO 22222:2005, 2.2] 2.16 chain of custody system by which a connection is made between information or claims concerning raw materials or intermediate products and claims concerning final products, including all the stages from the raw material production up until the release of the final product for consumption 2.17 combined heat and power CHP simultaneous generation in one process of thermal energy and electrical and/or mechanical energy NOTE 1 to entry: As per 2004/8/EC . NOTE 2 to entry: Synonymous term: cogeneration. 2.18 conformity assessment set of procedures or activities intended to provide demonstration that specified requirements relating to a product, process, system, person or body are fulfilled NOTE 1 to entry: Adapted from EN ISO/IEC 17000:2004 . NOTE 2 to entry: See also first-party conformity assessment activity (2.32), second-party conformity assessment activity (2.71), third-party conformity assessment activity (2.79). 2.19 conformity assessment body body that performs conformity assessment services NOTE 1 to entry: An accreditation body is not a conformity assessment body. [SOURCE: EN ISO/IEC 17000:2004, 2.5] 2.20 consignment quantity of unfinished or finished product, consisting of one or more batches of the same sustainability characteristics, which is transferred from one economic operator to another one at the same time. NOTE 1 to entry: Transfer from/to two economic operators involves two consignments. 2.21
continuously forested area land spanning more than one hectare with trees higher than five metres and a canopy cover of more than 30 %, or trees able to reach those thresholds in situ NOTE 1 to entry:As per 2009/28/EC . SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 8 NOTE 2 to entry: Excludes land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. NOTE 3 to entry: Land under agricultural use in this context refers to tree stands in agricultural production systems, such as fruit tree plantations, oil palm plantations, short rotation coppice and, agroforestry systems when crops are grown under tree cover. NOTE 4 to entry: Includes managed forests with harvests and re-growth at intervals. 2.22 conversion chemical, biological or physical process whereby biomass or an intermediate product is converted into a finished biofuel/bioliquid or into an intermediate product 2.23 co-processing simultaneous conversion of feedstocks of different origins e.g. biomass and fossil feedstocks 2.24 co-product substance or object resulting from a production process not being a product, residue or waste NOTE 1 to entry: See also product (2.63), residue (2.69) and waste (2.84).
2.25 CO2 equivalent unit for comparing the time integral of radiative forcing of a GHG to carbon dioxide NOTE 1 to entry: The carbon dioxide equivalent is calculated using the mass of a given GHG multiplied by its global warming potential. [ISO 14064-1:2006 ] 2.26 criterion state or property as a means of judging whether or not a principle has been fulfilled NOTE 1 to entry: See also sustainability criteria (2.77). 2.27 default value greenhouse gas emission or greenhouse gas emission savings derived from a typical value by the application of pre-determined factors, which may be used in place of an actual value as specified in applicable regulations NOTE 1 to entry: As per 2009/28/EC . NOTE 2 to entry: See also actual value (2.3), disaggregated default value (2.28), typical value (2.80). 2.28 disaggregated default value greenhouse gas emission for a specific part of the supply chain derived from a default value. NOTE 1 to entry: See also actual value (2.3), default value (2.27), typical value (2.80). 2.29 distribution set of operations or activities to supply biofuels or bioliquids or their blends from their delivery to the fuel supplier and up to the final customer SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 9 2.30 economic operator individual or organisation which has ownership or physical control of biomass, intermediate products and products produced thereof, from the origin to the market availability of the biofuel or bioliquid for one or several steps in the (biofuel or bioliquid) chain of custody 2.31 ecosystem dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit 2.32 first-party conformity assessment activity conformity assessment activity that is performed by the person or organization that provides the object NOTE 1 to entry: The expression “object of conformity assessment” or “object” is used in this standard to encompass any particular material, product, installation, process, system, person or body to which conformity assessment is applied. NOTE 2
to entry: Adapted from EN ISO/IEC 17000:2004 . 2.33 forest land spanning more than 1 ha1) with trees higher than 5 m and a canopy cover of more than 10 %, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ, not including land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use NOTE 1 to entry: Forest is determined both by the presence of trees and the absence of other predominant land uses. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m in situ. NOTE 2 to entry: Includes areas with young trees that have not yet reached but which are expected to reach a canopy cover of 10 % and tree height of 5 m. It also includes areas that are temporarily unstocked due to clear cutting as part of a forest management practice or natural disasters, and which are expected to be regenerated within five years. Local conditions may, in exceptional cases, justify that a longer time frame is used. NOTE 3 to entry: Includes forest roads, firebreaks and other small open areas; forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of specific environmental, scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest. NOTE 4 to entry: Includes windbreaks, shelterbelts and corridors of trees with an area of more than 0,5 ha and width of more than 20 m. NOTE 5 to entry: Includes abandoned shifting cultivation land with a regeneration of trees that have, or is expected to reach, a canopy cover of 10 % and tree height of 5 m. NOTE 6 to entry: Includes areas with mangroves in tidal zones, regardless whether this area is classified as land area or not. NOTE 7 to entry: Excludes rubber-wood, cork oak and Christmas tree plantations with a fixed rotation cycle. NOTE 8 to entry: Includes areas with bamboo and palms provided that land use, height and canopy cover criteria are met. NOTE 9 to entry: Excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems, such as fruit tree plantations, oil palm plantations, short rotation coppice, and agroforestry systems when crops are grown under tree cover.
NOTE 10 to entry: Some agroforestry systems such as the “Taungya” system where crops are grown only during the first years of the forest rotation should be classified as forest.
1) The FAO source document  contains a value of 0,5 ha. The value has been adapted according to the RED . SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 10 NOTE 11 to entry: Adapted from . 2.34 fossil fuel liquid and gaseous fuel derived from crude oil, natural gas or coal 2.35 fossil fuel comparator latest available actual average GHG emissions from the fossil part of fuels consumed in the European Union as reported under 98/70/EC  and 2009/30/EC  or if not available the relevant figure as listed in Annex V part C no. 19 of Directive 2009/28/EC  2.36 fuel energy carrier intended for energy conversion
NOTE 1 to entry: Fuels are solid, liquid or gaseous. NOTE 2 to entry: Fuels are in this context fossil fuels, biofuels and bioliquids. NOTE 3 to entry: As per 2009/28/EC . 2.37 global warming potential GWP factor describing the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit of a given GHG relative to an equivalent unit of carbon dioxide over a given period of timeNOTE 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 14064-1:2006 .
NOTE 2 to entry: GHG values are provided in Directive 2009/28/EC . 2.38 greenhouse gas
GHG gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the earth's surface, the atmosphere, and clouds NOTE 1 to entry: For the purpose of this standard, GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O). NOTE 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO 14064-1:2006 . 2.39 greenhouse gas emission total mass of a greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere over a specified period of time NOTE 1 to entry: Combined emissions of different greenhouse gases are commonly expressed in terms of “CO2 equivalents”. NOTE 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO 14064-1:2006 . 2.40 greenhouse gas emission savings percentage of greenhouse gas emission saved by the use of a biofuel or bioliquid as compared to a fossil fuel comparator SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 11 2.41 group auditing third-party conformity assessment for a group of similar economic operators, in particular for smallholder farmers, producer organisations and cooperatives on the basis of sampling NOTE 1 to entry: Group auditing for compliance with land related criteria is only acceptable when the areas concerned are near each other and have similar characteristics. NOTE 2 to entry: Group auditing for the purpose of calculating greenhouse gas savings is only acceptable when the units have similar production systems and products. 2.42 habitat natural environment that surrounds (influences and is utilized by) a species population 2.43 highly biodiverse natural grassland grassland that would remain grassland in the absence of human intervention and which maintains the natural species composition and ecological characteristics and processes 2.44 highly biodiverse non-natural grassland grassland that would cease to be grassland in the absence of human intervention and which is species-rich and not degraded, unless evidence is provided that the harvesting of the raw material is necessary to preserve its grassland status 2.45 indicator quantitative or qualitative parameter for the assessment of a criterion 2.46 intermediate product output from a unit process that is input to other unit processes that require further transformation within the system [SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, 2.23] 2.47 land use total of arrangements, activities and inputs (a set of human actions) undertaken in a certain land cover type NOTE 1 to entry: The term land use is also used in the sense of the social and economic purposes for which land is managed (e.g., grazing, timber extraction, and conservation) 2.48 land use change LUC change in terms of land cover between the six IPCC land categories (forest land, grass land, crop land, wetlands, settlements and others land), plus a seventh category consisting of perennial crops including ( tree) crop plantations NOTE 1 to entry: The reference date is provided in 2009/28/EC . NOTE 2 to entry: Adapted from . 2.49 land with high carbon stock wetlands; continuously forested areas; land spanning more than one hectare with trees higher than 5 m and a canopy cover of between 10 % and 30 %, or trees able to reach those thresholds in situ SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 12 NOTE 1 to entry: See also continuously forested area (2.22), forest (2.33). 2.50 life cycle consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal [SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, definition 2.1] 2.51 lower heating value LHV amount of heat released by the complete combustion of a material at atmospheric pressure assuming both the material and all combustion products are at 25 °C and all water, either present in the original material or produced by the combustion, remains in gaseous state NOTE 1 to entry: The LHV of a wet stream is the difference between the LHV of its dry matter content and the heat required to dry out the material. The following formula may be used: LHV = LHVdry (100 - %W)/100 - %W * 2,442 /100 (1) where LHVdry is the LHV of the dry matter expressed in MJ/kg; %W is the mass percentage of water in the stream; 2,442 is the latent heat of vaporisation of water at 25°C expressed in MJ/kg . 2.52 mass balance relationship between input and output of a specific substance within a system for chain of custody, in which the output from the system cannot exceed the input into the system NOTE 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6107-3:1993 . NOTE 2 to entry: In Directive 2009/28/EC  mass balance refers to the concept of demonstrating that the sum of all consignments withdrawn from the mixture has the same sustainability characteristics, in the same quantities, as the sum of all consignments added to the mixture. 2.53 mass balance system system of chain of custody in which "sustainability characteristics" remain assigned to "consignments" and which
1) allows consignments of raw material or biofuel with differing sustainability characteristics to be mixed; 2) requires information about the sustainability characteristics and sizes of the consignments referred to in point 1 remains assigned to the mixture; and 3) provides for the sum of all consignments withdrawn from the mixture is described as having the same sustainability characteristics, in the same quantities, as the sum of all consignments added to the mixture. NOTE 1 to entry: In the mass balance system, each economic operator within an EU member state or third country keeps track of the amount of sustainable biomass, biofuel or bioliquid it sources and the amount of sustainable biomass, biofuel or bioliquid it delivers as defined in prEN 16214-2:2010 . NOTE 2 to entry: The RED mass balance method of the chain of custody applies to production / trading processes where raw material fulfilling the requirements of Directive 2009/28/EC  is mixed together with other raw material categories. SIST EN 16214-1:2012
EN 16214-1:2012 (E) 13 2.54 mixture mix of substances (either agricultural products, intermediate products of biofuels and bioliquids) from different consignments, having any form where consignments would normally be in contact, such as in a container, processing or logistical facility or site and where separate sizes and sustainability characteristics of each consignment remain assigned to the mix of substances NOTE 1 to entry: See also blending (2.14). 2.55 nutrient balance balance of nutrients coming into the farming/forestry system (weathering, deposition, fertilizers) with those leaving (harvest, leaching) 2.56 organization company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration NOTE 1 to entry: For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single operating unit may be defined as an organization. [SOURCE: EN ISO 14001:2004, 2.16] 2.57 peatland area with or without vegetation with a naturally accumulated peat layer at the surface of at least 30 cm in depth NOTE 1 to entry: Adapted from . NOTE 2 to entry: Peat is sedentarily accumulated material consisting of at least 30% (dry mass) of dead organic material. NOTE 3 to entry: Peat itself is not considered biomass . 2.58 point of collection point from which waste, agricultural crop residues or residues from processing can be directly used as raw material for biofuel or bioliqui...
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