Construction products - Assessment of release of dangerous substances - Radiation from construction products - Dose assessment of emitted gamma radiation

The aim of this Technical Report is to propose a methodology to determine indoor gamma dose from building materials and to help classify such a product as required in the Construction Products Regulation [7]. This first technical approach could be a precursor for the development of a harmonized European Standard based on this methodology.
NOTE 1   In this Technical Report, doses from radon and thoron exhalation are excluded. However, in 3.3, information is given on how radon exhalation is dealt with in (EU)2013/59/Euratom, the Basic Safety Standards Directive (Euratom-BSS) [1].
NOTE 2   Building materials considered in this Technical Report are the construction products used for buildings. Other construction products used for any other construction works (civil engineering…) are not relevant and out of the purpose of the scope of this Technical Report.
NOTE 3   Compliance with national exemption levels for NORM nuclides remains.

Bauprodukte - Bewertung der Freisetzung von gefährlichen Stoffen - Festlegung des Verfahrens zur Beurteilung der Strahlendosis und Klassifizierung von emittierter Gammastrahlung

Das Ziel dieses Technischen Berichts ist es, eine Methodik zur Bestimmung der Gamma-Dosen durch Baustoffen in Innenräumen aufzustellen und die Klassifizierung solcher Produkte zu unterstützen, wie dies von der Bauproduktenverordnung [7] verlangt wird. Dieser erste technische Ansatz könnte ein Vorläufer für die Entwicklung einer harmonisierten Europäischen Norm, basierend auf dieser Methodik, sein.
ANMERKUNG 1   In diesem Technischen Bericht sind Dosen durch die Exhalation von Radon und Thoron ausgenommen. Allerdings sind in Abschnitt 3.3 Informationen zur Handhabung der Radonexhalation in der Grundnormenrichtlinie 2013/59/Euratom [1] angegeben.
ANMERKUNG 2   Die Konformität mit nationalen Freigrenzen für NORM Nuklide bleibt erhalten.

Produits de construction - Evaluation de l’émission de substances dangereuses – Détermination de l’estimation dosimétrique et classification en fonction de l’émission de rayonnement gamma

Gradbeni proizvodi - Ocenjevanje sproščanja nevarnih snovi - Sevanje gradbenih proizvodov - Ocena odmerka gama sevanja

Cilj tega tehničnega poročila je predlagati metodologijo za določanje doze gama sevanja v zaprtih prostorih iz gradbenih materialov in pomagati razvrstiti takšen proizvod v skladu z zahtevami v Uredbi o gradbenih proizvodih (CPR) [7]. Ta prvi tehnični pristop je lahko znanilec razvoja harmoniziranega evropskega standarda, osnovanega na tej tehnologiji.
OPOMBA 1 V tem tehničnem poročilu so izključene doze izhajanja radona in torona. Vendar pa 3.3 vključuje informacije o tem, kako je izhajanje radona obravnavano v (EU)2013/59/Euratom, direktivi o temeljnih varnostnih standardih (Euratom-BSS) [1].
OPOMBA 2 Gradbeni materiali, omenjeni v tem tehničnem poročilu, so gradbeni proizvodi, ki se uporabljajo za stavbe. Drugi gradbeni proizvodi, ki se uporabljajo za druga gradbena dela (kot je npr. gradbeni inženiring), niso pomembni in v tem tehničnem poročilu niso zajeti.
OPOMBA 3 Skladnost z nacionalnimi ravnmi izvzetja za nuklide NORM se ohrani.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Apr-2017
Publication Date
15-Apr-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Jan-2018
Due Date
16-Mar-2018
Completion Date
16-Apr-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17113:2018
01-maj-2018
*UDGEHQLSURL]YRGL2FHQMHYDQMHVSURãþDQMDQHYDUQLKVQRYL6HYDQMHJUDGEHQLK
SURL]YRGRY2FHQDRGPHUNDJDPDVHYDQMD

Construction products - Assessment of release of dangerous substances - Radiation

from construction products - Dose assessment of emitted gamma radiation

Bauprodukte - Bewertung der Freisetzung von gefährlichen Stoffen - Festlegung des

Verfahrens zur Beurteilung der Strahlendosis und Klassifizierung von emittierter
Gammastrahlung
3URGXLWVGHFRQVWUXFWLRQ(YDOXDWLRQGHOpPLVVLRQGHVXEVWDQFHVGDQJHUHXVHV

'pWHUPLQDWLRQGHOHVWLPDWLRQGRVLPpWULTXHHWFODVVLILFDWLRQHQIRQFWLRQGHOpPLVVLRQ

GHUD\RQQHPHQWJDPPD
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17113:2017
ICS:
13.020.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi z Other standards related to
varstvom okolja environmental protection
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
91.100.01 Gradbeni materiali na Construction materials in
splošno general
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17113:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17113:2018
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17113:2018
CEN/TR 17113
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
October 2017
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 91.100.01
English Version
Construction products - Assessment of release of
dangerous substances - Radiation from construction
products - Dose assessment of emitted gamma radiation

Produits de construction - Evaluation de l¿émission de Bauprodukte - Bewertung der Freisetzung von

substances dangereuses ¿ Détermination de gefährlichen Stoffen - Festlegung des Verfahrens zur

l¿estimation dosimétrique et classification en fonction Beurteilung der Strahlendosis und Klassifizierung von

de l¿émission de rayonnement gamma emittierter Gammastrahlung

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 28 May 2017. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 351.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17113:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

3 European Regulatory Framework ............................................................................................................ 9

3.1 Provisions on radiation protection .......................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Provisions on the marketing of construction products under the CPR .................................... 10

3.3 Radon exhalation from building materials ......................................................................................... 11

4 Provisions for dose assessment .............................................................................................................. 11

4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Principle of calculation .............................................................................................................................. 11

4.3 Room model ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4.4 Basic assumptions........................................................................................................................................ 13

4.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.4.2 Shielding effect of materials for cosmic radiation ........................................................................... 14

4.4.3 Conversion factor for absorbed dose in air ........................................................................................ 14

4.4.4 Occupancy ....................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.4.5 Activity concentrations for reference concrete in Europe ............................................................ 14

4.5 Graded approach to dose assessment taking into account density and thickness .............. 14

4.6 Assessment of indoor gamma exposure due to building materials and construction

products ........................................................................................................................................................... 17

4.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

4.6.2 Composite material ..................................................................................................................................... 18

4.6.3 Dose assessment for concrete coated with a layer of thin material .......................................... 19

4.6.4 Roof tiles .......................................................................................................................................................... 19

4.6.5 Materials not complying to Formula (3) .............................................................................................. 20

4.6.6 Conclusive ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

Annex A (informative) Calculation of external gamma dose rate .............................................................. 21

A.1 Calculation of gamma dose rate .............................................................................................................. 21

A.2 Parameters for a simple computer program ..................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Examples of dose assessment using Table 2 ........................................................ 25

226
B.1 Example 1: Exposure to gamma radiation in a concrete room where the Ra and
232

Th concentrations are slightly above average .............................................................................. 25

B.2 Example 2: Exposure to gamma radiation in a room where the walls are made of
226 232
material with elevated Ra and Th concentrations and the floor and ceiling of

typical concrete ............................................................................................................................................. 26

B.3 Example 3: Exposure to gamma radiation in a room with concrete floor and ceiling,

and cavity walls with brick and limestone .......................................................................................... 27

Annex C (informative) Estimate of indoor gamma dose based on mass per unit area as

control parameter ........................................................................................................................................ 29

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Annex D (informative) Validation of the dose modelling and a density corrected index

formula ............................................................................................................................................................. 33

D.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 33

D.2 Calculations .................................................................................................................................................... 33

D.3 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................................... 38

Annex E (informative) Considerations on and justification for choosing an appropriate room

size ..................................................................................................................................................................... 39

E.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 39

E.2 Chosen dimensions for the model room .............................................................................................. 40

E.3 Calculation of values given in Table E.1 ............................................................................................... 41

E.3.1 Rooms 1a and 1b, with dimensions 12 m × 7 m × 2,8 m ................................................................. 41

E.3.2 Rooms 2a and 2b, with dimensions 3 m × 4 m × 2,5 m .................................................................... 41

E.4 Specific dose rates from different structures in the EN 16516 model room ........................... 42

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 46

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17113:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 351

“Construction products: Assessment of release of dangerous substances”, the secretariat of which is

held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
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Introduction

The aim of this report is to propose a dose assessment methodology that accounts for factors such as

density or thickness of the material as well as factors relating to the type of construction and the

intended use of the material (bulk or superficial) as required by Annex VIII of the 2013/59/EURATOM

[1]. This approach is specially needed for building materials and construction products with an index

exceeding 1 but that nonetheless may comply with the 1 mSv per year reference level established in the

2013/59/EURATOM [1].

NOTE Although the methodology is centred around the reference level of 1 mSv established in the

2013/59/EURATOM, the methodology is also applicable if a reference value other than 1 mSv per year is selected.

In that case, the selected dose value D and its corresponding index value I is adjusted accordingly.

In 1996, natural radiation sources were already included in the standards established by Euratom as

well as those established by the IAEA [2]. Since then, the European Commission has moved ahead

publishing, on a regular basis, technical support guidance and recommendations on Naturally Occurring

Radioactive Material (NORM) issues. In 1997, for instance, recommendations [3] were published to help

deal with "significant increase in exposure due to natural radiations". In 1999, the European

Commission published radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of

building materials [4] and reference levels for workplaces processing materials with enhanced levels of

naturally occurring radionuclides [5]. Lastly, in 2001 the European Commission published

recommendations dealing with exemption and clearance levels for NORM residues [6].

These recommendations have provided Member States with criteria and a sound technical framework

to help establish national regulations for NORM and building materials. Some Member States have

already included all or parts of these recommendations in their regulatory framework anticipating the

new EU directive.

Subsequently, the European Commission decided to harmonize, promote and consolidate the main

recommendations, introducing them into a new Council directive (2013/59/Euratom [1]) laying down

basic safety standards for the protection against the danger arising from exposure to ionising radiation.

This BSS directive was officially issued in January 2014. Member States have four years to transpose

and implement this directive and according to the Euratom treaty, these members will before then,

communicate to the Commission their existing and draft provisions. The Commission will then make

appropriate recommendations for harmonizing the provisions amongst member States.

Requirements of this directive (2013/59/EURATOM, [1]) dealing with building materials are hereby

presented. They should be taken into account along with the 2011 EU regulation laying down

harmonized conditions for the marketing of construction products (EU no 305/2011) [7], so called CPR,

containing many relevant articles which complement the aforesaid directive.

Both EU regulatory documents constitute the new basis for building material radiation protection

regulation and should be soon followed by more detailed EU guidance and standards of which this

document (CEN/TR 17113) should be part.

The European Commission (EC) has mandated the CEN to establish EU harmonized standards regarding

dose assessment of emitted gamma radiation from construction products. The EC has also informed

CEN (CEN/TC 351, Berlin 11 February 2013) that the aim is to establish one test method per product, or

product type, that the method should be demonstrably robust and should be adopted by all Member

States as soon as the 2013/59/EURATOM comes into force.

This document can help Member State regulators to complete the 2013/59/EURATOM and CPR

regulatory framework covering a screening tool, dose modelling, and related technical information

about radiation protection. Amongst others, the following recommendations were discussed by the CEN

and the EC for the content of this document:
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— The scope will exclude radon and thoron exhalation from building materials because this

exhalation is dealt with in a different manner in the EU regulation. Regulatory explanations are

given in Clause 3.
— Main assumptions, coefficients and conversion factors are taken into account.

— The methodology enables establishing which building materials may lead to a dose exceeding

1 mSv per year for a member of the public or which building materials can be exempted from

further restrictions.

— Mass per unit area (kg/m ) of the material will be considered in the approach keeping a dose

estimate model based on similar room models as the one used to establish the index mentioned in

the 2013/59/EURATOM.

— Additional sensitivity analysis regarding the room geometry is presented in Annex E to

demonstrate that there is no more than 10 % of influence of such geometry upon the determination

of doses.

Lastly, it is important to underline that the EU regulatory philosophy is to ensure that gamma doses

from building materials to a member of the public remain under 1 mSv per year in addition to outdoor

external exposure (2013/59/EURATOM Article 75) [1]. A simplified model, so called "index" in the

2013/59/EURATOM is also proposed as a conservative screening tool ensuring that materials with an

index I less than 1 do not present any risk exceeding 1 mSv per year of indoor gamma radiation, in any

construction, to a member of the public.

Annex VIII of the 2013/59/EURATOM Directive presents such an index requiring determination of

226 232 40

Ra, Th and K. For the purposes of this determination, CEN/TC 351 has developed a test method

to be published first as a Technical Specification (TS) and later after completed validation as a European

Standard (EN). In certain cases, there is a need to assess dose more precisely as described in Annex VIII

of the 2013/59/EURATOM Directive. This TR presents such a formula for more sophisticated

calculation of dose. It could serve as basis for a European approach supporting the implementation of

the 2013/59/EURATOM Directive taking place in member states, also from a harmonized approach

point of view.

As determination of three radionuclides of gamma radiation according to an EN (TS) will be part of

obligations of product manufacturers and will be referred to in harmonized product standards under

the Construction Products Regulation (CPR; EU 305/2011) (hEN) it is proposed that assessment of dose

could be consequently described in an EN.

This Technical Report presents the state-of-the-art on dose assessment presented in RP 112 [4] and

now further developed into the form of a more sophisticated formula. It has been noticed that for

credibility reasons exact correctness of all background data must be further checked. It is proposed that

this could take place when developing a European Standard.
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1 Scope

The aim of this Technical Report is to propose a methodology to determine indoor gamma dose from

building materials and to help classify such a product as required in the Construction Products

Regulation [7]. This first technical approach could be a precursor for the development of a harmonized

European Standard based on this methodology.

NOTE 1 In this Technical Report, doses from radon and thoron exhalation are excluded. However, in 3.3,

information is given on how radon exhalation is dealt with in (EU)2013/59/Euratom, the Basic Safety Standards

Directive (2013/59/EURATOM) [1].
NOTE 2 Compliance with national exemption levels for NORM nuclides remains.
2 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16687 [8] and the following

apply.
2.1
authorization
registration or licensing of a practice
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (7) [1]]
2.2
building material

any construction product for incorporation in a permanent manner in a building or parts thereof and

the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the building with regard to exposure of

its occupants to ionizing radiation
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (9) [1]]

Note 1 to entry: Building materials considered in this Technical Report are the construction products used for

building works. Other construction products used for any other construction works (civil engineering, etc.) are not

relevant and out of the purpose of the scope of this Technical Report. The assessment described in this Technical

Report was carried out under the assumption of the CEN/TC 351 model room.
2.3
competent authority

authority or system of authorities designated by Member States as having legal authority for the

purposes of the 2013/59/EURATOM [1]
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (16) [1]]
2.4
effective dose

sum of the weighted equivalent doses in all the tissues and organs of the body from internal and

external exposure
Note 1 to entry: It is defined by the expression:
(1)
E w H w wD
T T T R TR,
∑ ∑∑
T TR
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where
D is the absorbed dose averaged over tissue or organ T, due to radiation R [-];
T,R
wR is the radiation weighting factor [-];
wT is the tissue weighting factor for tissue or organ T [-].

Note 2 to entry: The values for w and w are specified in Annex II of the BSS [1].

T R
Note 3 to entry: The unit for effective dose is the sievert (Sv).
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (25) [1]]
2.5
exemption level

value established by a competent authority or in legislation and expressed in terms of activity

concentration, total activity at or below which a radiation source is not subject to notification or

authorisation
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (34) [1]]
2.6
practice

human activity that can increase the exposure of individuals to radiation from a radiation source and is

managed as a planned exposure situation
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (65) [1]]
2.7
226
226
radionuclide Ra and its progenies in secular equilibrium
2.8
radon
222
radionuclide Rn and its progeny, as appropriate
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (82) [1]]
2.9
reference level

level of effective dose or equivalent dose or activity concentration above which it is judged

inappropriate to allow exposures to occur, even though it is not a limit that may not be exceeded

Note 1 to entry: Exposure to gamma radiation from building materials is ranked by the EU BSS among the

existing exposure situations.
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (84) [1]]
2.10
regulatory control

any form of control or regulation applied to human activities for the enforcement of radiation

protection requirements
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (87) [1]]
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2.11
Sievert
special name of the unit of equivalent or effective dose

Note 1 to entry: One sievert is equivalent to one joule per kilogram: 1 Sv = 1 J/kg.

[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (91) [1]]
Note 2 to entry: 1 Gy is also 1 J/kg.
2.12
232
232
radionuclide Th and its progenies in secular equilibrium
2.13
thoron
220
radionuclide Rn and its progeny, as appropriate
[SOURCE: 2013/59/EURATOM, chapter II, Article 4, (97) [1]]
3 European Regulatory Framework
3.1 Provisions on radiation protection

Some new requirements have been established for building materials in the 2013/59/EURATOM [1]

but they derive from earlier EU or IAEA principles and recommendations given in references [4], [5],

[6], [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Such principles and recommendations were taken into consideration

by some Member States but further harmonisation and consistency throughout Europe were to be

established. Existing principles and recommendations were then reviewed and enhanced by EU

Member States to be turned into proper harmonized EU regulations (2013/59/EURATOM, [1]) which

was officially issued in January 2014.

For building materials of concern, which are identified by individual Member States (whether from

natural origin or from those in which specific residues from identified NORM industries have been

226 232 40

incorporated), activity concentrations of Ra, Th and K need be analysed so that builders can

assess the final gamma dose from the building and its compliance with the reference level of 1 mSv per

year (compared to outdoor background dose).

If the dose resulting from building material exceeds the reference level of 1 mSv per year, the radium

concentration of this material can be quite high and this possibly leads to a significant emission

(exhalation) of radon. Due to the influence of the release (emanation) and of the transport process

(diffusion, convection) inside the building material, no clear correlation between the radium

concentration and the exhalation of radon can be found. Materials with a low radium concentration can

release a significant and relevant amount of radon, or vice versa. To regulate the radium concentration

is necessary but not sufficient to reduce the radon exhalation.

NOTE 1 The inhalation dose from radon is not considered in the reference level of 1 mSv per year. The radon

from building materials and soil is regulated by a separate reference level for indoor radon concentration. In many

cases, the radon indoors predominantly originates from the ground, and not from the building material.

Although responsible use of industrial by-products in building materials is well-known, there are some

examples where building materials have led to an increased dose for the inhabitants of buildings [14].

NOTE 2 An indicative list of building materials potentially of concern is included in 2013/59/EURATOM Annex

XIII [1] and is to be taken into account by Member States.
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NOTE 3 In the case of composite material, like concrete, the activity concentration index can be calculated from

the contribution of the constituents (see Figure 3). Not every constituent will necessarily comply with the

condition I < 1, nor will every building material.

The EU RP 112 principles [4] established the first non-prescriptive EU radiation protection framework

concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. This EU RP 112 was based on a publication

[15] from the Finnish regulator (STUK) and provides EU Member States with a user-friendly screening

tool to evaluate building materials’ radiation gamma emissions and help check compliance with the

maximum reference level mentioned above.

To establish this screening tool, a conservative dose estimate model was first created. This model

226 232

considered the activity concentrations of Ra and Th in secular equilibrium with the members of

each decay chain (progenies) and K. The calculations were based on a hypothetical room (with

dimensions of 4 m × 5 m × 2,8 m) with walls, ceiling and floor of 20 cm thick and made of a material

with a fixed density of 2.350 kg/m (similar to concrete). In this model, it is also assumed: an annual

exposure time of 7.000 hours a year; a dose conversion factor of 0,7 Sv/Gy and a background absorbed

dose rate of 50 nGy/h. The doses were calculated according to the Berger approach with empirical

build-up factors and self-attenuation.

Considering all these assumptions, an activity concentration index (I) was then determined by the

following simplified Formula (2):
C C C
226 232 40
Ra Th K
I= ++
(2)
300 200 3000
where
226 232 40
C is the activity concentration of Ra, Th or K [Bq/kg].

The dose estimate is close to 1 mSv per year only when the index value is close to 1. An index < 1 with

the conditions mentioned above means a dose estimate in compliance with the maximum reference

level of 1 mSv per year for a member of the public. This simplified model was deemed to be sufficiently

conservative to be part of the 2013/59/EURATOM [1] since most dwellings or buildings will not be

designed to be as massive as the 'bunker' (hypothetical room) described above.

In the 2013/59/EURATOM [1], for building materials identified by the Member States as being of

226 232 40

concern, it is required that the activity concentrations of Ra, Th and K be determined

(2013/59/EURATOM article 75 and its annex VIII, [1]). The index can then be used as a screening tool

to allow building material to be placed onto the EU market without any restrictions. National regulators

and/or building codes may use this index to identify building materials which need no further analysis

with respect to emitted gamma radiation.

Although this screening tool should be sufficient for most building materials, it remains much too

conservative for thin materials such as tiles, for light density products or for materials used in marginal

quantities. The 2013/59/EURATOM [1] allows density, thickness and use of materials to be taken into

account in an appropriate dose modelling approach if need be.
3.2 Provisions on the marketing of construction products under the CPR

The CPR [7] regulates the placing and making available on the market of construction products. It

establishes the requirements and obligations that have to be fulfilled where a construction product is

covered by a harmonised technical specification (i.e. a harmonised standard or a European Technical

Assessment). For such products, a 'declaration of performance', has to be drawn up, and this permits

the affixing of the CE marking. The CE marking confirms that the product complies with its declared

performance, and its harmonised technical specification, and permits free trans-boundary movement

across the European Economic Area.
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The manufacturer has to draw up such a declaration of
...

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