Paints and varnishes - Wettability - Part 1: Vocabulary and general principles (ISO 19403-1:2022)

This document specifies general terms and definitions for wettability. Some general principles are
described in Annex A. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 4618.

Beschichtungsstoffe - Benetzbarkeit - Teil 1: Begriffe und allgemeine Grundlagen (ISO 19403-1:2022)

Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Begriffe zur Benetzbarkeit fest. Einige allgemeine Grundlagen sind im Anhang A erläutert. Dieses Dokument ist zur Verwendung in Verbindung mit ISO 4618 vorgesehen.

Peintures et vernis - Mouillabilité - Partie 1: Vocabulaire et principes généraux (ISO 19403-1:2022)

Le présent document spécifie les termes et définitions génériques relatifs à la mouillabilité. Quelques principes généraux sont décrits à l’Annexe A. Le présent document est destiné à être utilisé conjointement avec l'ISO 4618.

Barve in laki - Omočljivost - 1. del: Terminologija in splošna načela (ISO 19403-1:2022)

Ta dokument določa splošne izraze in definicije za omočljivost. Nekatera splošna načela so opisana v dodatku A. Ta dokument je treba uporabljati v povezavi s standardom ISO 4618.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Oct-2021
Publication Date
23-Aug-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
26-Jul-2022
Due Date
30-Sep-2022
Completion Date
24-Aug-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
01-september-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2020

Barve in laki - Omočljivost - 1. del: Terminologija in splošna načela (ISO 19403-

1:2022)

Paints and varnishes - Wettability - Part 1: Vocabulary and general principles (ISO 19403

-1:2022)

Beschichtungsstoffe - Benetzbarkeit - Teil 1: Begriffe und allgemeine Grundlagen (ISO

19403-1:2022)

Peintures et vernis - Mouillabilité - Partie 1: Vocabulaire et principes généraux (ISO

19403-1:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ICS:
01.040.87 Industrija barv (Slovarji) Paint and colour industries
(Vocabularies)
87.040 Barve in laki Paints and varnishes
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
EN ISO 19403-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.87; 87.040 Supersedes EN ISO 19403-1:2020
English Version
Paints and varnishes - Wettability - Part 1: Vocabulary and
general principles (ISO 19403-1:2022)

Peintures et vernis - Mouillabilité - Partie 1: Beschichtungsstoffe - Benetzbarkeit - Teil 1: Begriffe

Vocabulaire et principes généraux (ISO 19403-1:2022) und allgemeine Grundlagen (ISO 19403-1:2022)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 June 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19403-1:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
EN ISO 19403-1:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
EN ISO 19403-1:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 19403-1:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35 "Paints

and varnishes" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 139 “Paints and varnishes” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2022, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 19403-1:2020.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19403-1:2022 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19403-1:2022 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19403-1
Second edition
2022-06
Paints and varnishes — Wettability —
Part 1:
Vocabulary and general principles
Peintures et vernis — Mouillabilité —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire et principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 19403-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ISO 19403-1:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ISO 19403-1:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to determination of the surface free energy ......................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms relating to determination of the surface tension of liquids .......................................................... 3

3.3 Terms relating to wetting ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Annex A (informative) General principles ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ISO 19403-1:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee

SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 139, Paints and varnishes, in accordance with the

Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 19403-1:2017), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— in the title, "Terminology" has been changed to "Vocabulary";
— text from the Scope has been moved to the Introduction;
— 3.1.5, 3.1.7, 3.1.8 and 3.1.9 have been slightly modified;

— the following terms and definitions have been added: hydrophobic, superhydrophobic, hydrophilic,

superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic coating;
— Clause 4 has been moved to Annex A;
— Figure 1 and Figure A.1 have been updated;
— the designation of the X-axis in Figure A.2 has been corrected;
— the derivation of Formula (A.4) has been improved;
— Formula (A.6) has been corrected;

— bibliographic entries [1] and [12] have been added and cross-references updated.

A list of all parts in the ISO 19403 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ISO 19403-1:2022(E)

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ISO 19403-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ISO 19403-1:2022(E)
Introduction
The ISO 19403 series specifies optical test methods:
— for the measurement of the contact angle;

— for the determination of the surface free energy of a solid surface, including the polar and dispersive

fractions;

— for the determination of the surface tension of liquids, including the polar and dispersive fractions;

— for the checking of the measurement arrangement with reference materials.

The ISO 19403 series can be applied for the characterization of substrates, coatings and coating

materials.
[4]

The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian flow behaviour (see DIN 1342-1 ).

vii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19403-1:2022(E)
Paints and varnishes — Wettability —
Part 1:
Vocabulary and general principles
1 Scope

This document specifies general terms and definitions for wettability. Some general principles are

described in Annex A. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 4618.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms relating to determination of the surface free energy
3.1.1
chemical homogeneity
chemically homogeneous composition of a surface to be examined

Note 1 to entry: The definition regards a purely qualitative assessment of the surface. Regarding the

measurement of the contact angle, a surface is considered chemically and topologically sufficiently homogeneous

if no significant differences of the contact angles can be determined when measuring on several locations on the

surface. The significance limits can be specified by the user in accordance with standard laboratory methods.

3.1.2
topological homogeneity
uniformity of the macroscopic surface, including evenness and smoothness

Note 1 to entry: The definition regards a purely qualitative assessment of the surface. Regarding the

measurement of the contact angle, a surface is considered chemically and topologically sufficiently homogeneous

if no significant differences of the contact angles can be determined when measuring on several locations on the

surface. The significance limits can be specified by the user in accordance with standard laboratory methods.

3.1.3
interfacial free energy
interfacial tension
energy or tension resulting from intermolecular forces on interfaces

Note 1 to entry: The term interfacial energy pertains to the interaction with solid surfaces and is indicated as

free energy in relation to the surface unit (mJ/m ). The term interfacial tension pertains to the interaction with

liquids and is indicated as force per length unit (mN/m). The respective indices “l” for “liquid” and “s” for “solid”

indicate the phases involved.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19403-1:2022
ISO
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
01-september-2021

Barve in laki - Omočljivost - 1. del: Terminologija in splošna načela (ISO/DIS 19403-

1:2021)

Paints and varnishes - Wettability - Part 1: Terminology and general principles (ISO/DIS

19403-1:2021)
Beschichtungsstoffe - Benetzbarkeit - Teil 1: Begriffe und allgemeine Grundlagen
(ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021)

Peintures et vernis - Mouillabilité - Partie 1: Terminologie et principes généraux (ISO/DIS

19403-1:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 19403-1
ICS:
01.040.87 Industrija barv (Slovarji) Paint and colour industries
(Vocabularies)
87.040 Barve in laki Paints and varnishes
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 19403-1
ISO/TC 35/SC 9 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2021-07-27 2021-10-19
Paints and varnishes — Wettability —
Part 1:
Terminology and general principles
Peintures et vernis — Mouillabilité —
Partie 1: Terminologie et principes généraux
ICS: 01.040.87; 87.040
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General principles ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Principles for the determination of the surface free energy ........................................................................... 5

4.2 Principles for the measurement of the surface tension at the pendant drop ................................... 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee

SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 19403-1:2017), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Figure 1 and Figure 2 have been improved;
— the designation of the X-axis in Figure 3 has been corrected;
— the derivation of Formula (4) has been improved;
— Formula (6) has been corrected.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19403 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021(E)
Paints and varnishes — Wettability —
Part 1:
Terminology and general principles
1 Scope
The ISO 19403 series specifies optical test methods
— for the measurement of the contact angle,

— for the determination of the free surface energy of a solid surface, including the polar and dispersive

fractions,

— for the determination of the surface tension of liquids, including the polar and dispersive fractions,

and
— for the checking of the measurement arrangement with reference materials.

It can be applied for the characterization of substrates, coatings and coating materials.

The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology .

This document specifies terms and definitions and defines the general principles.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4618, Paints and varnishes — Terms and definitions
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4618 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Determination of the surface free energy
3.1.1
chemical homogeneity
chemically homogeneous composition of a surface to be examined

Note 1 to entry: The definition regards a purely qualitative assessment of the surface. Regarding the

measurement of the contact angle, a surface is considered chemically and topologically sufficiently homogeneous

if no significant differences of the contact angles can be determined when measuring on several areas on the

surface. The significance limits can be specified by the user in accordance with standard laboratory methods.

1) This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021(E)
3.1.2
topological homogeneity
uniformity of the macroscopic surface, including evenness and smoothness

Note 1 to entry: The definition regards a purely qualitative assessment of the surface. Regarding the

measurement of the contact angle, a surface is considered chemically and topologically sufficiently homogeneous

if no significant differences of the contact angles can be determined when measuring on several areas on the

surface. The significance limits can be specified by the user in accordance with standard laboratory methods.

3.1.3
interfacial free energy
interfacial tension
energy or tension resulting from intermolecular forces on interfaces

Note 1 to entry: The term interfacial energy pertains to the interaction with solid surfaces and is indicated as

free energy in relation to the surface (unit mJ/m ). The term interfacial tension pertains to the interaction with

liquids and is indicated as force per length unit (mN/m). The respective indices “l” for “liquid” and “s” for “solid”

indicate the phases involved.
3.1.4
surface free energy
free energy of the surface
interfacial free energy (3.1.3) of a solid surface
3.1.5
surface tension
interfacial tension of a liquid surface

Note 1 to entry: The surface tension is indicated as force per unit length (mN/m). Its numerical value corresponds

to the free energy of the interface or surface.

Note 2 to entry: The surface tension corresponds to the work which shall be done in order to enlarge a given

surface by a specific value.

Note 3 to entry: If the liquid of a droplet is in equilibrium with its vapour phase, then the surface tension is

thermodynamically defined.
3.1.6
interfacial energy

energy on the phase interface between a solid and a liquid phase

3.1.7
three-phase point
contact point

point at which solid phase, liquid phase and vapour phase are in contact with each other

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
3.1.8
base line

straight or curved line at the interface between a solid and liquid phase which

connects the two three-phase points (3.1.7)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19403-1:2021
ISO/DIS 19403-1:2021(E)
3.1.9
contact angle

angle to the base line (3.1.8) within the drop, formed by means of a tangent on the drop contour through

one of the three-phase points (3.1.7)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.

Note 2 to entry: The contact angle is preferably indicated in degrees (°). 1° = (π/180)°.

...

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