Environmental Engineering (EE) - Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency

The present document is aimed at defining the topology and level of analysis to assess the energy efficiency of mobile
networks. Within the scope of the present document there is the radio access part of the mobile networks, and namely
there are radio base stations, backhauling systems, radio controllers and other infrastructure radio site equipment. The
covered technologies are GSM, UMTS, LTE and 5G New Radio (NR). In particular the present document defines
metrics for mobile network energy efficiency and methods for assessing (and measuring) energy efficiency in
operational networks. The purpose of the present document is to allow better comprehension of networks energy
efficiency, in particular considering the networks' evolution in different periods in time.
Aiming to consider also the slicing approach of the networks from 5G onwards the metrics are extended to the latency
of the network itself related to the energy consumed, additionally to the metrics based on traffic and on coverage,
already existing for legacy networks and still valid.
The present document deals with both a homogeneous and heterogeneous "network" considering a network whose size
and scale could be defined by topologic, geographic or demographic boundaries. For networks defined by topologic
boundaries, a possible example of a network covered by the present document consists of a control node (whenever
applicable), its supported access nodes as well as the related network elements. Networks could be defined by
geographic boundaries, such as city-wide, national or continental networks and could be defined by demographic
boundaries, such as urban or rural networks.
The present document applies to the so-called "partial" networks for which a measurement method is also
recommended. The specification extends the measurements in partial networks to wider so-called "total" networks
energy efficiency estimations (i.e. the network in a geographic area, the network in a whole country, the network of a
MNO, etc.).
Terminal (end-user) equipment is outside the scope of the present document and is not considered in the energy
efficiency measurement.

Okoljski inženiring (EE) - Ocenjevanje energijske učinkovitosti mobilnega omrežja

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Apr-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Apr-2021
Due Date
11-Jun-2021
Completion Date
16-Apr-2021

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ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
ETSI STANDARD
Environmental Engineering (EE);
Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
Reference
RES/EE-EEPS34
Keywords
5G, access, base station, energy efficiency,
GSM, LTE, mobile, network, radio, UMTS
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 8

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Network under test definition ................................................................................................................. 10

4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Test parameter categorization ........................................................................................................................... 12

4.3 Network classification ...................................................................................................................................... 13

4.3.0 Introduction of network classification ........................................................................................................ 13

4.3.1 Demography ............................................................................................................................................... 13

4.3.2 Topography ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.3.3 Climate zones .............................................................................................................................................. 14

4.3.4 Additional classification classes ................................................................................................................. 14

5 Metrics for energy efficiency assessment............................................................................................... 15

5.0 Introduction of clause ....................................................................................................................................... 15

5.1 Energy Consumption metrics ........................................................................................................................... 15

5.2 Performance metrics ......................................................................................................................................... 17

5.2.1 Data Volume ............................................................................................................................................... 17

5.2.2 Coverage Area ............................................................................................................................................ 18

5.2.3 Latency ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.3 Mobile Network Energy efficiency metrics ..................................................................................................... 19

6 Measurement of energy efficiency ......................................................................................................... 19

6.0 Introduction of clause ....................................................................................................................................... 19

6.1 Time duration of the measurement ................................................................................................................... 20

6.2 Measurement procedures .................................................................................................................................. 20

6.2.1 Measurement of Energy Consumption ....................................................................................................... 20

6.2.2 Measurement of capacity ............................................................................................................................ 20

6.2.3 Determination of coverage area .................................................................................................................. 21

6.2.3.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 21

6.2.3.1 Geographic coverage area ..................................................................................................................... 21

6.2.3.2 Designated coverage area ...................................................................................................................... 21

6.2.3.3 Coverage quality ................................................................................................................................... 22

6.2.4 Measurement of latency .............................................................................................................................. 24

7 Extrapolation for overall networks ......................................................................................................... 24

7.0 Extrapolation approach ..................................................................................................................................... 24

7.1 Extrapolation method ....................................................................................................................................... 25

7.1.0 Introduction of extrapolation method ......................................................................................................... 25

7.1.1 Statistical information about Demography ................................................................................................. 25

7.1.2 Statistical information about Topography ................................................................................................... 25

7.1.3 Statistical information about Climate zones ............................................................................................... 26

7.2 Extrapolation reporting tables .......................................................................................................................... 26

7.2.0 Introduction of extrapolation reporting tables............................................................................................. 26

7.2.1 Reporting extrapolation based on Demography .......................................................................................... 26

7.2.2 Reporting extrapolation based on Topography ........................................................................................... 27

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)

7.2.3 Reporting extrapolation based on Climate zones ........................................................................................ 27

8 Assessment report .................................................................................................................................. 27

8.0 Introduction of assessment report ..................................................................................................................... 27

8.1 Report of Network Area under test .................................................................................................................. 27

8.2 Report of sites under test .................................................................................................................................. 29

8.3 Report of Site measurement ............................................................................................................................. 30

9 Implementation guidelines ..................................................................................................................... 31

Annex A (informative): Implementation examples ............................................................................. 32

A.1 Implementation examples....................................................................................................................... 32

A.2 Examples of reporting data ..................................................................................................................... 32

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 37

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Environmental Engineering (EE).

The present document was developed jointly by ETSI TC EE and ITU-T Study Group 5. It will be published

respectively by ITU and ETSI as Recommendation ITU-T L.1331 [i.4] and ETSI ES 203 228 (the present document),

which are technically-equivalent.

Moreover the present document has been developed in collaboration with 3GPP SA5 and RAN3; GSMA has also given

valuable suggestions and contributions.
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

The present document deals with the definition of metrics and methods to measure energy performance of Mobile Radio

Access Networks and adopts an approach based on the measurement of such performance on small networks, for

feasibility and simplicity purposes. Such simplified approach is proposed for approximate energy efficiency evaluations

and cannot be considered as a reference for planning evaluation purposes throughout the network operation process.

The same approach was introduced also in ETSI TR 103 117 [i.1]; the measurements in testing laboratories of the

efficiency of the Base Stations is the topic treated in ETSI ES 202 706 [i.2].

The present document provides also a method to extrapolate the assessment of energy efficiency to wider networks

(clause 7).

The general outcome of the application of the method specified in the present document is based on the "Assessment

report" introduced in clause 8. An example of application of the method is also given in annex A.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
1 Scope

The present document is aimed at defining the topology and level of analysis to assess the energy efficiency of mobile

networks. Within the scope of the present document there is the radio access part of the mobile networks, and namely

there are radio base stations, backhauling systems, radio controllers and other infrastructure radio site equipment. The

covered technologies are GSM, UMTS, LTE and 5G New Radio (NR). In particular the present document defines

metrics for mobile network energy efficiency and methods for assessing (and measuring) energy efficiency in

operational networks. The purpose of the present document is to allow better comprehension of networks energy

efficiency, in particular considering the networks' evolution in different periods in time.

Aiming to consider also the slicing approach of the networks from 5G onwards the metrics are extended to the latency

of the network itself related to the energy consumed, additionally to the metrics based on traffic and on coverage,

already existing for legacy networks and still valid.

The present document deals with both a homogeneous and heterogeneous "network" considering a network whose size

and scale could be defined by topologic, geographic or demographic boundaries. For networks defined by topologic

boundaries, a possible example of a network covered by the present document consists of a control node (whenever

applicable), its supported access nodes as well as the related network elements. Networks could be defined by

geographic boundaries, such as city-wide, national or continental networks and could be defined by demographic

boundaries, such as urban or rural networks.

The present document applies to the so-called "partial" networks for which a measurement method is also

recommended. The specification extends the measurements in partial networks to wider so-called "total" networks

energy efficiency estimations (i.e. the network in a geographic area, the network in a whole country, the network of a

MNO, etc.).

Terminal (end-user) equipment is outside the scope of the present document and is not considered in the energy

efficiency measurement.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI TS 125 104: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Base Station (BS)

radio transmission and reception (FDD) (3GPP TS 25.104)".

[2] ETSI TS 136 104: "LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base Station

(BS) radio transmission and reception (3GPP TS 36.104)".

[3] ETSI TS 132 425 (V12.0.0): "LTE; Telecommunication management; Performance Management

(PM); Performance measurements Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

(E-UTRAN) (3GPP TS 32.425 version 12.0.0 Release 12)".

[4] ETSI TS 132 412 (V11.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management;

Performance Management (PM) Integration Reference Point (IRP): Information Service (IS)

(3GPP TS 32.412 version 11.1.0 Release 11)".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)

[5] ETSI TS 123 203 (V12.7.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Policy and charging control architecture

(3GPP TS 23.203 version 12.7.0 Release 12)".

[6] ETSI TS 136 314: "LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Layer 2 -

Measurements (3GPP TS 36.314)".

[7] ETSI TS 152 402 (V11.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+);

Telecommunication management; Performance Management (PM); Performance measurements -

GSM (3GPP TS 52.402 version 11.0.0 Release 11)".

[8] ETSI TS 132 405 (V11.1.1): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management;

Performance Management (PM); Performance measurements; Universal Terrestrial Radio Access

Network (UTRAN) (3GPP TS 32.405 version 11.1.1 Release 11)".

[9] ETSI ES 202 336-12: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Monitoring and control interface for

infrastructure equipment (power, cooling and building environment systems used in

telecommunication networks); Part 12: ICT equipment power, energy and environmental

parameters monitoring information model".

[10] ISO/IEC 17025 (2005): "General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration

laboratories".

[11] ETSI EN 303 471: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Energy Efficiency measurement

methodology and metrics for Network Function Virtualisation (NFV)".

[12] Recommendation ITU-R M.2410: "Minimum requirements related to technical performance for

IMT-2020 radio interface(s)".

[13] ETSI TS 128 554: "5G; Management and orchestration; 5G end to end Key Performance

Indicators (KPI) (3GPP TS 28.554)".
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 117: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Principles for Mobile Network level energy

efficiency".

[i.2] ETSI ES 202 706 (all parts): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Measurement method for power

consumption and energy efficiency of wireless access network equipment".

[i.3] ETSI GS NFV 003: "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Terminology for Main Concepts in

NFV".

[i.4] Recommendation ITU-T L.1331: "Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency".

[i.5] FAO Soils Portal.

NOTE: Available at http://www.fao.org/soils-portal/soil-survey/soil-maps-and-databases/harmonized-world-soil-

database-v12/en/.

[i.6] Jürgen Grieser, René Gommes, Stephen Cofield and Michele Bernardi: "Data sources for FAO

worldmaps of Koeppen climatologies and climatic net primary production", 2006.
NOTE: Available at http://www.fao.org/nr/climpag/globgrids/KC_commondata_en.asp.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)

[i.7] ETSI TS 128 552: "5G; Management and orchestration; 5G performance measurements (3GPP

TS 28.552)".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

backhaul equipment: equipment used to connect base stations to the core network, or to other BSs (like X2 in LTE)

Base Station (BS): generic term used for network component which serves one cell or more cells and interfaces the

user terminal (through air interface) and a radio access network infrastructure

end-to-end latency: time that takes to transfer a given piece of information from a source to a destination, measured at

the communication interface, from the moment it is transmitted by the source to the moment it is successfully received

at the destination

Energy Efficiency (EE): relation between the useful output and energy/power consumption

energy saving feature: feature which contributes to decreasing the energy consumption compared to the case when the

feature is not implemented

integrated BS: BS architecture in which all BS elements are located close to each other for example in one or two

cabinets
NOTE: The integrated BS architecture may include TMA close to antenna.

Mobile Network (MN): set of equipment from the radio access network or sub-network that are relevant for the

assessment of energy efficiency

mobile network coverage energy efficiency: ratio between the area covered by the network in the Mobile Network

under investigation and the energy consumption

mobile network data energy efficiency: ratio between the performance indicator based on Data Volume and the

energy consumption when assessed during the same time frame

mobile network energy consumption: overall energy consumption of equipment included in the MN under

investigation
mobile network energy efficiency: energy efficiency of a mobile network
Mobile Network Operator (MNO): operator that manages one or more mobile networks

mobile network operator penetration ratio: percentage of traffic served by an MNO in the area where it is active

mobile network performance delivered: performance indicator of the MN under investigation, defined as the data

volume delivered by the mobile network under investigation during the time frame of the energy consumption

assessment

power consumption: power consumed by a device to achieve an intended application performance

radio access network: telecommunications network in which the access to the network (connection between user

terminal and network) is implemented without the use of wires and that is part of GERAN, UTRAN or E-UTRA

networks defined by 3GPP

Site Energy Efficiency (SEE): metric used to determine the energy efficiency of a telecommunication site

NOTE: SEE is defined by the ratio of "IT equipment energy" and "Total site energy", which generally includes

rectifiers, cooling, storage, security and IT equipment. For datacentres, the "Total site energy" more

globally includes building load, powering equipment (e.g. switchgear, uninterruptible power supply

(UPS), battery backup), cooling equipment (e.g. chillers, Computer Room Air Conditioning unit

(CRAC)) and IT equipment energy.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)

telecommunication network: network operated under a license granted by a national telecommunications authority,

which provides telecommunications between Network Termination Points (NTPs)
Virtualised Network Function (VNF): See ETSI GS NFV 003 [i.3].
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
3GPP 3G (mobile) Partnership Project
BH Backhaul
BS Base Station
CC Central Cloud
CoA Coverage Area
CoA_des designated coverage area as designed by network planning

CoA_geo total geographical area under investigation and within the operator's license agreement

CoA_Qdes quality factor describing how well users are covered within the coverage area

CoA Coverage Area Mobile Network
CRAN Cloud Radio Access Network
CS Circuit Switched
CS/PS Circuit Switched/Packet Switched
DC Data Center
DCA Designed Coverage Area
DL DownLink
DP Dominant Penetration
DU Dense Urban
DV Data Volume
DV Data Volume of the Mobile Network
E2E End To End
EC Energy Consumption
EC Energy Consumption of the Mobile Network
EC Energy Consumption of the Site
EDC Edge Cloud
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EE Energy Efficiency of the Mobile Network
E-UTRA Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
GHG GreenHouse Gas
GSM Global System for Mobile communication
GSMA GSM Association
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
ICT Information Communications Technology
IP Ingress Protection
ITU International Telecommunications Union
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LC Local Cloud
LTE Long Term Evolution
MDT Minimization of Drive Tests
MJ MegaJoule
MN Mobile Network
MNO Mobile Network Operator
MP Minor Penetration
NA Not Applicable
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
NDP Non Dominant Penetration
NR New Radio
O&M Operation & Maintenance
PDF Probability Distribution Function
PS Packet Switched
PSL Packet Switched Large packages dominating
PSS Packet Switched Small packages dominating
QCI QoS Class Identifier
QoS Quality of Services
RA Radio Access
RAB Radio Access Bearer
RAN Radio Access Network
RAP Radio Access Point
RAT Radio Access Technology
RC Remote Controller
RF Radio Frequency
RNC Radio Network Controller
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRH Remote Radio Head
RU Rural
SE Switching Equipment
SEE Site Energy Efficiency
SI Site Infrastructure
SINR Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio
SU Sub Urban
TCO Total Cost of Ownership
TE Telco Equipment
TMA Tower Mounted Amplifier
U Urban
UE User Equipment
UE-BS User Equipment to Base Station
UL UpLink
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service
UN United Nations
URLLC Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications
USA United States of America
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VNF Virtualised Network Function
VNFS Virtualised Network Function Servers
X2 Interface allowing to interconnect eNBs with each other
4 Network under test definition
4.1 Introduction

The Mobile Network (MN) for Radio Access (RA) under investigation shall include all the equipment that is necessary

to run a radio access network or sub-network. Equipment to be included in the Mobile Network under in

...

Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)
ETSI STANDARD
Environmental Engineering (EE);
Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)
Reference
RES/EE-EEPS34
Keywords
5G, access, base station, energy efficiency,
GSM, LTE, mobile, network, radio, UMTS
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 7

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 8

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

3.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 10

4 Network under test definition ................................................................................................................. 11

4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.2 Test parameter categorization ........................................................................................................................... 13

4.3 Network classification ...................................................................................................................................... 14

4.3.0 Introduction of network classification ........................................................................................................ 14

4.3.1 Demography ............................................................................................................................................... 14

4.3.2 Topography ................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.3.3 Climate zones .............................................................................................................................................. 15

4.3.4 Additional classification classes ................................................................................................................. 15

5 Metrics for energy efficiency assessment............................................................................................... 16

5.0 Introduction of clause ....................................................................................................................................... 16

5.1 Energy Consumption metrics ........................................................................................................................... 16

5.2 Performance metrics ......................................................................................................................................... 18

5.2.1 Data Volume ............................................................................................................................................... 18

5.2.2 Coverage Area ............................................................................................................................................ 19

5.2.3 Latency ....................................................................................................................................................... 19

5.3 Mobile Network Energy efficiency metrics ..................................................................................................... 20

6 Measurement of energy efficiency ......................................................................................................... 20

6.0 Introduction of clause ....................................................................................................................................... 20

6.1 Time duration of the measurement ................................................................................................................... 21

6.2 Measurement procedures .................................................................................................................................. 21

6.2.1 Measurement of Energy Consumption ....................................................................................................... 21

6.2.2 Measurement of capacity ............................................................................................................................ 21

6.2.3 Determination of coverage area .................................................................................................................. 22

6.2.3.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 22

6.2.3.1 Geographic coverage area ..................................................................................................................... 22

6.2.3.2 Designated coverage area ...................................................................................................................... 22

6.2.3.3 Coverage quality ................................................................................................................................... 23

6.2.4 Measurement of latency .............................................................................................................................. 25

7 Extrapolation for overall networks ......................................................................................................... 25

7.0 Extrapolation approach ..................................................................................................................................... 25

7.1 Extrapolation method ....................................................................................................................................... 26

7.1.0 Introduction of extrapolation method ......................................................................................................... 26

7.1.1 Statistical information about Demography ................................................................................................. 26

7.1.2 Statistical information about Topography ................................................................................................... 26

7.1.3 Statistical information about Climate zones ............................................................................................... 27

7.2 Extrapolation reporting tables .......................................................................................................................... 27

7.2.0 Introduction of extrapolation reporting tables............................................................................................. 27

7.2.1 Reporting extrapolation based on Demography .......................................................................................... 27

7.2.2 Reporting extrapolation based on Topography ........................................................................................... 28

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)

7.2.3 Reporting extrapolation based on Climate zones ........................................................................................ 28

8 Assessment report .................................................................................................................................. 28

8.0 Introduction of assessment report ..................................................................................................................... 28

8.1 Report of Network Area under test .................................................................................................................. 28

8.2 Report of sites under test .................................................................................................................................. 30

8.3 Report of Site measurement ............................................................................................................................. 31

9 Implementation guidelines ..................................................................................................................... 32

Annex A (informative): Implementation examples ............................................................................. 33

A.1 Implementation examples....................................................................................................................... 33

A.2 Examples of reporting data ..................................................................................................................... 33

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 38

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This final draft ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Environmental Engineering (EE),

and is now submitted for the ETSI standards Membership Approval Procedure.

The present document was developed jointly by ETSI TC EE and ITU-T Study Group 5. It will be published

respectively by ITU and ETSI as Recommendation ITU-T L.1331 [i.4] and ETSI ES 203 228 (the present document),

which are technically-equivalent.

Moreover the present document has been developed in collaboration with 3GPP SA5 and RAN3; GSMA has also given

valuable suggestions and contributions.
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

The present document deals with the definition of metrics and methods to measure energy performance of Mobile Radio

Access Networks and adopts an approach based on the measurement of such performance on small networks, for

feasibility and simplicity purposes. Such simplified approach is proposed for approximate energy efficiency evaluations

and cannot be considered as a reference for planning evaluation purposes throughout the network operation process.

The same approach was introduced also in ETSI TR 103 117 [i.1]; the measurements in testing laboratories of the

efficiency of the Base Stations is the topic treated in ETSI ES 202 706 [i.2].

The measurement of this performance is useful for many reasons, and an implementation guidelines clause is given

(clause 9) to help using the present document in the most convenient way.

The present document provides also an extrapolation method to extend the applicability of the assessment of energy

efficiency to wider networks (clause 7).
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)

The general outcome of the application of the method specified in the present document is based on the "Assessment

report" introduced in clause 8. An example of application of the method is given for better readability and ease of use in

annex A.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)
1 Scope

The present document is aimed at defining the topology and level of analysis to assess the energy efficiency of mobile

networks. Within the scope of the present document there is the radio access part of the mobile networks, and namely

there are radio base stations, backhauling systems, radio controllers and other infrastructure radio site equipment. The

covered technologies are GSM, UMTS,LTE and NR. In particular the present document defines metrics for mobile

network energy efficiency and methods for assessing (and measuring) energy efficiency in operational networks. The

purpose of the present document is to allow better comprehension of networks energy efficiency, in particular

considering the networks' evolution in different periods in time.

Aiming to consider also the slicing approach of the networks from 5G onwards the metrics are extended to the latency

of the network itself related to the energy consumed, additionally to the metrics based on traffic and on coverage,

already existing for legacy networks and still valid.

The present document deals with both a homogeneous and heterogeneous "network" considering a network whose size

and scale could be defined by topologic, geographic or demographic boundaries. For networks defined by topologic

boundaries, a possible example of a network covered by the present document consists of a control node (whenever

applicable), its supported access nodes as well as the related network elements. Networks could be defined by

geographic boundaries, such as city-wide, national or continental networks and could be defined by demographic

boundaries, such as urban or rural networks.

The present document applies to the so-called "partial" networks where energy efficiency is measured in standardized

way. The specification extends the measurements in partial networks to wider so-called "total" networks energy

efficiency estimations (i.e. the network in a geographic area, the network in a whole country, the network of a MNO,

etc.).

Terminal (end-user) equipment is outside the scope of the present document and is not considered in the energy

efficiency measurement.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI TS 125 104: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Base Station (BS)

radio transmission and reception (FDD) (3GPP TS 25.104)".

[2] ETSI TS 136 104: "LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base Station

(BS) radio transmission and reception (3GPP TS 36.104)".

[3] ETSI TS 132 425 (V12.0.0): "LTE; Telecommunication management; Performance Management

(PM); Performance measurements Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

(E-UTRAN) (3GPP TS 32.425 version 12.0.0 Release 12)".

[4] ETSI TS 132 412 (V11.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management;

Performance Management (PM) Integration Reference Point (IRP): Information Service (IS)

(3GPP TS 32.412 version 11.1.0 Release 11)".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)

[5] ETSI TS 123 203 (V12.7.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Policy and charging control architecture

(3GPP TS 23.203 version 12.7.0 Release 12)".

[6] ETSI TS 136 314: "LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Layer 2 -

Measurements (3GPP TS 36.314)".

[7] ETSI TS 152 402 (V11.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+);

Telecommunication management; Performance Management (PM); Performance measurements -

GSM (3GPP TS 52.402 version 11.0.0 Release 11)".

[8] ETSI TS 132 405 (V11.1.1): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management;

Performance Management (PM); Performance measurements; Universal Terrestrial Radio Access

Network (UTRAN) (3GPP TS 32.405 version 11.1.1 Release 11)".

[9] ETSI ES 202 336-12: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Monitoring and control interface for

infrastructure equipment (power, cooling and building environment systems used in

telecommunication networks); Part 12: ICT equipment power, energy and environmental

parameters monitoring information model".

[10] ISO/IEC 17025 (2005): "General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration

laboratories".

[11] ETSI EN 303 471: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Energy Efficiency measurement

methodology and metrics for Network Function Virtualisation (NFV)".

[12] Recommendation ITU-R M.2410: "Minimum requirements related to technical performance for

IMT-2020 radio interface(s)".

[13] ETSI TS 128 554: "5G; Management and orchestration; 5G end to end Key Performance

Indicators (KPI) (3GPP TS 28.554)".
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 117: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Principles for Mobile Network level energy

efficiency".

[i.2] ETSI ES 202 706 (all parts): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Measurement method for power

consumption and energy efficiency of wireless access network equipment".

[i.3] ETSI GS NFV 003: "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Terminology for Main Concepts in

NFV".

[i.4] Recommendation ITU-T L.1331: "Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency".

[i.5] FAO Soils Portal.

NOTE: Available at http://www.fao.org/soils-portal/soil-survey/soil-maps-and-databases/harmonized-world-soil-

database-v12/en/.

[i.6] Jürgen Grieser, René Gommes, Stephen Cofield and Michele Bernardi: "Data sources for FAO

worldmaps of Koeppen climatologies and climatic net primary production", 2006.
NOTE: Available at http://www.fao.org/nr/climpag/globgrids/KC_commondata_en.asp.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

backhaul equipment: equipment used to connect base stations to the core network, or to other BSs (like X2 in LTE)

Base Station (BS): generic term used for network component which serves one cell or more cells and interfaces the

user terminal (through air interface) and a radio access network infrastructure

distributed RBS: BS architecture which contains Remote Radio Heads (RRH) close to the antenna element and a

central element connecting BS to network infrastructure

end-to-end latency: time that takes to transfer a given piece of information from a source to a destination, measured at

the communication interface, from the moment it is transmitted by the source to the moment it is successfully received

at the destination

Energy Efficiency (EE): relation between the useful output and energy/power consumption

energy saving feature: feature which contributes to decreasing the energy consumption compared to the case when the

feature is not implemented

integrated BS: BS architecture in which all BS elements are located close to each other for example in one or two

cabinets
NOTE: The integrated BS architecture may include TMA close to antenna.

Mobile Network (MN): set of equipment from the radio access network or sub-network that are relevant for the

assessment of energy efficiency

mobile network coverage energy efficiency: ratio between the area covered by the network in the Mobile Network

under investigation and the energy consumption

mobile network data energy efficiency: ratio between the performance indicator based on Data Volume and the

energy consumption when assessed during the same time frame

mobile network energy consumption: overall energy consumption of equipment included in the MN under

investigation
mobile network energy efficiency: energy efficiency of a mobile network
Mobile Network Operator (MNO): operator that manages one or more mobile networks

mobile network operator penetration ratio: percentage of traffic served by an MNO in the area where it is active

mobile network performance delivered: performance indicator of the MN under investigation, defined as the data

volume delivered by the mobile network under investigation during the time frame of the energy consumption

assessment

power consumption: power consumed by a device to achieve an intended application performance

radio access network: telecommunications network in which the access to the network (connection between user

terminal and network) is implemented without the use of wires and that is part of GERAN, UTRAN or E-UTRA

networks defined by 3GPP

Site Energy Efficiency (SEE): metric used to determine the energy efficiency of a telecom site

NOTE: SEE is defined by the ratio of "IT equipment energy" and "Total site energy", which generally includes

rectifiers, cooling, storage, security and IT equipment. For datacentres, the "Total site energy" more

globally includes building load, powering equipment (e.g. switchgear, uninterruptible power supply

(UPS), battery backup), cooling equipment (e.g. chillers, Computer Room Air Conditioning unit

(CRAC)) and IT equipment energy.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)

telecommunication network: network operated under a license granted by a national telecommunications authority,

which provides telecommunications between Network Termination Points (NTPs)
Virtualised Network Function (VNF): See ETSI GS NFV 003 [i.3].
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
3GPP 3G (mobile) Partnership Project
BH Backhaul
BS Base Station
CC Central Cloud
CoA Coverage Area
CoA_des designated coverage area as designed by network planning

CoA_geo total geographical area under investigation and within the operator's license agreement

CoA_Qdes quality factor describing how well users are covered within the coverage area

CoA Coverage Area Mobile Network
CRAN Cloud Radio Access Network
CS Circuit Switched
CS/PS Circuit Switched/Packet Switched
DC Data Center
DCA Designed Coverage Area
DL DownLink
DP Dominant Penetration
DU Dense Urban
DV Data Volume
DV Data Volume of the Mobile Network
E2E End To End
EC Energy Consumption
EC Energy Consumption of the Mobile Network
EC Energy Consumption of the Site
EDC Edge Cloud
EE Energy Efficiency of the Mobile Network
E-UTRA Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
GHG GreenHouse Gas
GSM Global System for Mobile communication
GSMA GSM Association
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
ICT Information Communications Technology
IP Ingress Protection
ITU International Telecommunications Union
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LC Local Cloud
LTE Long Term Evolution
MDT Minimization of Drive Tests
MJ MegaJoule
MN Mobile Network
MNO Mobile Network Operator
MP Minor Penetration
NA Not Applicable
NDP Non Dominant Penetration
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 Final draft ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.0 (2020-07)
NR New Radio
O&M Operation & Maintenance
PDF Probability Distribution Function
PS Packet Switched
PSL Packet Switched Large packages dominating
PSS Packet Switched Small packages dominating
QCI QoS Class Identifier
QoS Quality of Services
RA Radio Access
RAB Radio Access Bearer
RAN Radio Access Network
RAP Radio Access Point
RAT Radio Access Technology
RC Remote Controller
RF Radio Frequency
RNC Radio Network Controller
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRH Remote Radio Head
RU Rural
SE Switching Equipment
SEE Site Energy Efficiency
SI Site Infrastructure
SINR Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio
SU Sub Urban
TCO Total Cost of Ownership
TE Telco Equipment
TMA Tower Mounted Amplifier
U Urban
UE User Equipment
UE-BS User Equipment to Base Station
UL UpLink
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication S
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
01-junij-2021

Okoljski inženiring (EE) - Ocenjevanje energijske učinkovitosti mobilnega omrežja

Environmental Engineering (EE) - Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
ICS:
19.040 Preskušanje v zvezi z Environmental testing
okoljem
27.015 Energijska učinkovitost. Energy efficiency. Energy
Ohranjanje energije na conservation in general
splošno
33.070.01 Mobilni servisi na splošno Mobile services in general
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
ETSI STANDARD
Environmental Engineering (EE);
Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
2 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
Reference
RES/EE-EEPS34
Keywords
5G, access, base station, energy efficiency,
GSM, LTE, mobile, network, radio, UMTS
ETSI
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All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

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GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
3 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 8

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Network under test definition ................................................................................................................. 10

4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Test parameter categorization ........................................................................................................................... 12

4.3 Network classification ...................................................................................................................................... 13

4.3.0 Introduction of network classification ........................................................................................................ 13

4.3.1 Demography ............................................................................................................................................... 13

4.3.2 Topography ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.3.3 Climate zones .............................................................................................................................................. 14

4.3.4 Additional classification classes ................................................................................................................. 14

5 Metrics for energy efficiency assessment............................................................................................... 15

5.0 Introduction of clause ....................................................................................................................................... 15

5.1 Energy Consumption metrics ........................................................................................................................... 15

5.2 Performance metrics ......................................................................................................................................... 17

5.2.1 Data Volume ............................................................................................................................................... 17

5.2.2 Coverage Area ............................................................................................................................................ 18

5.2.3 Latency ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.3 Mobile Network Energy efficiency metrics ..................................................................................................... 19

6 Measurement of energy efficiency ......................................................................................................... 19

6.0 Introduction of clause ....................................................................................................................................... 19

6.1 Time duration of the measurement ................................................................................................................... 20

6.2 Measurement procedures .................................................................................................................................. 20

6.2.1 Measurement of Energy Consumption ....................................................................................................... 20

6.2.2 Measurement of capacity ............................................................................................................................ 20

6.2.3 Determination of coverage area .................................................................................................................. 21

6.2.3.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 21

6.2.3.1 Geographic coverage area ..................................................................................................................... 21

6.2.3.2 Designated coverage area ...................................................................................................................... 21

6.2.3.3 Coverage quality ................................................................................................................................... 22

6.2.4 Measurement of latency .............................................................................................................................. 24

7 Extrapolation for overall networks ......................................................................................................... 24

7.0 Extrapolation approach ..................................................................................................................................... 24

7.1 Extrapolation method ....................................................................................................................................... 25

7.1.0 Introduction of extrapolation method ......................................................................................................... 25

7.1.1 Statistical information about Demography ................................................................................................. 25

7.1.2 Statistical information about Topography ................................................................................................... 25

7.1.3 Statistical information about Climate zones ............................................................................................... 26

7.2 Extrapolation reporting tables .......................................................................................................................... 26

7.2.0 Introduction of extrapolation reporting tables............................................................................................. 26

7.2.1 Reporting extrapolation based on Demography .......................................................................................... 26

7.2.2 Reporting extrapolation based on Topography ........................................................................................... 27

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
4 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)

7.2.3 Reporting extrapolation based on Climate zones ........................................................................................ 27

8 Assessment report .................................................................................................................................. 27

8.0 Introduction of assessment report ..................................................................................................................... 27

8.1 Report of Network Area under test .................................................................................................................. 27

8.2 Report of sites under test .................................................................................................................................. 29

8.3 Report of Site measurement ............................................................................................................................. 30

9 Implementation guidelines ..................................................................................................................... 31

Annex A (informative): Implementation examples ............................................................................. 32

A.1 Implementation examples....................................................................................................................... 32

A.2 Examples of reporting data ..................................................................................................................... 32

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 37

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
5 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Environmental Engineering (EE).

The present document was developed jointly by ETSI TC EE and ITU-T Study Group 5. It will be published

respectively by ITU and ETSI as Recommendation ITU-T L.1331 [i.4] and ETSI ES 203 228 (the present document),

which are technically-equivalent.

Moreover the present document has been developed in collaboration with 3GPP SA5 and RAN3; GSMA has also given

valuable suggestions and contributions.
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

The present document deals with the definition of metrics and methods to measure energy performance of Mobile Radio

Access Networks and adopts an approach based on the measurement of such performance on small networks, for

feasibility and simplicity purposes. Such simplified approach is proposed for approximate energy efficiency evaluations

and cannot be considered as a reference for planning evaluation purposes throughout the network operation process.

The same approach was introduced also in ETSI TR 103 117 [i.1]; the measurements in testing laboratories of the

efficiency of the Base Stations is the topic treated in ETSI ES 202 706 [i.2].

The present document provides also a method to extrapolate the assessment of energy efficiency to wider networks

(clause 7).

The general outcome of the application of the method specified in the present document is based on the "Assessment

report" introduced in clause 8. An example of application of the method is also given in annex A.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 228 V1.3.1:2021
6 ETSI ES 203 228 V1.3.1 (2020-10)
1 Scope

The present document is aimed at defining the topology and level of analysis to assess the energy efficiency of mobile

networks. Within the scope of the present document there is the radio access part of the mobile networks, and namely

there are radio base stations, backhauling systems, radio controllers and other infrastructure radio site equipment. The

covered technologies are GSM, UMTS, LTE and 5G New Radio (NR). In particular the present document defines

metrics for mobile network energy efficiency and methods for assessing (and measuring) energy efficiency in

operational networks. The purpose of the present document is to allow better comprehension of networks energy

efficiency, in particular considering the networks' evolution in different periods in time.

Aiming to consider also the slicing approach of the networks from 5G onwards the metrics are extended to the latency

of the network itself related to the energy consumed, additionally to the metrics based on traffic and on coverage,

already existing for legacy networks and still valid.

The present document deals with both a homogeneous and heterogeneous "network" considering a network whose size

and scale could be defined by topologic, geographic or demographic boundaries. For networks defined by topologic

boundaries, a possible example of a network covered by the present document consists of a control node (whenever

applicable), its supported access nodes as well as the related network elements. Networks could be defined by

geographic boundaries, such as city-wide, national or continental networks and could be defined by demographic

boundaries, such as urban or rural networks.

The present document applies to the so-called "partial" networks for which a measurement method is also

recommended. The specification extends the measurements in partial networks to wider so-called "total" networks

energy efficiency estimations (i.e. the network in a geographic area, the network in a whole country, the network of a

MNO, etc.).

Terminal (end-user) equipment is outside the scope of the present document and is not considered in the energy

efficiency measurement.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI TS 125 104: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Base Station (BS)

radio transmission and reception (FDD) (3GPP TS 25.104)".

[2] ETSI TS 136 104: "LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base Station

(BS) radio transmission and reception (3GPP TS 36.104)".

[3] ETSI TS 132 425 (V12.0.0): "LTE; Telecommunication management; Performance Management

(PM); Performance measurements Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

(E-UTRAN) (3GPP TS 32.425 version 12.0.0 Release 12)".

[4] ETSI TS 132 412 (V11.1.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management;

Performance Management (PM) Integration Reference Point (IRP): Information Service (IS)

(3GPP TS 32.412 version 11.1.0 Release 11)".
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[5] ETSI TS 123 203 (V12.7.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Policy and charging control architecture

(3GPP TS 23.203 version 12.7.0 Release 12)".

[6] ETSI TS 136 314: "LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Layer 2 -

Measurements (3GPP TS 36.314)".

[7] ETSI TS 152 402 (V11.0.0): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+);

Telecommunication management; Performance Management (PM); Performance measurements -

GSM (3GPP TS 52.402 version 11.0.0 Release 11)".

[8] ETSI TS 132 405 (V11.1.1): "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management;

Performance Management (PM); Performance measurements; Universal Terrestrial Radio Access

Network (UTRAN) (3GPP TS 32.405 version 11.1.1 Release 11)".

[9] ETSI ES 202 336-12: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Monitoring and control interface for

infrastructure equipment (power, cooling and building environment systems used in

telecommunication networks); Part 12: ICT equipment power, energy and environmental

parameters monitoring information model".

[10] ISO/IEC 17025 (2005): "General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration

laboratories".

[11] ETSI EN 303 471: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Energy Efficiency measurement

methodology and metrics for Network Function Virtualisation (NFV)".

[12] Recommendation ITU-R M.2410: "Minimum requirements related to technical performance for

IMT-2020 radio interface(s)".

[13] ETSI TS 128 554: "5G; Management and orchestration; 5G end to end Key Performance

Indicators (KPI) (3GPP TS 28.554)".
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 117: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Principles for Mobile Network level energy

efficiency".

[i.2] ETSI ES 202 706 (all parts): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Measurement method for power

consumption and energy efficiency of wireless access network equipment".

[i.3] ETSI GS NFV 003: "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Terminology for Main Concepts in

NFV".

[i.4] Recommendation ITU-T L.1331: "Assessment of mobile network energy efficiency".

[i.5] FAO Soils Portal.

NOTE: Available at http://www.fao.org/soils-portal/soil-survey/soil-maps-and-databases/harmonized-world-soil-

database-v12/en/.

[i.6] Jürgen Grieser, René Gommes, Stephen Cofield and Michele Bernardi: "Data sources for FAO

worldmaps of Koeppen climatologies and climatic net primary production", 2006.
NOTE: Available at http://www.fao.org/nr/climpag/globgrids/KC_commondata_en.asp.
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[i.7] ETSI TS 128 552: "5G; Management and orchestration; 5G performance measurements (3GPP

TS 28.552)".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

backhaul equipment: equipment used to connect base stations to the core network, or to other BSs (like X2 in LTE)

Base Station (BS): generic term used for network component which serves one cell or more cells and interfaces the

user terminal (through air interface) and a radio access network infrastructure

end-to-end latency: time that takes to transfer a given piece of information from a source to a destination, measured at

the communication interface, from the moment it is transmitted by the source to the moment it is successfully received

at the destination

Energy Efficiency (EE): relation between the useful output and energy/power consumption

energy saving feature: feature which contributes to decreasing the energy consumption compared to the case when the

feature is not implemented

integrated BS: BS architecture in which all BS elements are located close to each other for example in one or two

cabinets
NOTE: The integrated BS architecture may include TMA close to antenna.

Mobile Network (MN): set of equipment from the radio access network or sub-network that are relevant for the

assessment of energy efficiency

mobile network coverage energy efficiency: ratio between the area covered by the network in the Mobile Network

under investigation and the energy consumption

mobile network data energy efficiency: ratio between the performance indicator based on Data Volume and the

energy consumption when assessed during the same time frame

mobile network energy consumption: overall energy consumption of equipment included in the MN under

investigation
mobile network energy efficiency: energy efficiency of a mobile network
Mobile Network Operator (MNO): operator that manages one or more mobile networks

mobile network operator penetration ratio: percentage of traffic served by an MNO in the area where it is active

mobile network performance delivered: performance indicator of the MN under investigation, defined as the data

volume delivered by the mobile network under investigation during the time frame of the energy consumption

assessment

power consumption: power consumed by a device to achieve an intended application performance

radio access network: telecommunications network in which the access to the network (connection between user

terminal and network) is implemented without the use of wires and that is part of GERAN, UTRAN or E-UTRA

networks defined by 3GPP

Site Energy Efficiency (SEE): metric used to determine the energy efficiency of a telecommunication site

NOTE: SEE is defined by the ratio of "IT equipment energy" and "Total site energy", which generally includes

rectifiers, cooling, storage, security and IT equipment. For datacentres, the "Total site energy" more

globally includes building load, powering equipment (e.g. switchgear, uninterruptible power supply

(UPS), battery backup), cooling equipment (e.g. chillers, Computer Room Air Conditioning unit

(CRAC)) and IT equipment energy.
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telecommunication network: network operated under a license granted by a national telecommunications authority,

which provides telecommunications between Network Termination Points (NTPs)
Virtualised Network Function (VNF): See ETSI GS NFV 003 [i.3].
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
3GPP 3G (mobile) Partnership Project
BH Backhaul
BS Base Station
CC Central Cloud
CoA Coverage Area
CoA_des designated coverage area as designed by network planning

CoA_geo total geographical area under investigation and within the operator's license agreement

CoA_Qdes quality factor describing how well users are covered within the coverage area

CoA Coverage Area Mobile Network
CRAN Cloud Radio Access Network
CS Circuit Switched
CS/PS Circuit Switched/Packet Switched
DC Data Center
DCA Designed Coverage Area
DL DownLink
DP Dominant Penetration
DU Dense Urban
DV Data Volume
DV Data Volume of the Mobile Network
E2E End To End
EC Energy Consumption
EC Energy Consumption of the Mobile Network
EC Energy Consumption of the Site
EDC Edge Cloud
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EE Energy Efficiency of the Mobile Network
E-UTRA Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
GHG GreenHouse Gas
GSM Global System for Mobile communication
GSMA GSM Association
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
ICT Information Communications Technology
IP Ingress Protection
ITU International Telecommunications Union
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LC Local Cloud
LTE Long Term Evolution
MDT Minimization of Drive Tests
MJ MegaJoule
MN Mobile Network
MNO Mobile Network Operator
MP Minor Penetration
NA Not Applicable
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NDP Non Dominant Penetration
NR New Radio
O&M Operation & Maintenance
PDF Probability Distribution Function
PS Packet Switched
PSL Packet Switched Large packages dominating
PSS Packet Switched Small packages dominating
QCI QoS Class Identifier
QoS Quality of Services
RA Radio Access
...

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