IEC 62232:2022 addresses the evaluation of RF field strength, power density and specific absorption rate (SAR) levels in the vicinity of base stations (BS), also called products or equipment under test (EUT), intentionally radiating in the radio frequency (RF) range 110 MHz to 300 GHz in accordance with the scope, see Clause 1. It does not address the evaluation of current density. RF exposure evaluation methods to be used for product compliance, product installation compliance and in-situ RF exposure assessments are specified in this document. Exposure limits are not specified in this document. The entity conducting RF exposure assessments refers to the set of exposure limits applicable where exposure takes place. Examples of applicable exposure limits considered in this document are provided in the Bibliography, for example ICNIRP-2020 [1], ICNIRP-1998 [2], IEEE Std C95.1™-2019 [3] and Safety Code 6 [4].

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IEC 62764-1:2022 specifies a methodology for determining the exposure to multiple magnetic field sources for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles including standardized operating conditions and measurement volumes and/or surfaces. This part of IEC 62764 applies to the assessment of human exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields generated by automotive vehicles. For plug-in vehicles, this includes the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and associated cables provided by the car manufacturer. This excludes the charging station. This document specifies the measurement procedure for the evaluation of magnetic field exposures generated by electronic and electrical equipment (excluding intentionally transmitting radio frequency antennas) in selected automotive environments, for passenger cars and commercial vehicles of categories M1 and N1 as defined in ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.3 [1], with respect to human exposure. It provides standardized operating conditions and defines recommended measurements to assess compliance with the applicable exposure requirements. This document covers the frequency range 1 Hz to 100 kHz and is applicable to any type of engine and/or internal energy source.

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IEC 62209-2:2010 is applicable to any wireless communication device capable of transmitting electromagnetic fields (EMF) intended to be used at a position near the human body, in the manner described by the manufacturer, with the radiating part(s) of the device at distances up to and including 200 mm from a human body, i.e. when held in the hand or in front of the face, mounted on the body, combined with other transmitting or non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clip, camera or Bluetooth add-on), or embedded in garments. For transmitters used in close proximity to the human ear, the procedures of IEC 62209-1:2005 are applicable. IEC 62209-2:2010 is applicable for radio frequency exposure in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz, and may be used to measure simultaneous exposures from multiple radio sources used in close proximity to human body. Definitions and evaluation procedures are provided for the following general categories of device types: - body-mounted, - body-supported, - desktop, - front-of-face, - hand-held, - laptop, - limb-mounted, - multi-band, - push-to-talk, - clothing-integrated. The types of devices considered include but are not limited to mobile telephones, cordless microphones, auxiliary broadcast devices and radio transmitters in personal computers. IEC 62209-2:2010 gives guidelines for a reproducible and conservative measurement methodology for determining the compliance of wireless devices with the SAR limits.

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This standard applies to short wave broadcast transmitters and installations operating in the frequency range 3 MHz to 30 MHz. The objective of the standard is to specify, for such a frequency band, basic information allowing the definition of a method for assessment of compliance related to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

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This standard applies to a broadcast transmitter operating in the frequency range 30 MHz to 40 GHz when put on the market. The objective of the standard is to specify, for such equipment operating in typical conditions, the method for assessment of compliance distances according to the basic restrictions (directly or indirectly via compliance with reference levels) related to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

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IEC 62311:2019 applies to electronic and electrical equipment for which no dedicated product standard or product family standard regarding human exposure to electromagnetic fields applies. It covers equipment with intentional or non-intentional radiators as well as a combination thereof. This document provides assessment methods and criteria to evaluate equipment against limits on exposure of people related to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The frequency range covered is from 0 Hz to 300 GHz. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This document does not specify limits expressed by means of basic restrictions and/or reference levels. Such limits are subject to the applied assessment scheme, for example by means of regional limits. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) a clear distinction between intentional and unintentional radiators has been introduced; b) the exposure to non-uniform fields is considered; c) the treatment of uncertainty for the assessment procedures has been improved; d) various summation regimes are described in Annex A; e) the information from meanwhile published basic standards has been used and hence all informative annexes of the previous edition have been removed. Key words: Human Exposure, Electromagnetic Fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz).

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IEC 62209-3: 2019 specifies measurement protocols and test procedures for the reproducible measurement of peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) induced inside a simplified model of a human head or body by radio-frequency (RF) transmitting devices, with a specified measurement uncertainty. Requirements are provided for psSAR assessment using vector measurement-based systems. Such systems determine the psSAR by three-dimensional (3D) field reconstruction within the volume of interest in accordance with the requirements herein for the measurement system, calibration, uncertainty assessment and validation methods. The protocols and procedures apply for the psSAR assessments covering a significant majority of people including children during use of wireless communication devices operated in close proximity to the head or body. This document is applicable to wireless communication devices intended to be used at a position near the human head or body at distances up to and including 200 mm. This document may be employed to evaluate SAR compliance of different types of wireless communication devices used next to the ear, in front of the face, mounted on the body, combined with other RF-transmitting or non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clip), or embedded in garments. The overall applicable frequency range is from 600 MHz to 6 GHz. The system validation procedures provided within this document cover frequencies from 600 MHz to 6 GHz. With a vector measurement-based system this document can be employed to evaluate SAR compliance of different types of wireless communication devices. The wireless communication device categories covered include but are not limited to mobile telephones, cordless microphones, auxiliary broadcast devices and radio transmitters in personal computers, desktop and laptop devices, multi-band, multi-antenna, and push-to-talk devices. Key Words: Human Exposure, Hand-Held and Body Mounted Wireless Communication Devices.

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This part of IEC 62209 series is applicable to any wireless communication device capable of transmitting electromagnetic fields (EMF) intended to be used at a position near the human body, in the manner described by the manufacturer, with the radiating part(s) of the device at distances up to and including 200 mm from a human body, i.e. when held in the hand or in front of the face, mounted on the body, combined with other transmitting or non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clip, camera or Bluetooth add-on), or embedded in garments. For transmitters used in close proximity to the human ear, the procedures of IEC 62209-1:2005 are applicable. This standard is applicable for radio frequency exposure in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz, and may be used to measure simultaneous exposures from multiple radio sources used in close proximity to human body. Definitions and evaluation procedures are provided for the following general categories of device types: body-mounted, body-supported, desktop, front-of-face, hand-held, laptop, limb-mounted, multi-band, push-to-talk, clothing-integrated. The types of devices considered include but are not limited to mobile telephones, cordless microphones, auxiliary broadcast devices and radio transmitters in personal computers. This International Standard gives guidelines for a reproducible and conservative measurement methodology for determining the compliance of wireless devices with the SAR limits. Because studies suggest that exclusion of features to represent a hand in human models constitutes a conservative case scenario for SAR in the trunk and the head, a representation of a hand is not included if the device is intended to be used next to the head or supported on or near the torso [73], [80]. This standard does not apply for exposures from transmitting or non-transmitting implanted medical devices. This standard does not apply for exposure from devices at distances greater than 200 mm away from the human body. IEC 62209-2 makes cross-reference to IEC 62209-1:2005 where complete clauses or subclauses apply, along with any changes specified.

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IEC 62232:2017(E) provides methods for the determination of radio-frequency (RF) field strength and specific absorption rate (SAR) in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations (RBS) for the purpose of evaluating human exposure. This document: - considers intentionally radiating RBS which transmit on one or more antennas using one or more frequencies in the range 110 MHz to 100 GHz; - considers the impact of ambient sources on RF exposure at least in the 100 kHz to 300 GHz frequency range; - specifies the methods to be used for RF exposure evaluation for compliance assessment applications, namely: - product compliance - determination of compliance boundary information for an RBS product before it is placed on the market; - product installation compliance - determination of the total RF exposure levels in accessible areas from an RBS product and other relevant sources before the product is put into service; - in-situ RF exposure assessment – measurement of in-situ RF exposure levels in the vicinity of an RBS installation after the product has been taken into operation; - describes several RF field strength and SAR measurement and computation methodologies with guidance on their applicability to address both the in-situ evaluation of installed RBS and laboratory-based evaluations; - describes how surveyors, with a sufficient level of expertise, establish their specific evaluation procedures appropriate for their evaluation purpose; - provides guidance on how to report, interpret and compare results from different evaluation methodologies and, where the evaluation purpose requires it, determine a justified decision against a limit value and - provides short descriptions of the informative example case studies given in the companion Technical Report IEC TR 62669 [1] This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2011 and constitutes a technical revision.

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IEC 62209-1:2016 specifies protocols and test procedures for measurement of the peak spatial-average SAR induced inside a simplified model of the head with defined reproducibility. It applies to certain electromagnetic field (EMF) transmitting devices that are positioned next to the ear, where the radiating structures of the device are in close proximity to the human head, such as mobile phones, cordless phones, certain headsets, etc. These protocols and test procedures provide a conservative estimate with limited uncertainty for the peak-spatial SAR that would occur in the head for a significant majority of people during normal use of these devices. The applicable frequency range is from 300 MHz to 6 GHz. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2005. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

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IEC 61786-1:2013 provides guidance for measuring instruments used to measure the field strength of quasi-static magnetic and electric fields that have a frequency content in the range 1 Hz to 100 kHz and with DC magnetic fields to evaluate the exposure levels of the human body to these fields. Sources of fields include devices that operate at power frequencies and produce power frequency and power frequency harmonic fields, as well as devices that produce fields within the frequency range of this document, including devices that produce static fields, and the earth's static magnetic field. The magnitude ranges covered by this standard are 0,1 μT to 200 mT in AC (1 μT to 10 T in DC) and 1 V/m to 50 kV/m for magnetic fields and electric fields, respectively. When measurements outside this range are performed, most of the provisions of this standard will still apply, but special attention should be paid to specified uncertainty and calibration procedures. The first editions of IEC 61786-1 and IEC 61786-2 replace IEC 61786:1998. Part 1 deals with measuring instruments, and Part 2 deals with measurement procedures. The content of the standard was revised in order to give up-to-date and practical information to the user.

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This basic standard specifies the method for assessing overall exposure from all fixed radio frequency sources at a broadcast site. This assessment may be applied at any time but must be carried out when the exposure situation changes in or around this site. It plays an essential role in the coordination of different stakeholders, with respect to ensuring EMF exposure compliance in and around a broadcast site especially for equipment installed within the site.

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IEC 62479:2010 provides simple conformity assessment methods for low-power electronic and electrical equipment to an exposure limit relevant to electromagnetic fields (EMF). If such equipment cannot be shown to comply with the applicable EMF exposure requirements using the methods included in this standard for EMF assessment, then other standards, including IEC 62311 or other (EMF) product standards, may be used for conformity assessment.

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The scope of this European Standard is to provide a procedure in order to assess the risk to workers bearing one or more active implantable medical devices from exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields at a workplace. It specifies how to perform a general risk assessment and to determine whether it is necessary to carry out a detailed risk assessment. NOTE 1 This European Standard does not cover indirect effects caused by non active implants. NOTE 2 The the risk of human exposure to EMF considered is only due to malfunctioning of AIMD. Possibilities of AIMD contribution to the risk: e.g. local modification of the distribution of EMF produced by external source or production of own EMF are covered by the respective product standards for the AIMD. Based on specific workplace standards it can be determined whether preventive measures/actions must be taken to comply with the provisions of Directive 2004/40/EC. The work situation covered is considered to be under normal working conditions including normal operation, maintenance, cleaning and other situations being part of the normal work. The frequencies covered are from 0 Hz to 300 GHz. NOTE 3 The European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/EC will be transposed into national legislation in all the EU member countries. It is recommended that users of this standard consult the national legislation related to this transposition in order to identify the national regulations and requirements. These national regulations and requirements may have additional requirements that are not covered by this standard and take precedence. NOTE 4 Performance requirements with respect to active implantable medical devices are excluded from the scope of this standard. These are defined in the relevant particular standards for active implantable medical devices. NOTE 5 This standard is written under mandate M/351 and relates to the exposure limits as specified in the Directive 2004/40/EC which is intended to protect workers from risks to their health and safety arising or likely to arise from exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) during their work. However, this and other directives may include additional measures for the protection of specific groups of workers and/or specific workplaces for which the employer is required to investigate other protective measures as a part of the overall risk assessment.

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Deals with electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz and defines methods for evaluating the electric field strength and magnetic flux density around household and similar electrical appliances, including the conditions during testing as well as measuring distances and positions. Appliances may incorporate motors, heating elements or their combination, may contain electric or electronic circuitry, and may be powered by the mains, by batteries, or by any other electrical power source. Appliances include such equipment as household electrical appliances, electric tools and electric toys. Appliances not intended for normal household use but which nevertheless may be approached by the public, or may be used by laymen, are within the scope of this standard. This standard includes specific elements to assess human exposure: - definition of sensor; - definition of measuring methods; - definition of operating mode for appliance under test; - definition of measuring distance and position. The measurement methods specified are valid from 10 Hz to 400 kHz. In the frequency range above 400 kHz and below 10 Hz appliances in the scope of this standard are deemed to comply without testing unless otherwise specified in IEC 60335 series.

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This product standard applies to devices operating within the frequency range 0 Hz to 300 GHz, used in electronic article surveillance (EAS), radio frequency identification (RFID) and similar applications. This product standard may be used for demonstration of compliance to the requirements of the RTTE Directive 1999/5/EC, with regard to the limitation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). There are additional requirements covered by the Directive, which are not included in this product standard. This product standard may be used for demonstration of compliance to the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC, with regard to the limitation of human exposure to EMFs. There are additional requirements covered by the Directive, which are not included in this product standard. It should be noted that the supplier of a specific piece of equipment might not know the overall exposure environment in which the equipment is being used. This product standard can only assess the human exposure from the specific equipment under evaluation when being used according to the supplier’s guidelines. Other standards can apply to products covered by this document. In particular this document is not designed to evaluate the electromagnetic compatibility with other equipment; nor does it reflect any product safety requirements other than those specifically related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields.

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IEC 62110:2009 establishes measurement procedures for electric and magnetic field levels generated by AC power systems to evaluate the exposure levels of the human body to these fields. This standard is not applicable to DC power transmission systems. IEC 62110:2009 is applicable to public exposure in the domestic environment and in areas accessible to the public. It specifies fundamental procedures for the measurement of fields, and, with regard to human exposure, for obtaining a field value that corresponds to a spatial average over the entire human body. IEC 62110:2009 is not applicable to occupational exposure associated with, for example, the operation and/or maintenance of the power systems. Such exposure may occur when working inside a distribution or transmission substation, a power plant, in a manhole or a tunnel for underground cables, or on an overhead line tower or pole.

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IEC 62369-1:2008 presents procedures for the evaluation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from devices used in electronic article surveillance (EAS), radio frequency identification (RFID) and similar applications. It adopts a staged approach to facilitate compliance assessment. The first stage (Stage 1) is a simple measurement against the appropriate derived reference values. Stage 2 is a more complex series of measurements or calculations, coupled with analysis techniques. Stage 3 requires detailed modelling and analysis for comparison with the basic restrictions. When assessing any device, the most appropriate methodfor the exposure situation may be used. At the time of writing this International Standard, electronic article surveillance, radio frequency identification and similar systems do not normally operate at frequencies below 1 Hz or above 10 GHz. EMF exposure guidelines and standards can cover a wider range of frequencies, so clarification on the required range is included as part of the evaluation procedures. The devices covered by this document normally have non-uniform field patterns. Often these devices have a very rapid reduction of field strength with distance and operate under near-field conditions where the relationship between electric and magnetic fields is not constant. This, together with typical exposure conditions for different device types, is detailed in Annex A. Annex B contains comprehensive information to assist with numerical modelling of the exposure situation. It includes both homogeneous and anatomical models as well as the electrical properties of tissue. IEC 62369-1:2008 does not include limits. Limits can be obtained from separately published human exposure guidelines. Different guidelines and limit values may apply in different regions. Linked into the guidelines are usually methods for summation across wider frequency ranges and for multiple exposure sources. These shall be used. A simplified method for summation of multiple sources is contained in Annex C. This has to be used with care as it is simplistic and will overestimate the exposure; however it is useful as a guide, when the results of different evaluations are in different units of measure which are not compatible. Different countries and regions have different guidelines for handling the uncertainties from the evaluation. Annex D provides information on the two most common methods.

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This European Standard provides the procedure for the specific assessment required in Annex A of EN 50527 1:2010 for workers with implanted pacemakers. It offers different approaches for doing the risk assessment. The most suitable one shall be used. If the worker has other AIMDs implanted additionally, they have to be assessed separately. The purpose of the specific assessment is to determine the risk for workers with implanted pacemakers arising from exposure to electromagnetic fields at the workplace. The assessment includes the likelihood of clinically significant effects and takes account of both transient and long-term exposure within specific areas of the workplace. NOTE 1 This standard does not address risks to workers bearing a pacemaker from contact currents. The techniques described in the different approaches may also be used for the assessment of publicly accessible areas. The frequency range to be observed is from 0 Hz to 3 GHz. Above 3 GHz no interference with the pacemaker occurs when the exposure limits are not exceeded. NOTE 2 The rationale for limiting the observation range to 3 GHz can be found in Clause 5 of ANSI/AAMI PC69:2007.

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Applies to electronic and electrical equipment for which no dedicated product- or product family standard regarding human exposure to electromagnetic fields applies. The frequency range covered is 0 Hz to 300 GHz. The object of this generic standard is to provide assessment methods and criteria to evaluate such equipment against basic restrictions or reference levels on exposure of the general public related to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields and induced and contact current.

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Applies to the frequency range for which exposure limits are based on the induction of voltages or currents in the human body when exposed to electric fields. Defines in detail the coupling factor K - introduced by the IEC 62226 series to enable exposure assessment for complex exposure situations, such as non-uniform magnetic field or perturbed electric field - for the case of simple models of the human body, exposed to uniform electric fields. The coupling factor K has different physical interpretations depending on whether it relates to electric or magnetic field exposure. It is the so called 'shape factor for electric field'. This part of IEC 62226 can be used when the electric field can be considered to be uniform, for frequencies up to at least 100 kHz. This situation of exposure to a 'uniform' electric field is mostly found in the vicinity of high voltage overhead power systems. For this reason, illustrations given in this part are given for power frequencies (50 Hz and 60 Hz).

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Applies to any electromagnetic field (EMF) transmitting device intended to be used with the radiating part of the device in close proximity to the human head and held against the ear, including mobile phones, cordless phones, etc. The frequency range is 300 MHz to 3 GHz. The objective of this standard is to specify the measurement method for demonstration of compliance with the specific absorption rate (SAR) limits for such devices.

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This basic standard applies to Base Stations as defined in Clause 4, operating in the frequency range 110 MHz to 40 GHz. The objective of this basic standard is to specify, for such equipment and when it is put into service in its operational environment, the methods to assess the value of the Total Exposure Ratio or to establish whether the Total Exposure Ratio is less than or equal to one in relevent areas where the general public has access.

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This product standard applies to base stations as defined in Clause 3, operating in the frequency range 110 MHz to 40 GHz. The objective of the standard is to verify that such product complies with the basic restrictions directly or via compliance with reference levels related to the general public exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100 kHz to 40 GHz, where the general public has access and when it is put into service in its operational environment.

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The object of this standard is to provide methods for assessing compliance with the requirements of the Directive 2004/40/EC [8] at a site operating one or more broadcast transmitters. This standard covers the frequency range up to 40 GHz. NOTE The Council and European Parliament Directive 2004/40/EC will be transposed into national legislation in all the EU member countries. It is recommended that users of this standard consult the national legislation related to this transposition in order to identify the national regulations and requirements. These national regulations and requirements may have additional requirements that are not covered by this standard.

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This standard applies to short wave broadcast transmitters operating in the frequency range 3 MHz to 30 MHz. The object of this standard is to demonstrate the compliance of such equipment with the basic restrictions (directly or indirectly via compliance with reference levels) related to public human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

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Provides means for demonstrating compliance with the basic restrictions on human exposure to low and intermediate frequency electric and magnetic fields specified in exposure standards or guidelines such as those produced by IEEE and ICNIRP. The object of EN 62226 is - to propose a more realistic approach to the modelling of the human exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields, using a set of models of growing complexity for the field emission source, or the human body or both; - to propose standardised values for the electrical parameters of organs in human body: electrical conductivity and permittivity and their variation with the frequency. The present basic standard does not aim at replacing the definitions and procedures specified in exposure standards or guidelines, such as those produced by IEEE or ICNIRP, but aims at providing additional procedures with a view to allowing compliance assessment with these documents. The present basic standard provides means for demonstrating compliance with the basic restrictions without having to go to the sophisticated models. Nevertheless, when the exposure conditions are well characterized (such as in product standards, for example) and when results from such models are available, they can be used for demonstrating compliance with EMF standards or guidelines.

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This part of EN 62226 introduces the coupling factor K, to enable exposure assessment for complex exposure situations, such as non-uniform magnetic field or perturbed electric field. The coupling factor K has different physical interpretations depending on whether it relates to electric or magnetic field exposure. The aim of this part is to define in more detail this coupling factor K, for the case of simple models of the human body, exposed to non-uniform magnetic fields. It is thus called coupling factor for non-uniform magnetic field.

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This product standard applies to fixed stand alone broadcast transmitter operating in the frequency range 30 MHz to 40 GHz when put on the market. The term broadcast transmitter covers fixed stand alone broadcast transmitters intended for use with external antennas of the same or an other manufacturer. The object of this standard is to demonstrate the compliance of such equipment with the reference levels or the basic restrictions related to public exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

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The purpose of this report is to – give advice on the application of the basic and generic EMF standards, – give advice on the preparation of product i.e. product-family or dedicated product EMF standards. It should be noted that certification 1) aspects are not considered in this report. This report is primarily intended for product-orientated committees preparing EMF standards.

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D102/090: Publication withdrawn * D109/093: CLC/TC 211 renumbered CLC/TC 106X

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D102/090: Publication withdrawn * D109/093: CLC/TC 211 renumbered CLC/TC 106X

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