This document provides an overview of recent research on readability of electrophoretic displays. It also provides information for evaluating readability of electrophoretic displays and defining the context of their use.

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This document establishes optical, geometrical and visual inspection methods for the assessment of a display in various contexts of use according to ISO 9241‑303.

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ISO 9241-303:2011 establishes image-quality requirements, as well as providing guidelines, for electronic visual displays. These are given in the form of generic (independent of technology, task and environment) performance specifications and recommendations that will ensure effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted-to-normal eyesight.

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ISO/TR 9241-310:2010 provides a summary of existing knowledge on ergonomics requirements for pixel defects in electronic displays at the time of its publication. It also gives guidance on the specification of pixel defects, visibility thresholds and aesthetic requirements for pixel defects. It does not itself give requirements related to pixel defects, but it is envisaged that its information could be used in the revision of other parts in the ISO 9241 series.

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ISO 9241-304:2008 provides guidance for assessing the visual ergonomics of display technologies with user performance test methods (as opposed to the optical test methods given in ISO 9241-305). Its use will help to ensure that, for a given context of use, a display meets minimum visual ergonomics requirements. It covers only visual attributes and does not address the ergonomics or usability of the whole product that houses a visual display. The main users of ISO 9241-304:2008 will be those who procure displays or who need to measure display performance during product development. Its application assumes a background in behavioural science.

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ISO 9241-305:2008 establishes optical test and expert observation methods for use in predicting the performance of a display vis-ŕ-vis the ergonomics requirements given in ISO 9241-303.

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ISO 9241-307:2008 establishes test methods for the analysis of a variety of visual display technologies, tasks and environments. It uses the measurement procedures of ISO 9241-305 and the generic requirements of ISO 9241-303 to define compliance routes suitable for the different technologies and intended contexts.

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ISO 9241-300:2008 provides an introduction to the other parts in the ISO 9241 “300” subseries, and explains its modular structure. The ISO 9241 “300” subseries establishes requirements for the ergonomic design of electronic visual displays. These requirements are stated as performance specifications, aimed at ensuring effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted‑to‑normal eyesight. Test methods and metrology, yielding conformance measurements and criteria, are provided for design evaluation. The ISO 9241 “300” subseries is applicable to the visual ergonomics design of electronic visual displays for a diversity of tasks in a wide variety of work environments.

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ISO/TR 9241-309:2008 gives guidelines for organic light‑emitting diode (OLED) displays.

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ISO/TS 21144:2016 establishes test methods for evaluating electronic paper display (EPD) when used in indoor tasks and environments. It is intended to be applied together with the measurement procedures of ISO 9241-305 and the generic requirements of ISO 9241-303 to define compliance routes suitable for EPD.

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ISO 9241-303:2008 establishes image-quality requirements, as well as providing guidelines, for electronic visual displays. These are given in the form of generic — independent of technology, task and environment — performance specifications and recommendations that will ensure effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted‑to‑normal eyesight. ISO 9241-303:2008 does not address issues of accessibility for people with disabilities. However, it does take into account aspects of the eyesight of older people and could be of value to people dealing with issues of visual impairment in certain cases: the specification of essential characteristics for normal viewing can be used to gauge the severity of different visual abnormalities so that appropriate solutions can be identified.

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ISO 9241-306:2008 establishes optical, geometrical and visual inspection methods for the assessment of a display in various contexts of use according to ISO 9241‑303.

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Establishes image quality requirements (performance specifications) for the design and evaluation of single- and multi-colour VDTs. At present, the recommendations are based on Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek origin alphabetic characters, and Arabic numerals. Office tasks include such activities as data entry, text processing, and interactive inquiry. Annex A describes analytical techniques for predicting screen flicker, Annex B an empirical method for assessing temporal and spatial instability (flicker and jitter) on screen, Annex C a comparative user performance test method.

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