This document describes a laboratory test method, using an IGT1-type or a prĂĽfbau2-type printability tester, for the preparation of specimens to evaluate the absorption rate of an ink on a substrate in offset lithography by setting-off the printed surface to an unprinted surface. This method describes testing with an amount of ink simulating either single colour or multi-colour printing. The print and the set-off print (counter print) are made with interval times, between print and set-off, common for the target process. This method evaluates a particular ink and substrate combination. Â 1These materials are available from IGT Testing Systems, www.igt.nl. This information is given for the convenience of the users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results. 2These materials are available from prĂĽfbau, Dr.-Ing. H. DĂĽrner GmbH, www.pruefbau.de. This information is given for the convenience of the users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

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This document specifies a method for determining the roughness of paper and board using an apparatus which conforms to the Print-surf method, as defined in this document. It is applicable to all printing papers and boards with which it is possible to form a substantially airtight seal against the guard lands of the measuring head.

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This document specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the dry matter content in suspensions of cellulosic nanomaterials. The procedure is applicable to cellulosic nanomaterial suspensions which do not contain any appreciable quantities of materials other than water that are volatile at the temperature of 105 °C ± 2 °C. It is used, for example, in the case of cellulosic nanomaterial suspensions samples taken for chemical and physical tests in the laboratory, when a concurrent determination of dry matter content is required. NOTE 1: ISO 638-1[1] specifies the dry matter content in paper, board, pulp and cellulosic nanomaterials in solid form, which all can be produced from virgin and/or recycled materials; ISO 287[2] specifies the determination of moisture content of a lot of paper and board; ISO 4119[3] specifies the determination of stock concentration of aqueous pulp suspensions; ISO 801 (all parts)[4] specifies the determination of saleable mass in lots. NOTE 2: This document determines the total dry matter content of the sample, including any dissolved solids. If only the cellulosic material content free of dissolved solids is desired, dissolved solids are removed prior to measuring the dry matter content e.g. by washing or dialysis, taking care to retain all cellulosic material.

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This document specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the dry matter content in paper, board, pulp and cellulosic nanomaterials in solid form, which all can be produced from virgin and /or recycled materials. It is also applicable to the determination of the dry matter content of paper and board for recycling. The procedure is applicable to paper, board, and pulp and cellulosic nanomaterials which do not contain any appreciable quantities of materials other than water that are volatile at the temperature of 105 °C ± 2 °C. It is used, for example, in the case of pulp, paper, and board and cellulosic nanomaterial samples taken for chemical and physical tests in the laboratory, when a concurrent determination of dry matter content is required. This method is not applicable to the determination of the dry matter content of slush pulp or to the determination of the saleable mass of pulp lots. NOTE 1: ISO 638-2[1] specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the dry matter content of suspensions of cellulosic nanomaterials, ISO 287[2] specifies the determination of the moisture content of a lot of paper and board; ISO 4119[3] specifies the determination of stock concentration of pulps; ISO 801 (all parts)[4] specifies the determination of the saleable mass in lots. NOTE 2: This document determines the total dry matter content of the sample, including any dissolved solids. If only the cellulosic material content free of dissolved solids is desired, dissolved solids are removed prior to measuring the dry matter content e.g. by washing or dialysis, taking care to retain all cellulosic material; in cases where the sample is filterable without loss of cellulosic solids, ISO 4119[3] can be used to determine the stock consistency (content of cellulosic material in solid form)

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This document specifies a method to assess the disintegration of tissue paper and tissue products when subjected to mechanical agitation in water.

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This document describes general test methods for determining the water vapour transmission rate of sheet materials by means of a dynamic gas method or a static gas method. Depending on the method and specific apparatus employed, materials up to 38 mm thick and with water vapour transmission rates in the range from 0,05 g/(m2·d) to 65 g/(m2·d) can be tested. The basis of the function of the instrumental techniques is briefly described. Advice on calibration is given in Annex B.

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This document specifies the method for optical assessment of the contact angle between water and the surface of paper and board, where the process of droplet formation, application to planar substrates, or measurement of the droplet shape in contact with the solid is performed by automated equipment. The limits of measurement are determined by the capabilities of the instrumentation used. The instrumental capabilities defined by this document use a digital image capturing system operating at a minimum of 50 frames per second and needs the ability to perform the first measurement after no more than 20 ms to 40 ms contact between the droplet and substrate. The test method is applicable to most kinds of paper or board however it cannot be applicable to structured materials.

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This method describes the determination of the carbohydrate composition in wood pulp samples. This method makes it possible to determine concentrations of individual anhydrous monosaccharides down to 1 mg/g oven-dry pulp.

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The method is applicable to unbleached, bleached and semi-bleached wood pulp with a lignin content above 1 %. It is not generally intended for fully bleached chemical pulp, because the lignin content in these pulps is too low to be determined accurately.

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This document provides guidance for representatives of the paper value chain for the design of printed paper products, with a view to deinkability contributing to recyclability in support of the circular economy. It describes relevant deinking processes, and the deinking performance of printed paper products produced with different printing, finishing and converting technologies in those deinking processes. It provides a list of relevant quality characteristics of industrial deinked pulps and a list of their possible usages based on those characteristics. This document does not include guidance for paper-based products which are not intended to be deinked.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of water-soluble sulfates in all types of pulp, paper and board. The lower limit of the determination is 20 mg of sulfate ion per kilogram of dry sample.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the edgewise crush resistance of corrugated fibreboard. The force is applied in the direction of the flute axis. This method is applicable to single-wall (double-faced), double-wall, and triple-wall corrugated fibreboard. It may also be used to test samples taken from corrugated cases and other converted products. While the method is applicable to waxed corrugated fibreboard, care must be taken that the heat used in the waxing step does not affect the corrugated structure. This is controlled by observing that failure during the test still occurs away from the loaded edges.

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This document specifies the Oken method for determining the smoothness of paper and board using an apparatus which complies with the Oken method, as defined in this part of ISO 8791. It is applicable to all printing papers and boards.

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This document defines a method for measuring the decolouration capability of commercial products, produced using paper and board dyed in mass and/or printed with dye inks. This document does not apply to paper printed with pigment inks.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pH-value defined by the electrolytes extractable by hot water from a sample of paper, board or pulp. This document is applicable to all kinds of paper, board and pulp. As the quantity of extractable ionic material approaches zero, as in the case of highly purified pulps, the precision of the method becomes poor because of the difficulties encountered in making pH measurements on water containing little electrolytic material. Since the extraction in this document is performed with distilled or deionised water, the pH-value measured will sometimes be different (e.g. fully bleached pulp) from the pH-value measured under mill process conditions in which various types of process waters, e.g. chemically treated river water containing electrolytes, are used. In such cases, ISO 29681 can be used instead, as it is specifically applicable to bleached pulps from virgin fibres and to pulp samples having a low ionic strength for which the pH value will give more realistic results related to mill conditions than those obtained with this document. For cellulosic papers used for electrical purposes, the method used can be that given in IEC 60554-2[4].

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pH-value defined by the electrolytes extractable by cold water from a sample of paper, board or pulp. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board and pulp. As the quantity of extractable ionic material approaches zero, as in the case of highly purified pulps, the precision of the method becomes poor because of the difficulties encountered in making pH measurements on water containing little electrolytic material. Since the extraction in this document is performed with distilled or deionised water, the pH-value measured will sometimes be different (e.g. for fully bleached pulp) from the pH-value measured under mill process conditions in which various types of process waters, e.g. chemically treated river water containing electrolytes, are used. In such cases, ISO 29681 should be used instead, as it is specifically applicable to bleached pulps from virgin fibres and to pulp samples having a low ionic strength for which the pH value will give more realistic results related to mill conditions than those obtained with this document. For cellulosic papers used for electrical purposes, the method used should be that given in IEC 60554‑2[4].

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This document specifies procedures to measure the bending resistance of paper and paperboard using a Taber-type tester. This document is used to determine the bending moment required to deflect the free end of a 38 mm wide vertically clamped specimen by 15° when the load is applied at a bending length of 50 mm. For boards that tend to be permanently deformed if bent through 15°, the half bending angle, i.e. 7,5°, can be used. The bending resistance is expressed in terms of the bending moment and parameters set by the manufacturer of the Taber-type tester. The method is primarily used for papers with a high grammage. NOTE This document does not cover the low-range version of the Taber-type instrument that uses a bending length of 10 mm (see Reference [5]).

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This document specifies a basic laboratory test method for deinkability, applicable to any kind of printed paper product, under alkaline conditions by means of single stage flotation deinking and fatty acid-based collector chemistry.

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This document specifies a method for determining the grammage of paper and board.

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This document specifies the procedure for the determination of acid-soluble magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, sodium and potassium by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP/ES). The acid-soluble element comprises the acid-soluble part of the incineration residue, i.e. that part of the ignition residue obtained after incineration which is soluble in hydrochloric acid or nitric acid. In cases where the residue is completely soluble, the result obtained by the procedure specified in this document is a measure of the total amount of each element in the sample. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. The limit of determination depends on the element and on the instrument used.

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This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials at 525 °C. It is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and cellulose nanomaterial samples. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 525 °C. Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials is described in ISO 2144. In the context of this document, the term "cellulose nanomaterial" refers specifically to cellulose nano-object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper, board and pulps.

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This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and cellulose nanomaterial. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C. In the context of this document, the term "cellulose nanomaterial" refers specifically to cellulose nano-object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper, board and pulps.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the resistance to mechanical penetration (ball burst strength procedure) of tissue paper and tissue products after wetting.

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This document specifies three test methods for determining the bending stiffness of paper and paperboard. The test methods differ in the type of loading mode, thus giving rise to the two-point, three-point and four-point bending test methods. For paper and paperboard in a low thickness range, the two-point bending method and the three-point bending method are suitable. For corrugated fibreboard and board with a higher thickness, the four-point bending method is recommended. The measurement conditions are defined in such a way that the test piece is not subjected to any significant permanent deformation during the test, nor is the range of validity of the formulae for calculating the bending stiffness exceeded. In these bending tests, the test pieces of paper and board are regarded as "beams" as defined by the science of the strength of materials, see Reference [2].

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This document specifies a method for determining titanium dioxide content in all kinds of paper and board, in particular coated or filled products. It comprises two procedures for the final determination of titanium, one of them relying on spectrophotometry and the other on flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The limits of the determination depend on the amount of sample taken (8.1). NOTE The method is designed for the determination of titanium dioxide. Titanium present in other forms, for example as a constituent of clay, will not interfere in the determination.

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This document establishes general principles for the use of terms in the entire working field of tissue paper and tissue products. It permits the use of a common terminology in industry and commerce. It is expressly stated that ISO 15755 applies for the detection of impurities and contraries in tissue paper and tissue products. For the determination of moisture content in tissue paper and tissue products, ISO 287 applies.

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This part of ISO 11093 specifies a method for the determination of the maximum flat crush resistance of wound paper and board cores. NOTE If the wall thickness of the core is less than 5 mm, the breaking point is not detectable.

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This document presents guidelines for a methodology for the estimation of the uncertainty of methods for testing pulps, paper, board, cellulosic nanomaterials, and lignins, as well as products thereof containing any portion of recycled material or material intended for recycling.

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This document specifies procedures for the laboratory determination of the total elemental sulfur and the sulfate half-ester content of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and conductometric titration, respectively, including sample preparation, measurement methods and data analysis. This document is applicable to the characterization of CNCs: a) with all monovalent counterions (particularly hydronium and sodium cations); b) which are either in the never-dried state in aqueous suspension, or have been redispersed from a dried form; and c) which have been extracted from any naturally occurring cellulose source using a range of sulfuric acid hydrolysis conditions, or have been sulfated post-hydrolysis using sulfuric acid.

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This document describes a method for the determination of the flat crush resistance of a corrugating medium after laboratory fluting using an A-flute geometry. The procedure is applicable to any corrugating medium intended to be used, after fluting, in the manufacture of corrugated board. NOTE ISO 7263-2 describes a method to determine the flat crush resistance using a B-flute geometry.

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This document describes a method for the determination of the flat crush resistance of a corrugating medium after laboratory fluting using a B-flute geometry. The procedure is applicable to any corrugating medium intended to be used, after fluting, in the manufacture of corrugated board. NOTE ISO 7263-1 describes a method to determine the flat crush resistance using an A-flute geometry.

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ISO 20494:2017 specifies the requirements for the stability of paper for general graphic applications. It is applicable to all types of uncoated, coated and filled papers. NOTE For information on International Standards on paper permanence (see ISO 9706), archival paper permanence and durability (see ISO 11108) and on paper stability for general graphic applications (see ISO 20494), refer to Annex C.

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ISO 5629:2017 specifies a method for the determination of bending stiffness using the resonance method. This method gives only a single result for each test piece tested, although in general, bending stiffness values may depend on which surface of the material forms the inner surface of the arc resulting from bending forces. The bending stiffness of a very wide range of papers and boards can be measured using this method. However, for some materials, such as those listed below, the measured numerical values will not be strictly identical with bending stiffness as defined in 3.1: a) multi-ply papers and boards in which the component plies can move separately during a test; b) papers and boards with appreciable curl, especially if the axis of the curl is in the long direction of the test piece; c) some soft papers with grammage below about 40 g/m2. This method is not applicable to corrugated boards.

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ISO 4094:2017 provides both general requirements and specific requirements (Annex A) for laboratories seeking to become "Authorized Laboratories (ALs)" and to maintain their Authorized Laboratory status for the issue of optical reference transfer standards of level 3. This document follows the requirements and adopts the format of ISO/IEC 17025, with the aims of: a) establishing and maintaining international optical reference transfer standards of level 2 (IR2) traceable to an international optical reference primary standard of level 1 (IR1) maintained by a standardizing laboratory; b) distributing traceability required to achieve inter-laboratory agreement in the results of test methods specified in International Standards for optical properties of paper, board or pulp; c) participating in the design and development of new methods and international harmonization of procedures. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as sampling and the design/development of new methods, the requirements of those clauses do not apply. ISO 4094:2017 is for use by specified laboratories authorized to issue optical reference transfer standards in developing their management system for quality, administrative and technical operations. Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies can also use it in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories. NOTE It might be necessary to explain or interpret certain requirements in this document to ensure that the requirements are applied in a consistent manner. Guidance for consistent application can be obtained from Technical Committee ISO/TC 6.

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ISO 287:2017 specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the moisture content of a lot of paper and board. The procedure in Clause 8, describing how the test pieces are drawn from the lot, is performed at the time of sampling. ISO 287:2017 is applicable to every type of lot of paper and board, including corrugated board and solid board, provided that the paper or board does not contain any substances, other than water, that are volatile at the temperature specified in this document. NOTE For determination of the dry matter content of a sample of paper or board, e.g. for calculation of the dry mass of the sample, ISO 638[1] can be used.

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ISO 2528:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the water vapour transmission rate (often erroneously called "permeability") of sheet materials. This method is not generally recommended for use if the transmission rate is expected to be less than 1 g/m2 per day or for materials thicker than 3 mm. In such cases the method specified in ISO 9932 is preferred. The method cannot be applied to film materials that are damaged by hot wax or that shrink to an appreciable extent under the test conditions used. For some purposes it may be necessary to determine the transmission rate of creased material; a procedure for this is given in Annex A.

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ISO 17972-3 defines an exchange format for target input values, colour and process control data relating output targets for printers of all types (and the associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form. ISO 17972-3 includes the use of a CustomResource element within the CXF framework to define a minimum set of data for exchange and identify the data as being part of the ISO 12642 series. If this same framework is used for another defined target, provision is made for that use as well.

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ISO 8791-3:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the roughness of paper and board using the Sheffield apparatus. ISO 8791-3:2017 is applicable to papers and boards which have Sheffield roughness values between 10 ml/min and about 3 000 ml/min. It is not suitable for soft papers which allow the lands of the test head to indent the surface, or for high air-permeance papers which allow a significant flow of air through the sheet, or for papers which will not lie flat during the test.

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ISO 11093-8:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the flexural modulus by using experimentally measured natural frequencies in the free-free mode of transverse vibration of cylindrical paper and board cores, which meet the following criteria: - internal diameter: 50 mm to 350 mm; - minimum wall thickness: 0,02 × internal diameter or not less than 2,0 mm; - minimum length of core: 8 × internal diameter. NOTE For the determination of the flexural modulus by the three-point method, see ISO 11093‑7.

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ISO/TR 80002-2:2017 applies to any software used in device design, testing, component acceptance, manufacturing, labelling, packaging, distribution and complaint handling or to automate any other aspect of a medical device quality system as described in ISO 13485. ISO/TR 80002-2:2017 applies to - software used in the quality management system, - software used in production and service provision, and - software used for the monitoring and measurement of requirements. It does not apply to - software used as a component, part or accessory of a medical device, or - software that is itself a medical device.

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ISO 9416:2017 specifies a method for the calculation of light-scattering and light-absorption coefficients based upon diffuse reflectance measurements made under the conditions specified in ISO 2469 using the colour matching function ȳ(λ) and CIE illuminant C. It is emphasized that the strict evaluation of the light-scattering and light-absorption coefficients requires conditions which cannot be achieved with the instrumentation specified here. The values obtained by application of this document are dependent on the application of the Kubelka-Munk equations, not to full reflectance data but to reflectance factor data obtained using the specified d/0° geometry and a gloss trap. The use of the method is restricted to white and near-white uncoated papers with an opacity less than about 95 %. Paper that has been treated with a fluorescent dyestuff or that exhibits significant fluorescence can only be dealt with if a filter with a cut-off wavelength of 420 nm is used to eliminate all the fluorescence effect in the UVex(420) mode.

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ISO 11480:2017 specifies two alternative procedures for the determination of total and organically bound chlorine in pulp, paper and board. It is applicable to all types of pulp, paper and board. The lower limit of the determination is about 20 mg/kg.

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ISO 11475:2017 specifies the procedure to be used for determining the whiteness of papers and boards. The values obtained correspond to the visual appearance of white papers and boards with or without fluorescent whitening agents when they are viewed under the CIE D65 daylight standard illuminant. It is based on reflectance data obtained over the full visible spectral range (VIS) in contrast to the measurement of ISO brightness which is limited to the blue region of VIS. In addition, it specifies a method for adjustment of the UV content to correspond to the CIE D65 daylight illuminant[10][11], insofar as results obtained when fluorescent whitening agents are present are dependent upon the UV content of the radiation falling upon the sample. It is specific for white fluorescent paper samples where the emission due to the fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) occurs in the blue region of the visible spectrum. This method is not applicable to coloured papers containing fluorescent dyes. ISO 11475:2017 should be read in conjunction with ISO 2469. NOTE 1 This document is based on the CIE whiteness formula, published in CIE 15.3-2004[9]. NOTE 2 A related International Standard, ISO 11476, specifying the procedure for obtaining values corresponding to the appearance of these products under indoor illumination, has also been published.

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ISO 12625-4:2016 specifies a test method for the determination of the tensile strength, stretch at maximum force and tensile energy absorption of tissue paper and tissue products. It uses a tensile-testing apparatus operating with a constant rate of elongation. It also specifies the method of calculating the tensile index and the tensile energy absorption index. In cases where impurities and contraries have to be determined, ISO 15755[6] applies for these detections in tissue paper and tissue products.

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ISO 12625-6:2016 specifies a test method for the determination of grammage of tissue paper and tissue products.

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ISO 12625-5:2016 specifies a test method for the determination of the wet tensile strength of tissue paper and tissue products after soaking with water, using a tensile-strength-testing apparatus operating with a constant rate of elongation. Currently, two types of tensile-strength-testing apparatus are commercially available, one where the test piece is positioned vertically and, for the other, horizontally. This document applies for both. For vertical tensile-strength-testing apparatus, a device which is held in the lower grip of the tensile-strength-testing apparatus, called a Finch Cup, is used to achieve the wetting. For horizontal tensile-strength-testing apparatus, the soaking device is placed between the clamps. In cases where impurities and contraries have to be determined, ISO 15755[6] applies for these detections in tissue paper and tissue products.

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ISO 18522:2016 specifies the procedures for determining the cross direction profiles of physical properties of paper and board using automated off-line testers. Where available for a given measurement, the relevant International Standard is referred to. It is applicable to most kinds of paper and board, but is not relevant for tissue and corrugated board. In ISO 18522:2016, it is left to the paper and board producer and the customer to agree upon which properties are relevant. The results are reported as mean values or as profiles across the machine. Some properties are reported in index form. The result obtained using the relevant ISO standard based on stand-alone equipment is used in case of challenge or dispute, if not otherwise agreed.

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ISO 2470-1:2016 specifies a method for measuring the diffuse blue reflectance factor (ISO brightness) of pulps, papers and boards. ISO 2470-1:2016 is limited in its scope to white and near-white pulps, papers and boards. The measurement can only be made in an instrument in which the ultraviolet energy level of the illumination has been adjusted to correspond to the CIE illuminant C[6] using a fluorescent reference standard. The CIE illuminant C is taken to be representative of indoor daylight conditions because it contains a suitable proportion of UV radiation.[9]

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ISO 9197:2016 specifies a method for the determination of water-soluble chlorides in all types of paper, board and pulp. The lower limit of the determination is 20 mg of chloride ion per kilogram of dry sample.

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ISO 11476:2016 specifies the procedure to be used for determining the CIE whiteness of papers and boards, in order to obtain values which correspond to the visual appearance of white papers and boards, with or without fluorescent whitening agents, when they are viewed indoors. It is based on radiance factor data obtained over the full visible spectral range (VIS) in contrast to the measurement of ISO brightness, which is limited to the blue region of VIS. It also specifies the procedures for the determination of CIE tint values and the fluorescent component of CIE whiteness. In addition, it specifies a method for adjustment of the UV-content to correspond to that of CIE illuminant C,[10][12] since the results obtained when fluorescent whitening agents are present are dependent upon the UV-content of the radiation falling upon the sample. The CIE illuminant C is taken to be representative of indoor illumination conditions because it contains a suitable proportion of UV radiation.[7] This method is not applicable to coloured papers containing fluorescent dyes. It is specific to the situation where the fluorescence occurs in the blue region of the visible spectral range. ISO 11476:2016 is read in conjunction with ISO 2469.

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