Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - General concepts and requirements for GPS measuring equipment (ISO 14978:2018)

This document specifies the general requirements, calibration, terms and definitions of characteristics of GPS measuring equipment, for example micrometers, callipers, gauge blocks and rotary axis form measuring instruments. This document forms the basis for standards defining and describing the design characteristics and metrological characteristics for measuring equipment and gives guidance for the development and content of standards for GPS measuring equipment.
This document is intended to ease the communication between manufacturer/supplier and customer/user and to make the specification phase of GPS measuring equipment more accurate. This document is also intended as a tool to be used in companies in the process of defining and selecting relevant characteristics for measuring equipment.
This document includes terms which are frequently used in connection with the characterization of specific measuring equipment.

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Allgemeine Grundsätze und Anforderungen für GPS-Messeinrichtungen (ISO 14978:2018)

Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Anforderungen, Kalibrierung sowie Begriffe für Merkmale von GPS Messeinrichtungen, z. B. Messschrauben, Messschieber, Parallelendmaße und Formmessgeräte mit Rotationsachse, fest. Dieses Dokument bildet die Grundlage für Normen, die Konstruktionsmerkmale und die messtechnischen Merkmale für Messeinrichtungen festlegen und beschreiben, und enthält Leitlinien für die Entwicklung und die Inhalte von Normen für GPS Messeinrichtungen.
Dieses Dokument soll die Verständigung zwischen Hersteller/Lieferanten und Kunde/Anwender erleichtern, und im Stadium der Beschreibung von GPS Messeinrichtungen diese genauer gestalten. Dieses Dokument ist auch als Werkzeug für die Anwendung durch Unternehmen bei der Definition und Auswahl von relevanten Merkmalen für eine Messeinrichtung vorgesehen.
Dieses Dokument enthält ferner Benennungen bzw. Begriffe, die häufig zur Beschreibung von spezifischen Messeinrichtungen verwendet werden.

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Concepts et exigences généraux pour les équipements de mesure GPS (ISO 14978:2018)

Le présent document spécifie les exigences générales, l'étalonnage, les termes et définitions des caractéristiques des équipements de mesure GPS, par exemple micromètres, pieds à coulisse, cales étalons et instruments de mesure de forme à plateau tournant. Le présent document constitue la base des normes destinées à définir et à déterminer les caractéristiques de conception et les caractéristiques métrologiques des équipements de mesure et fournit des lignes directrices pour l'élaboration et le contenu des normes relatives aux équipements de mesure GPS.
Le présent document a été établi afin de faciliter la communication entre le fabricant/fournisseur et le client/utilisateur, et clarifier le cahier des charges de spécification des équipements de mesure GPS. Le présent document constitue également un outil que les sociétés peuvent utiliser pour définir et sélectionner les caractéristiques pertinentes des équipements de mesure.
Le présent document comprend les termes fréquemment utilisés en relation avec la caractérisation des équipements de mesure spécifiques.

Specifikacija geometrijskih veličin izdelka (GPS) - Osnove in zahteve za merilno opremo GPS (ISO 14978:2018)

Ta dokument določa splošne zahteve, umerjanje, izraze in definicije značilnosti merilne opreme GPS, na primer mikrometre, merila z nonijem, merilne bloke in merilne instrumente z rotacijsko osjo. Ta dokument predstavlja osnovo za standarde, ki določajo in opisujejo oblikovne in meroslovne značilnosti merilne opreme ter podajajo smernice za razvoj in vsebino standardov za merilno opremo GPS.
Namen tega dokumenta je olajšati komunikacijo med proizvajalcem/dobaviteljem in stranko/uporabnikom ter izboljšati natančnost faze specifikacije merilne opreme GPS. Ta dokument predstavlja tudi orodje za uporabo v podjetjih v procesu določanja in izbiranja ustreznih lastnosti merilne opreme.
Ta dokument zajema izraze, ki se pogosto uporabljajo v povezavi z opredelitvijo določene merilne opreme.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
19-Dec-2018
Completion Date
19-Dec-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
01-marec-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 14978:2006
SIST EN ISO 14978:2006/AC:2008
6SHFLILNDFLMDJHRPHWULMVNLKYHOLþLQL]GHOND *36 2VQRYHLQ]DKWHYH]DPHULOQR
RSUHPR*36 ,62

Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - General concepts and requirements for GPS

measuring equipment (ISO 14978:2018)

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Allgemeine Begriffe und Anforderungen für

GPS-Messeinrichtungen (ISO 14978:2018)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Concepts et exigences généraux pour

les équipements de mesure GPS (ISO 14978:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14978:2018
ICS:
17.040.30 Merila Measuring instruments
17.040.40 6SHFLILNDFLMDJHRPHWULMVNLK Geometrical Product
YHOLþLQL]GHOND *36 Specification (GPS)
SIST EN ISO 14978:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
EN ISO 14978
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.040.30 Supersedes EN ISO 14978:2006
English Version
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - General
concepts and requirements for GPS measuring equipment
(ISO 14978:2018)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Allgemeine

Concepts et exigences généraux pour les équipements Begriffe und Anforderungen für GPS-

de mesure GPS (ISO 14978:2018) Messeinrichtungen (ISO 14978:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 October 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14978:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
EN ISO 14978:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
EN ISO 14978:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14978:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 213

"Dimensional and geometrical product specifications and verification" in collaboration with Technical

Committee CEN/TC 290 “Dimensional and geometrical product specification and verification” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14978:2006.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14978:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14978:2018 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14978
Second edition
2018-11
Geometrical product specifications
(GPS) — General concepts and
requirements for GPS measuring
equipment
Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — Concepts et exigences
généraux pour les équipements de mesure GPS
Reference number
ISO 14978:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 terms ................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Synonym terms to ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 terms .................................................................................................... 2

3.3 ISO/IEC Guide 98-4:2012 terms .............................................................................................................................................. 3

3.4 ISO 14253-5:2015 terms ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.5 Terms related to GPS measuring equipment ................................................................................................................ 3

4 Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5 Design characteristics ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.1.1 Importance of design characteristics ..........................................................................................................10

5.1.2 Standards for measuring equipment ...........................................................................................................11

5.1.3 Measuring equipment — Commerce ..........................................................................................................11

5.1.4 Measuring equipment — Internal use in a company ....................................................................11

5.2 Design characteristics for indicating measuring instruments ....................................................................11

5.3 Design characteristics for material measures ...........................................................................................................12

6 Metrological characteristics ..................................................................................................................................................................13

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.1.1 Importance of metrological characteristics .................. .........................................................................13

6.1.2 Standards for measuring equipment ...........................................................................................................13

6.1.3 Identification, definition and choice of metrological characteristics ..............................13

6.1.4 Calibration and verification of measuring equipment .................................................................14

6.1.5 Calibration and verification methods .........................................................................................................15

6.1.6 Measuring equipment — Commerce ..........................................................................................................17

6.1.7 Measuring equipment — Internal use in a company ....................................................................17

6.2 Indicating measuring instruments .....................................................................................................................................17

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.2 Scale interval — Resolution ................................................................................................................................18

6.2.3 Digital step .........................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.4 Error of indication .......................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.5 Temperature-related metrological characteristics .........................................................................19

6.2.6 Characteristics related to measuring force ............................................................................................19

6.2.7 Geometry of contact element .............................................................................................................................19

6.2.8 Auxiliary equipment ..................................................................................................................................................19

6.3 Material measures .............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.2 Scale interval — Resolution of reading .....................................................................................................20

6.3.3 Form of feature characteristics ........................................................................................................................20

6.3.4 Orientation of feature characteristics .........................................................................................................20

6.3.5 Temperature-related metrological characteristics .........................................................................20

6.3.6 Geometrical stability .................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.7 Other possible metrological characteristics..........................................................................................20

7 Specification and presentation of metrological characteristics ......................................................................21

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.2 Specification of metrological characteristics .............................................................................................................21

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.2.2 Constant value MPE function .............................................................................................................................21

7.2.3 Proportional value MPE function ...................................................................................................................22

7.2.4 Proportional and maximum value MPE function .............................................................................23

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)

7.3 Presentation of characteristic curves ...............................................................................................................................24

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.3.2 Presentation of characteristic curves – Reference point ............................................................24

8 Calibration of metrological characteristics ...........................................................................................................................26

8.1 Manufacturer and supplier of measuring equipment ........................................................................................26

8.2 User of measuring equipment ................................................................................................................................................26

8.3 Measurement uncertainty ..........................................................................................................................................................26

9 Marking .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

10 GPS standards for specific measuring equipment ..........................................................................................................27

Annex A (normative) General minimum requirements and guidance for clauses in GPS

standards for specific measuring equipment .....................................................................................................................28

Annex B (informative) Data sheet for measuring equipment requirements ..........................................................31

Annex C (normative) Common design characteristics ....................................................................................................................33

Annex D (informative) Test uncertainty ........................................................................................................................................................39

Annex E (informative) Relation to the GPS matrix model............................................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee 213, Dimensional and geometrical product

specifications and verification.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14978:2006), which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates the Technical Corrigendum ISO 14978:2006/Cor. 1:2008.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the terms and definitions have been updated relative to ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007;

— a number of design characteristics common in GPS measuring equipment have been added;

— an updated discussion of calibration and verification, including concepts from ISO 14253-5:2015,

has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)
Introduction

This document is a geometrical product specification (GPS) standard and is to be regarded as a general

GPS standard (see ISO 14638). It influences chain links F and G for measuring equipment and calibration

in the general GPS matrix model (see Annex E).

The ISO/GPS matrix model given in ISO 14638 gives an overview of the ISO/GPS system of which this

document is a part. The fundamental rules of ISO/GPS given in ISO 8015 apply to this document and

the default decision rules given in ISO 14253-1 apply to specifications made in accordance with this

document, unless otherwise indicated; see ISO/TR 14253-6 for additional information on the selection

of alternative decision rules.

For more detailed information of the relation of this document to other standards and the GPS matrix

model, see Annex E.

This document contains guidance for writing the standards for specific GPS measuring equipment.

This document is intended to give the user a basic understanding of the use of ISO standards for GPS

measuring equipment. This document presents and defines general concepts to be used in connection

with GPS measuring equipment to avoid multiple repetitions in the ISO standards for specific GPS

measuring equipment. This document is also intended as guidance for the manufacturer/supplier to

evaluate and present specifications for characteristics for GPS measuring equipment.

This document is necessary when reading and using ISO standards for specific GPS measuring

equipment.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14978:2018(E)
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — General
concepts and requirements for GPS measuring equipment
1 Scope

This document specifies the general requirements, calibration, terms and definitions of characteristics

of GPS measuring equipment, for example micrometers, callipers, gauge blocks and rotary axis form

measuring instruments. This document forms the basis for standards defining and describing the

design characteristics and metrological characteristics for measuring equipment and gives guidance

for the development and content of standards for GPS measuring equipment.

This document is intended to ease the communication between manufacturer/supplier and customer/

user and to make the specification phase of GPS measuring equipment more accurate. This document

is also intended as a tool to be used in companies in the process of defining and selecting relevant

characteristics for measuring equipment.

This document includes terms which are frequently used in connection with the characterization of

specific measuring equipment.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14253-1, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces and

measuring equipment — Part 1: Decision rules for verifying conformity or nonconformity with specifications

ISO 14253-5:2015, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces

and measuring equipment — Part 5: Uncertainty in verification testing of indicating measuring instruments

ISO/TR 14253-6, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces

and measuring equipment — Part 6: Generalized decision rules for the acceptance and rejection of

instruments and workpieces

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

measurement (GUM: 1995)

ISO/IEC Guide 98-4:2012, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 4: Role of measurement uncertainty in

conformity assessment

ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and

associated terms (VIM)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, ISO/

IEC Guide 98-4:2012, ISO 14253-1, ISO 14253-5:2015, ISO/TR 14253-6 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)
3.1 ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 terms

For the terms shown in Table 1, the definitions from ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 specifically apply in the use

of this document. This non-exhaustive list is included to avoid ambiguity with other possible terms and

definitions.
Table 1 — ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 terms applicable in the use of this document
Term Terminological entry number
calibration 2.39
indicating measuring instrument 3.3
indication 4.1
material measure 3.6
maximum permissible measurement error 4.26
maximum permissible error
limit of error
measurand 2.3
measured quantity value 2.10
measured value
measurement method 2.5
measurement repeatability 2.21
repeatability
measurement result 2.9
result of measurement
measurement standard 5.1
measurement uncertainty 2.26
uncertainty of measurement
uncertainty
measuring instrument 3.1
measuring system 3.2
quantity value 1.19
value
rated operating condition 4.9
reference material 5.13
reference measurement standard 5.6
reference standard
reference quantity value 5.18
reference value
resolution 4.14
uncertainty budget 2.33
verification 2.44
3.2 Synonym terms to ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 terms

The terms shown in Table 2, as used in this document, are synonyms for the ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007

terms as shown in the table. These synonym terms are used for consistency with previous versions of

this document.
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)
Table 2 — Synonym terms to ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 terms
Synonym term used in
Notes ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007
this document
measuring range See Figure 5 measuring interval 4.7
nominal range See Figure 5 nominal indication interval 4.4
nominal span See Figure 5 range of a nominal indication interval 4.5
error of indication measurement error 2.16
indication error error
3.3 ISO/IEC Guide 98-4:2012 terms

For the terms shown in Table 3, the definitions from ISO/IEC Guide 98-4:2012 specifically apply in the

use of this document. This non-exhaustive list is included to avoid ambiguity with other possible terms

and definitions.
Table 3 — ISO/IEC Guide 98-4:2012 terms applicable in the use of this document
Term Terminological entry number
decision rule 3.3.12
specified requirement 3.3.3
tolerance limit 3.3.4
specification limit
3.4 ISO 14253-5:2015 terms

For the terms shown in Table 4, the definitions from ISO 14253-5:2015 specifically apply in the use of

this document. This non-exhaustive list is included to avoid ambiguity with other possible terms and

definitions.
Table 4 — ISO 14253-5:2015 terms applicable in the use of this document
Term Terminological entry number
test measurand 3.4
test protocol 3.5
test value 3.8
test value uncertainty 3.9
test uncertainty
3.5 Terms related to GPS measuring equipment
3.5.1
measuring equipment

indicating measuring instrument, material measure, software, measurement standard, reference

material or auxiliary equipment used in a measurement

Note 1 to entry: This definition is necessarily wider than that of a measuring instrument since it includes all the

devices used in a measurement.

Note 2 to entry: Measuring equipment should not be confused with a measuring system, which is a set of

measuring equipment used together for a specific measurement.
Note 3 to entry: See Figure 1.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14978:2019
ISO 14978:2018(E)
Key
1 indicating measuring instrument (dial gauge)
2 material measure (gauge block)
3 auxiliary equipment (measuring stand)
Figure 1 — A measuring system composed of various pieces of measuring equipment
3.5.2
metrological characteristic

characteristic of measuring equipment, which may influence the results of

measurement when using the measuring equipment

Note 1 to entry: The influence on the results of measurement is a contributor to measurement uncertainty (see

Clause 6).

Note 2 to entry: The values of a metrological characteristic are expressed in numerical values or as a function

and can be evaluated in units other than that of the measurement results.
Note 3 to entry: Measuring equipment usua
...

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