Health and safety in welding and allied processes - Laboratory method for sampling fume and gases - Part 6: Procedure for quantitative determination of fume and gases from resistance spot welding (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)

ISO/TS 15011-6:2012 provides guidance on determination of emission rates of fume and gases generated by spot welding of uncoated and coated steel sheets, expressed as the quantity of pollutants per spot weld. It describes the test principle and considers methods for sampling and analysis.
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012 can be used for determining the influence of the type of material, the coating system, and the material thickness on the possible generation of fume and gases when using a fixed combination of electrodes, welding equipment, and testing conditions.
The data generated can be used by product manufacturers to provide information for inclusion in safety data sheets and by occupational hygienists to evaluate the significant substances emitted by spot welding in the performance of risk assessments and/or workplace exposure measurements.

Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz beim Schweißen und bei verwandten Verfahren - Laborverfahren zum Sammeln von Rauch und Gasen - Teil 6: Verfahren zur quantitativen Bestimmung von Rauchen und Gasen beim Widerstandspunktschweißen (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)

Dieser Teil von ISO 15011 gibt eine Anleitung zur Bestimmung der Emissionsraten von Rauch und Gasen, die beim Punktschweißen von nicht beschichteten und beschichteten Stahlblechen erzeugt werden, ausgedrückt als Menge von Schadstoffen je Schweißpunkt. Er beschreibt die Prüfgrundlage und betrachtet Verfahren zur Probenahme und Analyse.
Dieser Teil von ISO 15011 kann verwendet werden, um den Einfluss der Werkstoffart, des Beschichtungssystems und der Werkstoffdicke auf die mögliche Entstehung von Rauch und Gasen zu ermitteln, wenn eine bestimmte Kombination von Elektroden, Schweißeinrichtungen und Prüfbedingungen eingesetzt wird.
Die erfassten Daten können von Produkt-Herstellern verwendet werden, um Informationen für den Eintrag in die Sicherheitsdatenblätter zu liefern, oder von Arbeitsmedizinern zur Bewertung der beim Punktschweißen emittierten signifikanten Stoffe für die Durchführung von Gefährdungsbeurteilungen und/oder Expositionsmessungen am Arbeitsplatz.

Hygiène et sécurité en soudage et techniques connexes - Méthode de laboratoire d'échantillonnage des fumées et des gaz - Partie 6: Procédure pour la détermination quantitative des fumées et des gaz générés par le soudage par résistance par points (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)

L'ISO/TS 15011-6:2012 constitue un guide pour la détermination des taux d'émission des fumées et des gaz générés par le soudage par résistance par points des tôles en acier avec ou sans revêtement, exprimés en quantité de polluant par point de soudure. Elle décrit le principe d'essai ainsi que des méthodes d'échantillonnage et d'analyse.
L'ISO/TS 15011-6:2012 permet de déterminer l'influence du type de matériau, du système de revêtement et de l'épaisseur du matériau sur la génération éventuelle de fumées et de gaz en présence d'une association bien déterminée d'électrodes, d'équipements de soudage et de conditions d'essai.
Les données générées peuvent être utilisées par les fabricants du produit pour fournir des informations à inclure dans les fiches de données de sécurité et par les responsables d'hygiène du travail afin d'évaluer les substances importantes émises par le soudage par résistance par points lors de l'évaluation des risques et/ou lors des mesurages de l'exposition sur les lieux de travail.

Zdravje in varnost pri varjenju in sorodnih postopkih - Laboratorijska metoda za vzorčenje dima in plinov - 6. del: Postopek količinskega ugotavljanja dima in plinov pri uporovnem točkastem varjenju (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)

Ta del standarda ISO 15011 vsebuje navodila za ugotavljanje stopenj emisij dima in plinov, ki nastajajo pri točkastem varjenju neprevlečene in prevlečene jeklene pločevine, izraženih v količini onesnaževal na točkovni zvar. Opisuje preskusno načelo ter obravnava metode za vzorčenje in analizo. Ta del standarda ISO 15011 je mogoče uporabiti za ugotavljanje vpliva vrste materiala, premaznega sistema in debeline materiala na morebitno nastajanje dima in plinov ob uporabi določene kombinacije elektrod, opreme za varjenje in preskusnih pogojev. Dobljene podatke lahko uporabijo proizvajalci izdelka kot informacije za vključitev v varnostne liste, higieniki na delovnem mestu pa za vrednotenje pomembnih snovi, ki nastajajo pri točkovnem varjenju, pri izvajanju ocen tveganja in/ali meritvah izpostavljenosti na delovnem mestu.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jul-2012
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Jul-2012
Completion Date
15-Jul-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
01-oktober-2012
=GUDYMHLQYDUQRVWSULYDUMHQMXLQVRURGQLKSRVWRSNLK/DERUDWRULMVNDPHWRGD]D
Y]RUþHQMHGLPDLQSOLQRYGHO3RVWRSHNNROLþLQVNHJDXJRWDYOMDQMDGLPDLQ
SOLQRYSULXSRURYQHPWRþNDVWHPYDUMHQMX ,6276

Health and safety in welding and allied processes - Laboratory method for sampling fume

and gases - Part 6: Procedure for quantitative determination of fume and gases from

resistance spot welding (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)
Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz beim Schweißen und verwandten Verfahren -
Labormethode zum Sammeln von Rauch und Gasen - Teil 6: Quantitative Bestimmung
von Rauch und Gasen beim Widerstandspunktschweißen (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)
Hygiène et sécurité en soudage et techniques connexes - Méthode de laboratoire

d'échantillonnage des fumées et des gaz - Partie 6: Procédure pour la détermination

quantitative des fumées et des gaz générés par le soudage par résistance par points

(ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ICS:
13.100 Varnost pri delu. Industrijska Occupational safety.
higiena Industrial hygiene
25.160.10 Varilni postopki in varjenje Welding processes
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN ISO/TS 15011-6
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
July 2012
ICS 13.100; 25.160.10
English Version
Health and safety in welding and allied processes - Laboratory
method for sampling fume and gases - Part 6: Procedure for
quantitative determination of fume and gases from resistance
spot welding (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)
Hygiène et sécurité en soudage et techniques connexes -
Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz beim Schweißen und bei

Méthode de laboratoire d'échantillonnage des fumées et verwandten Verfahren - Laborverfahren zum Sammeln von

des gaz - Partie 6: Procédure pour la détermination Rauch und Gasen - Teil 6: Verfahren zur quantitativen

quantitative des fumées et des gaz générés par le soudage Bestimmung von Rauchen und Gasen beim

par résistance par points (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012) Widerstandspunktschweißen (ISO/TS 15011-6:2012)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 20 May 2012 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 121

“Welding", the secretariat of which is held by DIN, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 44

"Welding and allied processes".

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 15011-6
First edition
2012-07-15
Health and safety in welding and allied
processes — Laboratory method for
sampling fume and gases —
Part 6:
Procedure for quantitative determination
of fume and gases from resistance spot
welding
Hygiène et sécurité en soudage et techniques connexes — Méthode de
laboratoire d'échantillonnage des fumées et des gaz —
Partie 6: Procédure pour la détermination quantitative des fumées et
des gaz générés par le soudage par résistance par points
Reference number
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
ISO 2012
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

4  Principle ................................................................................................................................................. 2

5  Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................... 2

6  Procedure ............................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1  Preparation of test pieces..................................................................................................................... 3

6.2  Set up of welding equipment ............................................................................................................... 4

6.3  Selection of welding parameters ......................................................................................................... 4

6.4  Fume emission rate ............................................................................................................................... 4

6.5  Emission rate of gases ......................................................................................................................... 5

7  Calculation method ............................................................................................................................... 6

7.1  Emission rate of dust ............................................................................................................................ 6

7.2  Emission rate of gases ......................................................................................................................... 7

8  Documentation ...................................................................................................................................... 8

9  Test report .............................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) Examples of designs of fume box ............................................................................ 10

Annex B (informative) Example of a welding chamber for determination of the emission rate of

gases ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

Annex C (normative) Welding parameters ..................................................................................................... 16

Annex D (informative) Example of test report ................................................................................................ 17

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In other circumstances, particularly when there is an urgent market requirement for such documents, a

technical committee may decide to publish other types of document:

 an ISO Publicly Available Specification (ISO/PAS) represents an agreement between technical experts in

an ISO working group and is accepted for publication if it is approved by more than 50 % of the members

of the parent committee casting a vote;

 an ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS) represents an agreement between the members of a technical

committee and is accepted for publication if it is approved by 2/3 of the members of the committee casting

a vote.

An ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is reviewed after three years in order to decide whether it will be confirmed for a

further three years, revised to become an International Standard, or withdrawn. If the ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is

confirmed, it is reviewed again after a further three years, at which time it must either be transformed into an

International Standard or be withdrawn.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TS 15011-6 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 9, Health and safety.

ISO 15011 consists of the following parts, under the general title Health and safety in welding and allied

processes — Laboratory method for sampling fume and gases:

 Part 1: Determination of fume emission rate during arc welding and collection of fume for analysis

 Part 2: Determination of the emission rates of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO ), nitrogen

monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO ) during arc welding, cutting and gouging
 Part 3: Determination of ozone emission rate during arc welding
 Part 4: Fume data sheets

 Part 5: Identification of thermal-degradation products generated when welding or cutting through products

composed wholly or partly of organic materials using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

 Part 6: Procedure for quantitative determination of fume and gases from resistance spot welding

(Technical Specification)
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)

Requests for official interpretations of any aspect of this Technical Specification should be directed to the

Secretariat of ISO/TC 44/SC 9 via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can be

found at www.iso.org.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
Introduction

Welding and cutting activities generate fume and gases which can be harmful to health and should be

controlled within the limits laid down by regulations.

Determination of the particle size distribution and the qualitative analysis (metallic and organic fraction and, if

possible, speciation) of the dust collected are part of the current practices in human health risk assessment.

In addition, determination of the emission rate of fume and gases is essential for a proper hazard

characterization (qualitative and quantitative analysis).

Emission rates cannot be used directly to assess the welder's exposure, but it is expected that materials

giving low emission rates will result in lower welder exposures than materials with high emission rates used in

the same working situation.
vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
Health and safety in welding and allied processes — Laboratory
method for sampling fume and gases —
Part 6:
Procedure for quantitative determination of fume and gases
from resistance spot welding
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15011 provides guidance on determination of emission rates of fume and gases generated by

spot welding of uncoated and coated steel sheets, expressed as the quantity of pollutants per spot weld. It

describes the test principle and considers methods for sampling and analysis.

This part of ISO 15011 can be used for determining the influence of the type of material, the coating system,

and the material thickness on the possible generation of fume and gases when using a fixed combination of

electrodes, welding equipment, and testing conditions.

The data generated can be used by product manufacturers to provide information for inclusion in safety data

sheets and by occupational hygienists to evaluate the significant substances emitted by spot welding in the

performance of risk assessments and/or workplace exposure measurements.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7708, Air quality — Particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling

ISO 15011-5, Health and safety in welding and allied processes — Laboratory method for sampling fume and

gases — Part 5: Identification of thermal-degradation products generated when welding or cutting through

products composed wholly or partly of organic materials using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass

spectrometry

ISO 15609-5, Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials — Welding

procedure specification — Part 5: Resistance welding

ISO 15767, Workplace atmospheres — Controlling and characterizing uncertainty in weighing collected

aerosols

ISO 18278-2:2004, Resistance welding — Weldability — Part 2: Alternative procedures for the assessment of

sheet steels for spot welding

CEN/TR 14599, Terms and definitions for welding purposes in relation with EN 1792

CEN/TR 15230, Workplace atmospheres — Guidance for sampling of inhalable, thoracic and respirable

aerosol fractions
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in CEN/TR 14599 and the following apply.

3.1
gas

thermal degradation substance generated when welding and sampled in the gas phase

3.2
welding spatter

exit of molten metal from the overlapping area between the sheets and characterized by flying sparks and/or

by plumes in the overlapping area emanating from the solidified weld nugget

NOTE The solidified weld nugget can be examined for signs of weld spatter by destructive testing.

3.3
surface spatter

exit of molten metal occurring in resistance spot welding at the contact area between electrode and sheet

surface

NOTE Surface spatter is visible to the eye and can often be recognized after welding by means of a remaining dark

trace of residues on, and/or light formation of plumes at, the sheet surface.
4 Principle

Fume and gases generated by resistance spot welding are extracted into a sampling chamber in order to

determine the amount of dust generated. According to the principle of sedimentation, coarse particles are

separated and the airborne particles are collected on a preweighed filter, which is then reweighed. The fume

can then be chemically analysed, if required.

In order to determine the gaseous components, the emissions are collected in a fume box, then sampled and

quantified in an appropriate manner. Identification of any thermal degradation products of occupational

hygiene significance are undertaken in accordance with ISO 15011-5 prior to the welding test.

5 Apparatus

5.1 Resistance spot welding equipment. Refer to ISO 15609-5 for information and guidance on

appropriate resistance spot welding equipment and resistance spot welding conditions.

5.2 Equipment for determination of fume emission rate.
5.2.1 Welding chamber for determination of fume emission rate. See Annex A.
5.2.2 Sampler.

5.2.2.1 Inhalable sampler, designed to collect the inhalable fraction of airborne particles, as defined in

ISO 7708, with a high enough design flow rate to extract all the fume generated without loss on to the walls of

the welding chamber.

5.2.2.2 Respirable sampler, designated to collect the respirable fraction of airborne particles, as defined

in ISO 7708, with a high enough design flow rate to extract all the fume generated without loss on to the walls

of the welding chamber.

5.2.3 Filters, with a suitable pore size, e.g. 8 µm, and of a diameter that is compatible with the sampler

(5.2.2). Refer to ISO 15767 for guidance on selection of filters when carrying out gravimetric measurements.

2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)

5.2.4 Adaptor, for connecting the welding chamber to the sampler, having an airtight fit in order to prevent

outside air being entrained into the chamber.

5.2.5 Balance, accurate to 0,01 mg, for preweighing and reweighing test filters.

5.3 Equipment for determination emission rates of gases.

5.3.1 Welding chamber for determination emission rates of gases shall be large enough to contain the

emitted gases during welding and shall not be constructed using materials which could emit organic gases on

heating. The chamber shall be equipped with a number of suitable ports through which the emitted gases can

be sampled.

An example of a welding chamber for determination emission rates of gases is given in Annex B.

5.3.2 Sampling lines, consisting of tubing connecting the sampling points and the pumps or equipment for

measuring gas concentration.

The sampling lines shall have a diameter 10 mm, be as short as practicable, and shall incorporate a dust

filter, mounted in a suitable filter holder, placed as close as possible to the sampling point in order to prevent

dust from entering the sampling line.

5.3.3 Direct-reading apparatus for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) is based on one of the following

principles:

 dispersive infra-red absorption and non-dispersive infra-red absorption, used with or without filters to

reduce interference from carbon dioxide;

 diffusion of CO through a semi-permeable membrane at a rate proportional to the concentration, followed

by electrochemical oxidation of the gas at a potential-controlled electrode and measurement of the

current produced.

5.3.4 Equipment for sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs), e.g. Tenax tubes.

5.3.5 Equipment for sampling aldehydes and other carbonyl compounds, e.g.
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) tube.

5.3.6 Equipment for sampling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), e.g. XAD-2 tube.

5.3.7 Equipment for sampling phenols, e.g. XAD-7 tube.

5.3.8 Equipment for sampling isocyanates, e.g. glass-fibre filters impregnated with

1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine.
6 Procedure
6.1 Preparation of test pieces

Prepare strips of the material to be tested, having a width of 50 mm and a length which is sufficient to ensure

a minimum of 100 spot welds can be performed at a welding frequency of 20 spots/min with a spot weld

distance of 30 mm. If necessary, join two or more strips to produce a test piece of sufficient length.

1) Example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the convenience of users of this

International Standard and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)
6.2 Set up of welding equipment

Set up the resistance spot welding equipment (5.1) to weld together two test pieces (see 6.1) within the

welding chamber, with the spot welds centrally placed at a spot weld distance of 30 mm. Use the welding

chamber described in Annex A for determination of fume emission rate or as described in Annex B for

determination of emission rates and gases.

In order to ensure good contact between the electrode and the test piece, condition the welding electrodes by

performing 20 welds. Carry out this conditioning of the electrodes using sheets of soft, deep-drawing steel

without layer or coating, having the same thickness as the material under test.
6.3 Selection of welding parameters
Set the welding parameters for emission measurements as given in Annex C.

Set the welding current so the spot diameter, in millimetres, is approximately 4,5√t, where t is the thickness of

the material under test, in millimetres. If spatter occurs, set the welding current 500 A below this value.

NOTE 1 Setting the current to produce a test spot diameter of approximately 4,5√t avoids most spatter, which is

necessary for reproducible emission rate measurements.

NOTE 2 Guidelines on the measurement of spot weld diameters for peel and shear fracture are contained in

[2]
ISO 14329 .

Ensure that the welding time is sufficiently long to overcome electrode bounce effects and setting inertia, in

order that the pressure on the electrodes reaches a minimum of 95 % of the nominal value before the current

is flowing.
6.4 Fume emission rate
6.4.1 Selection and use of sampler

Use either inhalable samplers (5.2.2.1) or respirable samplers (5.2.2.2), according to which size fraction is

applicable to the limit values of interest, e.g. for manganese.

Use the samplers at their design flow rate, in accordance with the specifications given by the manufacturer, in

order that they collect the intended fraction of the airborne particles.
Refer to CEN/TR 15230 for guidance on suitable samplers.
6.4.2 Connection of sampler to the welding chamber

Connect the sampler (5.2.2) to the welding chamber (see Annex A) using the sampling line (5.3.2) and the

adaptor (5.2.4).
6.4.3 Sampling

Before sampling, mark, condition, and preweigh the filter to be used for sampling (see 6.4.5.1).

Subject the material under test to a minimum of nine series of 100 spot welds, cleaning the welding chamber

after each test and replacing the electrode caps after every 300 spot welds. Remove, condition, reweigh, and

replace the test filter after completing each series (see 6.4.5.1). If there is shut-down of the pump or clogging

of the filter, terminate sampling with fewer than 100 spot welds completed.

If welding spatter occurs during sampling (material discharge), the test is invalid, so reject the filter.

NOTE The generation of welding spatter increases fume emission.
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)

If surface spatter occurs, document its occurrence, but do not reject the filter, as the test is still considered

valid.

If necessary, perform additional tests to obtain at least six valid measurements, which is the minimum

necessary for satisfactory counting statistics.
6.4.4 Blank test

Collect a sample blank by performing a test similar to that described in 6.4.3, but without making welds. Draw

air through the filter for a time which corresponds to that taken to carry out a series of 100 spot welds.

6.4.5 Analysis
6.4.5.1 Gravimetry

Determine the mass of fume collected on each filter from the difference in mass before and after sampling and

divide by the number of spot welds made to express the result in milligrams per spot weld.

Refer to ISO 15767 for controlling and characterizing errors in weighing collected aerosols.

Before each weighing, condition the filter for 48 h with a temperature maintained constant to within 2 °C and

the relative humidity to within 5 %.

In order to compensate for possible environmental variations during weighing or conditioning of filters, weigh a

suitable number of reference filters, which are not being used for the measurement, during each series of

weighing. Apply a correction to all test results to account for the average difference in mass of the reference

filters between the initial and final weighings.

Subtract the result of the sample blank test from the result of the emission measurements to correct for any

cross-contamination from the welding chamber.
6.4.5.2 Determination of the metal in the fume

If information about the composition of the fume is required, especially with respect to the presence and

concentration of hazardous metals, analyse the fume using an appropriate technique.

[3] [4]

Refer to ISO 15202-2 for sampling dissolution, ISO 15202-3 for analysis by inductively coupled plasma –

[6]

atomic emission spectrometry and ISO 30011 or analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

6.5 Emission rate of gases
6.5.1 Preparation for sampling

Ensure that the welding chamber is clean before use. Wipe the internal surfaces of the welding chamber with

a cloth wetted with a suitable solvent, e.g. acetone, and ensure that all traces of the solvent have dissipated

before welding.

Fit the welding chamber with appropriate sampling systems, according to the type of analyses to be performed.

Select the specific sorbent tubes or filters to be used (5.3.3 to 5.3.8) using the results of pyrolysis performed

on the coating present on the test piece surface using the method specified in ISO 15011-5.

NOTE Examples of gases that can be generated by resistance welding of organic coated materials are:

 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, some aldehydes and carbonyl compounds;

 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs);
 phenols;
 isocyanates.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 15011-6:2012
ISO/TS 15011-6:2012(E)

In all cases, connect the chamber to direct reading apparatus for measuring CO, as CO concentration is

monitored throughout sampling to correct the measured concentrati
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