Specification for additive manufacturing file format (AMF) Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM 52915:2016)

ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 provides the specification for the Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF), an interchange format to address the current and future needs of additive manufacturing technology.
The AMF may be prepared, displayed and transmitted provided the requirements of this specification are met. When prepared in a structured electronic format, strict adherence to an extensible markup language (XML)[1] schema is required to support standards-compliant interoperability.
A W3C XML schema definition (XSD) for the AMF is available from ISO from http://standards.iso.org/iso/52915 and from ASTM from www.astm.org/MEETINGS/images/amf.xsd. An implementation guide for such an XML schema is provided in Annex A.
It is recognized that there is additional information relevant to the final part that is not covered by the current version of this International Standard. Suggested future features are listed in Annex B.
ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 does not specify any explicit mechanisms for ensuring data integrity, electronic signatures and encryptions.

Spezifikation für ein Dateiformat für Additive Fertigung (AMF) Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM 52915:2016)

Spécification normalisée pour le format de fichier pour la fabrication additive (AMF) Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM 52915:2016)

ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 fournit la spécification du format de fichier pour la fabrication additive (AMF), un format d'échange dans le but de traiter les besoins actuels et futurs de la technologie de fabrication additive.
Le fichier pour la fabrication additive (AMF) peut être élaboré, affiché et transmis sous réserve qu'il comprenne les informations requises par la présente spécification. Lorsque ce fichier est élaboré dans un format électronique structuré, le strict respect d'un schéma de langage de balisage extensible (XML)[1] est exigé pour prendre en charge une interopérabilité normalisée.
Un schéma de définition XML W3C (XSD) du format de fichier pour la fabrication additive (AMF) est disponible auprès de l'ISO à l'adresse http://standards.iso.org/iso/52915 et de l'ASTM à l'adresse www.astm.org/MEETINGS/images/amf.xsd. L'Annexe A contient des lignes directrices de mise en ?uvre pour ce type de représentation XML.
Il est reconnu que des informations supplémentaires existent concernant la dernière partie laquelle n'est pas couverte par la version actuelle de la présente Norme internationale. De futures fonctionnalités proposées figurent à l'Annexe B.
ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 ne spécifie pas de mécanismes explicites pour assurer l'intégrité des données, les signatures électroniques et les cryptages.

Specifikacija za aditivno proizvodnjo formata (AMF), različica 1.2 (ISO/ASTM 52915:2016)

Standard ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 določa specifikacijo za aditivno proizvodnjo formata (AMF), formata izmenjave za izpolnitev trenutnih in prihodnjih potreb tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje.
AMF se lahko pripravi, prikazuje in prenaša, če so zahteve iz te specifikacije izpolnjene. Kadar je pripravljen v strukturiranem elektronskem formatu, je za zagotavljanje podpore interoperabilnosti v skladu s standardi potrebno strogo upoštevanje sheme razširljivega označevalnega jezika (XML)[1].
Definicija sheme W3C XML (XSD) za AMF je na voljo v standardu ISO na spletnem mestu http://standards.iso.org/iso/52915 in v standardu ASTM na spletnem mestu www.astm.org/MEETINGS/images/amf.xsd. Vodilo za izvajanje takšne sheme XML je na voljo v dodatku A.
Ugotovljeno je, da obstajajo dodatne informacije, ki se nanašajo na končni del in niso zajete v trenutni različici tega mednarodnega standarda. Predlagane prihodnje lastnosti so navedene v dodatku B.
Standard ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 ne določa nobenih izrecnih mehanizmov za zagotavljanje celovitosti podatkov, elektronskih podpisov in šifriranj.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
14-Feb-2017
Withdrawal Date
14-Apr-2020
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
15-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
01-maj-2017
6SHFLILNDFLMD]DDGLWLYQRSURL]YRGQMRIRUPDWD $0) UD]OLþLFD ,62$670

Specification for Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM
52915:2016)

Spezifikation für ein Dateiformat für Additive Fertigung (AMF) Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM

52915:2016)

Spécification normalisée pour le format de fichier pour la fabrication additive (AMF)

Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM 52915:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/ASTM 52915:2017
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
35.240.50 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in industry
industriji
SIST EN ISO 52915:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
EN ISO/ASTM 52915
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.030; 35.240.50
English Version
Specification for additive manufacturing file format (AMF)
Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM 52915:2016)

Spécification normalisée pour le format de fichier pour Spezifikation für ein Dateiformat für Additive

la fabrication additive (AMF) Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM Fertigung (AMF) Version 1.2 (ISO/ASTM 52915:2016)

52915:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 January 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO/ASTM 52915:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
EN ISO/ASTM 52915:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
EN ISO/ASTM 52915:2017 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261 “Additive

manufacturing” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as

EN ISO/ASTM 52915:2017 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 438 “Additive Manufacturing” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/ASTM 52915:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/ASTM 52915:2017 without

any modification.
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52915
Second edition
2016-02-15
Specification for Additive
Manufacturing File Format (AMF)
Version 1.2
Spécification normalisée pour le format de fichier pour la fabrication
additive (AMF) Version 1.2
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52915:2016(E)
ISO/ASTM International 2016
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
ISO/ASTM 52915:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASME International 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11 Tel. +610 832 9634
Fax +41 22 749 09 47 Fax +610 832 9635
copyright@iso.org khooper@astm.org
www.iso.org www.astm.org
ii © ISO/ASTM International 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
ISO/ASTM 52915:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Key considerations ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Guidelines for the inclusion of future new elements ............................................................................................. 3

4 Structure of this specification .................................................................................................................................................................3

5 General structure .................................................................................................................................................................................................4

6 Geometry specification ..................................................................................................................................................................................5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Smooth geometry ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.3 Restrictions on geometry ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Material specification ......................................................................................................................................................................................7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Mixed and graded materials and substructures ......................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Porous materials .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4 Stochastic materials .........................................................................................................................................................................10

8 Colour specification........................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Colour gradations and texture mapping ........................................................................................................................11

8.3 Transparency .........................................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Texture specification .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Constellations .......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Metadata ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12 Compression and distribution ............................................................................................................................................................13

13 Minimal implementation ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) AMF XML schema implementation guide ........................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Performance data and future features ..............................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO/ASTM International 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
ISO/ASTM 52915:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation

with ASTM F 42.91, Terminology, on the basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM

International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on Additive Manufacturing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/ASTM 52915:2013), which has been

technically revised. This revision contains changes to normative language and details of a minimum

implementation, as well as corrections and clarifications.
iv © ISO/ASTM International 2016 – All rights reserved
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Introduction

This International Standard describes an interchange format to address the current and future needs

of additive manufacturing technology. For the last three decades, the stereolithography (STL) file

format has been the industry standard for transferring information between design programs and

additive manufacturing equipment. An STL file defines only a surface mesh and has no provisions

for representing colour, texture, material, substructure and other properties of the fabricated object.

As additive manufacturing technology is evolving quickly from producing primarily single-material,

homogeneous objects to producing geometries in full colour with functionally-defined gradations of

materials and microstructures, there is a growing need for a standard interchange file format that can

support these features.

The Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) has many benefits. It describes an object in such

a general way that any machine can build it to the best of its ability, and as such is technology

independent. It is easy to implement and understand, scalable and has good performance. Crucially, it

is both backwards compatible, allowing any existing STL file to be converted, and future compatible,

allowing new features to be added as advances in technology warrant.
© ISO/ASTM International 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 52915:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52915:2016(E)
Specification for Additive Manufacturing File Format
(AMF) Version 1.2
1 Scope

This International Standard provides the specification for the Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF),

an interchange format to address the current and future needs of additive manufacturing technology.

The AMF may be prepared, displayed and transmitted provided the requirements of this specification

are met. When prepared in a structured electronic format, strict adherence to an extensible markup

[1]

language (XML) schema is required to support standards-compliant interoperability.

A W3C XML schema definition (XSD) for the AMF is available from ISO from http://standards.iso.

org/iso/52915 and from ASTM from www.astm.org/MEETINGS/images/amf.xsd. An implementation

guide for such an XML schema is provided in Annex A.

It is recognized that there is additional information relevant to the final part that is not covered by the

current version of this International Standard. Suggested future features are listed in Annex B.

This International Standard does not specify any explicit mechanisms for ensuring data integrity,

electronic signatures and encryptions.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
AMF consumer

software reading (parsing) the Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) file for fabrication,

visualization or analysis

Note 1 to entry: AMF files are typically imported by additive manufacturing equipment, as well as viewing,

analysis and verification software.
2.2
AMF editor

software reading and rewriting the Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) file for conversion

Note 1 to entry: AMF editor applications are used to convert an AMF from one form to another, for example,

convert all curved triangles to flat triangles or convert porous material specification into an explicit mesh surface.

2.3
AMF producer

software writing (generating) the Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) file from original

geometric data

Note 1 to entry: AMF files are typically exported by computer-aided design (CAD) software, scanning software or

directly from computational geometry algorithms.
2.4
attribute

characteristic of data, representing one or more aspects or descriptors of the data in an element

Note 1 to entry: In the XML framework, attributes are characteristics of elements.

© ISO/ASTM International 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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2.5
comments

all text elements associated with any data within the Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) to be

ignored by import software

Note 1 to entry: Comments are used for enhancing human readability of the file and for debugging purposes.

2.6
element

information unit within an XML document consisting of a start tag, an end tag, the content between the

tags and any attributes

Note 1 to entry: In the XML framework, an element can contain data, attributes and other elements.

2.7
extensible markup language
XML

standard from the WorldWideWeb Consortium (W3C) that provides for tagging of information content

within documents offering a means for representation of content in a format that is both human and

machine readable

Note 1 to entry: Through the use of customizable style sheets and schemas, information can be represented in a

uniform way, allowing for interchange of both content (data) and format (metadata).

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:2015, 2.4.7]
2.8
STL
stereolithography

file format for model data describing the surface geometry of an object as a tessellation of triangles

used to communicate 3D geometries to machines in order to build physical parts

Note 1 to entry: The STL file format was originally developed as part of the CAD package for the early

stereolithography apparatus, thus referring to that process. It is sometimes also described as “Standard

Triangulation Language” or “Standard Tessalation Language”, though it has never been recognized as an official

standard by any standardization organization.
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:2015, 2.4.16]
3 Key considerations
3.1 General

3.1.1 There is a natural trade-off between the generality of a file format and its usefulness for a specific

purpose. Thus, features designed to meet the needs of one community may hinder the usefulness of a file

format for other uses. To be successful across the field of additive manufacturing, the file format described

in this International Standard, the AMF, is designed to address the concerns listed in 3.1.2 to 3.1.7.

3.1.2 Technology independence. The AMF describes an object in such a general way that any machine

can build it to the best of its ability. It is resolution and layer-thickness independent and does not contain

information specific to any one manufacturing process or technique. This does not negate the inclusion

of features that describe capabilities that only certain advanced machines support (for example, colour,

multiple materials), but these are defined in such a way as to avoid exclusivity.

3.1.3 Simplicity. The AMF is easy to implement and understand. The format can be read and debugged

in a simple text viewer to encourage comprehension and adoption. Identical information is not stored in

multiple places.
2 © ISO/ASTM International 2016 – All rights reserved
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3.1.4 Scalability. The file size and processing time scales well with the increase in part complexity

and with the improving resolution and accuracy of manufacturing equipment. This includes being able

to handle large arrays of identical objects, complex periodic internal features (for example, meshes and

lattices) and smooth curved surfaces when fabricated with very high resolution.

3.1.5 Performance. The AMF enables reasonable duration (interactive time) for read-and-

write operations and reasonable file sizes for a typical large object. Detailed performance data are

provided in Annex B.

3.1.6 Backwards compatibility. Any existing STL file can be converted directly into a valid AMF file

without any loss of information and without requiring any additional information. AMF files are also

easily converted back to STL for use on legacy systems, although advanced features will be lost. This

format maintains the triangle-mesh geometry representation to take advantage of existing optimized

slicing algorithms and code infrastructure already in existence.

3.1.7 Future compatibility. To remain useful in a rapidly changing industry, this file format is easily

extensible while remaining compatible with earlier versions and technologies. This allows new features

to be added as advances in technology warrant, while still working flawlessly for simple homogeneous

geometries on the oldest hardware.
3.2 Guidelines for the inclusion of future new elements

3.2.1 Any new element proposed shall be applicable across all hardware platforms and technologies

that could conceivably be used to generate the desired outcome.

3.2.2 In support of the consideration above, new elements proposed for this International Standard

shall describe the final object, not how to build it. For instance, a hypothetical future element

might be allowed to tell an additive manufacturing system to leave the volume empty if possible.

However, an element that describes how to build a hollow volume shall

not be included since it assumes a particular fabrication process.
4 Structure of this specification

4.1 Format. Information specified throughout this specification is stored in XML 1.0 format. XML is a

text file comprising a list of elements and attributes. Using this widely accepted data format allows for

the use of many tools for creating, viewing, manipulating, parsing and storing AMF files. XML is human-

readable, which makes debugging errors in the file possible. XML can be compressed or encrypted or

both if desired in a post-processing step using highly optimized standardized routines.

4.2 Flexibility. Another significant advantage of XML is its inherent flexibility. Missing or additional

parameters do not present a problem for a parser as long as the document conforms to the XML standard.

Practically, the use of XML namespaces allows new features to be added without breaking old versions of

the parser, such as in legacy software.

4.3 Precision. This file format is agnostic as to the precision of the representation of numeric values.

It is the responsibility of the generating program to write as many or as few digits as are necessary for

proper representation of the target object. However, an AMF consumer should read and process real

numbers in double precision (64 bits).

4.4 Future amendments and additions. While additional XML elements can be added provisionally

to any AMF file for internal purpose, such additions shall not be considered part of this specification. An

unofficial AMF element may be ignored by any AMF consumer and may not be stored or reproduced by an

editor application. An element becomes official only when it is formally accepted into this specification.

© ISO/ASTM International 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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5 General structure

5.1 The AMF file shall begin with the XML declaration line specifying the XML version and

encoding, for example:

The XML version shall be 1.0. Only UTF-8 and UTF-16 should be specified. Unrecognized encodings

should cause the file to fail to load.

5.2 Whitespace characters and standard XML comments may be interspersed in the file and shall be

ignored by any interpreter, for example:

5.3 The remainder of the file shall be enclosed between start and end element tags.

This element denotes the file type and fulfils the requirement that all XML files have a single root element.

A version attribute denoting the version of the AMF standard the file is compliant with should be used.

Standard XML namespace attributes may also be used, such as the lang attribute designed to identify

the natural human language used. The unit system may also be specified (millimetre, inch, foot, metre or

micron). In the absence of a unit specification, the attribute value millimetres is assumed, for example:

xmins:amf=“www.astm.org/Standards/F2915-14”>

5.4 Enclosed within the element start- and end-tags, there are five top level elements, as

described in 5.4.1 to 5.4.5.

5.4.1 The object element defines a volume or volumes of material, each of which might also

reference a material identifier (ID) for AM processing. The object element shall also declare an object ID,

which shall be unique. At least one object element shall be present in the file. Additional objects are optional.

5.4.2 The optional material element defines one material for fabrication, each of which

declares an associated material ID. The material ID declared shall be unique and shall not be 0. If no

material element is included, a single default material is assumed.

5.4.3 The optional texture element defines one image or texture for colour or texture

mapping, each of which declares an associated texture ID. The texture ID declared shall be unique.

5.4.4 The optional constellation element hierarchically combines objects and

other constellations into a relative pattern for printing. The constellation element may also declare an

object ID, which shall be unique. If no constellation elements are specified, each object element shall be

imported with no relative position data. The consumer software may determine the relative positioning

of the objects if more than one object is specified in the file.

5.4.5 The optional metadata element specifies additional information about the

object(s) and elements contained in the file.
5.5 Only a single object element is required for a fully functional AMF file.
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6 Geometry specification
6.1 General

6.1.1 The top level element declares a unique ID and shall contain one child

element. The element shall contain two child elements: and . The

element may optionally reference a material.

6.1.2 The required element shall contain all vertices that are used in this object. Each

vertex is implicitly assigned an identifying integer in the order in which it is declared, starting at zero and

increasing monotonically. The required child element gives the position of the vertex

in three-dimensional (3D) space using the , and child elements.

6.1.3 After the vertex information, at least one element shall be included. Each volume

encapsulates a closed volume of the object. Multiple volumes may be included in a

...

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