Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 3: Dwellings

This Technical Specification gives guidance and recommendations for reducing the risk of crimes against people and property in dwellings and their immediate surroundings through planning and design. It covers new and existing dwellings, in single or multiple units.

Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 3: Wohnungen

Diese Technische Spezifikation bietet Hinweise und Empfehlungen, um der Kriminalität an Personen und Sachen in Wohngebieten durch Planung und Gestaltung vorzubeugen. Sie deckt neue und bestehende Wohngebäuden mit einer oder mehreren Wohneinheiten ab.

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 3 : Logements

Cette Spécification technique donne des recommandations pour réduire les risques de malveillance visant les
personnes et les biens dans les zones d�habitations et leur environnement immédiat grâce à l�urbanisme et à
la conception. Elle couvre l�habitat neuf et ancien, qu�il s�agisse de logements individuels ou collectifs.

Preprečevanje kriminala – Urbanistično planiranje in projektiranje – 3. del: Stanovanja

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Oct-2005
Current Stage
9092 - Decision on results of review/2YR ENQ - revise - Review Enquiry
Due Date
11-Mar-2008
Completion Date
11-Mar-2008

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
01-december-2005
Preprečevanje kriminala – Urbanistično planiranje in projektiranje – 3. del:
Stanovanja
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 3: Dwellings
Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 3:
Wohnungen

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 3 :

Logements
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
ICS:
13.310 Varstvo pred kriminalom Protection against crime
91.020 Prostorsko planiranje. Physical planning. Town
Urbanizem planning
91.040.30 Stanovanjske stavbe Residential buildings
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 14383-3
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
October 2005
ICS 91.040.30; 13.310
English Version
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part
3: Dwellings

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und

des bâtiments - Partie 3 : Logements Gebäudeplanung - Teil 3: Wohnungen

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 24 April 2005 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 14383-3:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction......................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions.........................................................................................................................5

4 Objectives and methodology .............................................................................................................5

5 Risk analysis and assessment of related protection levels.............................................................7

6 Level of protection..............................................................................................................................8

7 Individual dwellings............................................................................................................................9

8 The building envelope ......................................................................................................................12

9 Residential blocks.............................................................................................................................14

10 Enhancing security in residential blocks........................................................................................15

11 Apartments........................................................................................................................................19

12 Management and maintenance of residential blocks.....................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Resistance classes for windows, doors and shutters and requirements

for related hardware conforming to ENV 1627................................................................................21

Annex B (informative) Risk analysis of the vulnerability of dwellings to burglary..................................23

Annex C (informative) Quick reference guide to the vulnerability of dwellings to burglary....................46

Annex D (informative) Security grades of intrusion alarm systems as EN 50131-1 ................................49

Annex E (informative) Indicators of security problems in residential areas.............................................50

Annex F (informative) Cost/benefit checklist of methods to enhance security in residential blocks.....51

Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................54

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CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
Foreword

This CEN Technical Specification (CEN/TS 14383-3:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/TC 325 “Prevention of crime by urban planing design”, the secretariat of which is held by SNV.

The status of Technical Specification was proposed to give all countries the opportunity to compare

experiences and to harmonise procedures. In particular, the guidance given in the Annexes needs to be

tested in use to establish realistic security levels.

This Technical Specification is one of a series for “The prevention of crime by urban planning and building

design”, that consists of the following parts:
Part 1 – Definitions of specific terms
Part 2 – Urban planning
Part 3 – Dwellings
Part 4 – Shops and offices

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this CEN Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

and United Kingdom.
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CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
Introduction

In considering security measures aimed at preventing crime and antisocial behaviour and the fear of crime in

residential areas, one of the most difficult tasks is determining the type and level of the threat (e.g. vandalism,

burglary, aggression) and the scope of measures to be taken in order to reduce it.

The causes of crime have been researched for many years. There are many factors that can influence the

possibility of an offence being committed or not. Certain factors, for example socio-economic conditions are

beyond the remit of this standard. Other factors such as neighbourhood layout and building design can be

considered along with more specific reference to target-hardening measures.

Three basic criminological approaches have been adopted: Rational Choice, Routine Activities and Defensible

Space.

a) Rational Choice states that potential offenders will normally undertake their own risk assessment before

deciding to commit a crime. They will consider the chances of being seen, the ease of entry and the

chance of escape without detection.

b) The Routine Activities theory assumes that for an offence to take place there need to be three factors

present: a motivated offender, a suitable target or victim and a lack of capable guardian. To prevent a

crime it is necessary to alter the influence of one of these factors. For example, an offender can be de-

motivated by increasing the level of surveillance or by making access more difficult. A target can also be

made less attractive by increasing security or removing escape routes. Similarly, the presence or

influence of a capable guardian, either real or implied, can assist in creating a sense of neighbourliness.

c) The Defensible Space theory applies to the different levels of acceptance that exist for people to

legitimately be in different types of space. Everyone has a right to be in a public space, such as a street,

but they do not have the right to be in the garden of another person’s dwelling, which is a private space. It

is equally important to differentiate and distinguish public space from semi-public and semi-private space,

to make it possible to use either formal or informal social control over those spaces in ways that prevent

crime and antisocial behaviour developing or progressing unhindered.

Most offences are committed because perpetrators enjoy opportunities: easy access, hiding places, absence

of demarcation between public and private space, poor lighting and/or favourable landscaping. By

understanding the motivation of potential offenders and counterbalancing it by specific physical security

measures combined with real or symbolic design elements, this Technical Specification aims to assist

designers, planners, estate managers and stakeholders in the area of crime prevention to:

a) Define the protection measures most appropriate to the site.

b) Influence decisions relating to building design, the layout of the site, landscaping, and other related details

in order to make dwellings attractive and safe for inhabitants and unattractive targets for potential

offenders.

In residential areas with either individual dwellings and/or residential blocks, the purpose is not only to protect

properties against burglary but also to prevent access by unwanted visitors, the illegal appropriation of space,

degradation of the environment and to fight fear of crime.

The design of the built environment can also influence individual perceptions of fear of crime (e.g. in dark

footpaths), as perceptions of crime often exceed the reality.

Recommendations relating to the planning of new and existing urban areas, ranging from a few streets to a

city centre, an industrial estate, or a large open space for public use, are given in ENV 14383-2.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Specification gives guidance and recommendations for reducing the risk of crimes against

people and property in dwellings and their immediate surroundings through planning and design. It covers

new and existing dwellings, in single or multiple units.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

prEN 14383-1, Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 1: Definitions of specific terms

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this Technical Specification, the terms and definitions given in prEN 14383-1 apply.

4 Objectives and methodology
4.1 General

While it is important to consider individual buildings in detail, it is also essential to be aware of the influence

exerted by the design and layout of the neighbourhood. This is sometimes referred to as the ‘Meso’ level and

includes road layout, infrastructure and location of facilities. Town planners, designers, developers and

professionals with crime prevention expertise should be involved as a design team, to ensure that designing

out crime factors are taken into account in the early stages of the planning process.

The joint approach should consider the various factors that can reduce the opportunity to commit crime. Some

of the most important factors are ownership, human presence and conflict minimisation.

The design and layout of public space in the neighbourhood should encourage local residents to regard it as

their own and take responsibility for it. If this can be achieved, crime and antisocial behaviour are less likely to

occur, or continue without local people reacting to it.

NOTE One of the strongest prevention factors for potential offenders is the risk of being seen and identified, which is

why human presence and natural surveillance are so important. These factors are easier to achieve with

mixed usage as this can prolong liveliness and movement throughout an extended period of the day. Street furniture

should be designed to enable good sight lines and provide wide natural surveillance. Equally access to buildings should

front onto public space for the same reason.

Fear of crime, whether justified or perceived, should be considered and the design of the environment should

take this into account. Any design feature that could possibly give rise to a potential conflict situation should

be avoided. Safe and integrated options for pedestrians and/or cyclists should be included and give a feeling

of safety that will encourage their use.
Buildings meant for residential purposes can be split into two categories:
a) Individual dwellings, detached or in groups;
b) Residential blocks with apartments.

In the area of crime prevention, three objective criteria have been taken into account:

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
a) Risk to body and life;
b) The nature and value of the property to be protected;
c) The degree of accessibility of this property.

The history of crime in Europe demonstrates that property theft is often linked with crimes against people

(subjected to physical assault at home or close to their residence).

Technical protection measures will assist in preventing crime against persons and property and unauthorised

access to buildings.

Recommendations are also given for the protection of vehicles and other property kept in common areas.

The methodology will consist of describing the behaviour patterns of potential offenders, providing a risk

analysis tool for the site under consideration, whether individual dwellings or residential blocks, and proposing

technical recommendations and solutions.
4.2 Designing out crime in individual neighbourhoods

Any crime prevention strategy is essentially one of risk management. Consequently, before an effective

strategy can be developed, it is important to identify and understand the risk factors involved.

When assessing the level of risk it is essential to give high priority to local factors. A diagnostic survey of crime

in the immediate neighbourhood should be carried out to identify the types of crime reported, where and when

incidents occurred and who the groups of victims were.

NOTE This can be achieved by spatial mapping to identify crime clustering or hot spots.

It is also important to identify factors that may influence the opportunity for crime in a particular area but which

may not necessarily be obvious. For example, a desire line that passes through a residential area may link

two features also attractive to potential offenders. Although the features may be some distance away from the

dwellings, they can influence the possibility of crime.

Where a new residential development is planned, it is important to consider the crime generating potential of

the development and to take into consideration the findings of the diagnostic survey of crime in neighbouring

areas (see Annex E).
4.3 Image of the neighbourhood

First impressions gained by potential offenders will have the greatest influence on their decision to offend or

not. Although potential offenders may be attracted to a well-maintained residential area due to its obvious

prosperity, it is similarly probable that the residents are proud of their property and therefore also more

watchful and protective.

Households that take joint prevention measures and action to improve the environment are likely to

experience less crime and an improvement in the quality of life. To facilitate this, the design of the

development should have a clear identity and the layout should allow maximum permissible natural

surveillance within the residential area.

Consideration should also be given to provision of a mix of dwelling types and occupancy.

NOTE Generally speaking burglars will prefer to avoid confrontation. An unoccupied building is more vulnerable than

an occupied building. Even a lack of visibility from the street or other buildings increases the risk. A burglar’s enemies are

time, noise and a risk of human presence nearby (discovery by police or others).
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CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)

Apart from burglary, other so-called “public space” delinquency acts can generate fear of crime, namely

degradation of public and private property (vandalism, arson in refuse bins), vehicular crime (car theft, theft of

bicycles, mopeds and motor bikes, trafficking in spare parts), and culminating in attacks on people.

These offences and other crimes can be perpetrated by either local residents or people from other areas, and

different approaches to prevention are needed.
4.4 Types of burglar

For the purpose of this Technical Specification, burglars are categorised as being either opportunist or

experienced.

Opportunist burglars are those who will commit an offence if the opportunity presents itself. They are

interested in buildings with easy access, a low level of surveillance and ready escape routes.

The potential offender will know that most dwellings have articles worth stealing and will feel confident that the

reward will be worth the minimal risk involved. Other factors that may influence an opportunist burglar include

the absence of vehicles from the hard standing in front of a dwelling, poor or no lighting, lack of an alarm

system, or a general feeling that none of the residents in the neighbourhood are taking an interest in the area.

The opportunist burglar is likely to carry only lightweight hand tools, such as a crowbar or screwdriver, but

may also make use of implements left within easy reach by the resident, such as a spade. Accessible

windows and doors, which only have a short forced entry resistance time, offer the ease of access that this

type of burglar is seeking (see Annex A).

An experienced burglar will, prior to carrying out an offence, conduct an important phase of gathering

information. It is also probable that they will have a specific target in mind and may be prepared to use more

effective tools to gain entry to the premises (see Annex A). They very often have expertise in bypassing or

sabotaging mechanical, electronic or CCTV detection security devices.
5 Risk analysis and assessment of related protection levels

The following assessment of the level of risk makes it possible to define the most appropriate protection levels

over five classes, in ascending order from 1 to 5 (see Table 1).
Table 1 — Level of risk and crime prevention measures
Level of Action to be taken
Level of risk
protection
1 Very low
Simple physical protective measures
2 Low
Additional physical protective measures required
3 Medium
Additional physical + limited electronic protection measures required
4 High
Extensive physical + medium electronic protection measures required
Extensive physical + extensive electronic protection measures
5 Very high
required

The risk analysis in Annex B is based on a two-step procedure. The method used is based on questionnaires,

which consider potential significance and potential risk. The result matches increasing risk with appropriate

measures of protection.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)

A second and simpler analysis in Annex C is based on the evaluation of increasing risk factors, which are

quantified on a scale from 0 to 5. By adding these factors in the same way as a potential offender would, an

evaluation of vulnerability is obtained. The higher the figure, the higher the risk factor and the greater the

preventive measures that are needed.
Risk factors may require regular checking and up dating.
6 Level of protection
6.1 Recommended resistance class of products

Table 2 shows the recommended resistance class of products in ascending order from 1 to 5 to achieve the

levels of protection established in Table 1.

Table 2 — Recommended resistance class of products to achieve specified levels of protection

European Level of protection
Product Standard
1 2 3 4 5
ENV 1627 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3-4 Class 4-5 Class 5-6
Entrance dors
Security lock EN 12209 Grade 2 Grade3 Grade 3 Grade4 Grade 5
Cylinder for lock EN 1303 Class 4 Class 4 Class 4 Class 5 Class 5
Security lock furniture EN 1906 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 4
ENV 1627 Class 1 Class 2 Class3 Class 4 Class 4
Accessible window
Accessible glazing EN 356 Class P4A Class P5A Class P6B Class P7B Class P8B
ENV 1627 Class 1 Class 2 Class2 Class 3 Class 4
Shutter used to protect accessible window or door

If the shutter is used together with a burglar resistant window or a door, the resistance class can be

reduced
ENV 1627 - Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4
Window or door which only can be reached with a
climbing device
EN 356 Double glazing Double glazing Class P4A Class P5A Class P6B
Glazing which only can be reached with a climbing
device
EN 50130, - Grade 1 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Alarm or intrusion system
EN 50131-1 (Optional) (Optional)
Safe EN 1143-1 Required when the valuables exceed a specific amount

If door leaf and frame are strongly constructed, a single point locking system should suffice up to resistance class 3. If door and frame are weaker, a

multipoint locking system should be used on doors of resistance class 3 and higher.

Doors in resistance classes 5 and 6 should be tested with the security lock and lock cylinder fitted, in accordance with the requirements of ENV 1627.

The components are always examined fitted e.g. a door with the frame, hinges and the lock. Doors in the resistance classes 1 to 4 the user can select the

lock cylinder and the security lock fitting, for these classes, components are also tested separately (see EN 1303 and EN 1906:2002, Annex A). Doors in the

resistance classes 5 and 6 lock cylinder and security lock fitting are a part of the tests in accordance with ENV 1630.

Glazing of building parts in accordance with ENV 1627, resistance class 5 and 6 should be protected against attack with angle grinders.

For protection against attack by firearms or explosion glazing should comply with:

EN 1063: Resistance against bullet attack
EN 13541: Resistance against explosion pressure

The documents mentioned above describe only the qualities of the glass themselves. The requirements for complex components are described in the following

documents:

EN 1522: Bullet Resistance, EN 13123-1: Explosion resistance, Shock tube or EN 13123-2, Range test.

EN 356, EN 1063 and EN 13541 cover security levels of glazing but not fixing, which should comply with relevant manufacturers' recommendations.

Shutters can be used together with a tested burglar resistant door or window. The two components can in this case have lower resistance classes. Note,

only shutters in the closed position have burglar resistance characteristics.
Balconies on higher floors can often be reached by experienced burglars.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
6.2 Additional recommendations for specific risks
6.2.1 Semi-private areas and spaces in common use

To further enhance security, consideration should be given to the installation of a CCTV surveillance system

and/or an access control system. CCTV surveillance systems should comply with the requirements of EN

50132-7. Access control systems should comply with EN 50133-1.
6.2.2 Additional requirements for personal security

The protection of persons against firearms (see EN 1063, EN 1522) or the effects of explosives (see EN

13541, EN 13123-1, EN 13123-2) should be individually specified in accordance with these standards.

7 Individual dwellings
7.1 Risk analysis

For the creation of a risk analysis for individual dwellings see forms B.1 to B.3.

Annex C shows a simplified risk analysis for the evaluation of existing risk and the recommended protective

measures.
7.2 Enhancing the security of individual dwelling areas

The various elements that can influence the protection of dwellings against theft, burglary or aggression occur

in three concentric zones:
a) the peripheral environment;
b) the immediate surroundings of the dwelling, or perimeter;
c) the building itself and internal areas.
7.3 Peripheral environment
This includes:
a) access routes,
b) control of pedestrian or vehicle access,
c) lighting
7.3.1 Access routes:

Whenever possible, the access routes (vehicular, pedestrian, etc.) should be open and visible from the

entrance of an area in order to deter location searches by potential burglars. For example, this can be

obtained by grouping dwellings in such a way that an important number will face a relatively limited length of

street.

Road surfacing will also contribute to this threshold feeling (e .g. by forming symbolic / psychological barriers

such as traffic calming humps). The risk of crime may also be reduced by minimising access points.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
7.3.2 Territoriality

As far as possible, and as a deliberate measure to prevent crime, the areas around dwellings in a

neighbourhood should maximise territoriality.

The sense of territoriality should be tangible enough to discourage potential offenders who would feel more at

risk of being challenged, or observed committing a crime. One commonly accepted method of achieving this is

by the application of ‘defensible space’ concepts, i.e. the classification of space into four different kinds of

area: public space, semi-public space, semi-private space and private space. To maximise security of

dwellings and their surroundings the layout of spaces and their management should avoid giving the

impression of abandoned territory.

Offenders are likely to become astute at judging the territorial quality of an area and the risks associated with

its invasion. These risks are higher the more private the space and are emphasised by barriers between

private and public space. These may be physical, such as hedges, walls etc, or more symbolic, such as

signboards, vegetation or a change in surface material.
7.3.3 Design and layout of public space

The design and layout of public space should meet the recommendations given in ENV 14383-2.

Public spaces are open areas with uncontrolled access, such as roads and car parking areas. Where possible

public areas should be designed to make the legitimate user feel safe and the potential offender feel

vulnerable. By using clear sight lines and good lighting, offenders can be denied places of concealment.

Care should be taken when locating pedestrian footpaths as they can increase permeability within a

development and supply unnecessary access points to dwellings.

Approach roads to residential areas should be kept to a minimum and should be well planned, well lit and

visible from the windows of nearby dwellings.

Measures aimed at deterring search behaviour in neighbourhoods include surface-texturing the threshold of

the access road and providing entrance markers to create the impression of crossing from a public to a semi-

public area. A well-populated cul-de-sac can create an area where intruders are likely to feel at risk of being

observed, and residents and visitors may feel more secure. Dwellings should be grouped so that maximum

mutual surveillance of approaches and vulnerable entry points is possible, in which anyone coming from or

going to a dwelling can be seen by neighbours.

Walls in public / semi-public areas are likely to be the most attractive to graffiti artists and provision of anti-

graffiti surface protection should be considered at the design stage.
7.3.4 Design and layout of semi-public space

Semi-public spaces are areas that are more public than private. Footpath systems, resident parking, garage

courts, enclosed play areas and accesses to multiple dwelling complexes fall into this category.

Criminal activities in visitor car parks may be minimised by using either of two approaches:

a) visitor parking is located as near as possible to the dwellings so that the occupants can have sight and

supervision over them.

b) visitor parking is located further away with access controls for residents; access for emergency or

assistance vehicles should be ensured.
The footpath system should be planned according to the same pri
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
01-december-2005
3UHSUHþHYDQMHNULPLQDOD±8UEDQLVWLþQRSODQLUDQMHLQSURMHNWLUDQMH±GHO
6WDQRYDQMD
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 3: Dwellings
Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 3:
Wohnungen

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 3 :

Logements
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
ICS:
13.310 Varstvo pred kriminalom Protection against crime
91.020 Prostorsko planiranje. Physical planning. Town
Urbanizem planning
91.040.30 Stanovanjske stavbe Residential buildings
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 14383-3
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
October 2005
ICS 91.040.30; 13.310
English Version
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part
3: Dwellings

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und

des bâtiments - Partie 3 : Logements Gebäudeplanung - Teil 3: Wohnungen

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 24 April 2005 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 14383-3:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 14383-3:2005
CEN/TS 14383-3:2005 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction......................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions.........................................................................................................................5

4 Objectives and methodology .............................................................................................................5

5 Risk analysis and assessment of related protection levels.............................................................7

6 Level of protection..............................................................................................................................8

7 Individual dwellings............................................................................................................................9

8 The building envelope ......................................................................................................................12

9 Residential blocks.............................................................................................................................14

10 Enhancing security in residential blocks........................................................................................15

11 Apartments........................................................................................................................................19

12 Management and maintenance of residential blocks.....................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Resistance classes for windows, doors and shutters and requirements

for related hardware conforming to ENV 1627................................................................................21

Annex B (informative) Risk analysis of the vulnerability of dwellings to burglary..................................23

Annex C (informative) Quick reference guide to the vulnerability of dwellings to burglary....................46

Annex D (informative) Security grades of intrusion alarm systems as EN 50131-1 ................................49

Annex E (informative) Indicators of security problems in residential areas.............................................50

Annex F (informative) Cost/benefit checklist of methods to enhance security in residential blocks.....51

Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................54

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Foreword

This CEN Technical Specification (CEN/TS 14383-3:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/TC 325 “Prevention of crime by urban planing design”, the secretariat of which is held by SNV.

The status of Technical Specification was proposed to give all countries the opportunity to compare

experiences and to harmonise procedures. In particular, the guidance given in the Annexes needs to be

tested in use to establish realistic security levels.

This Technical Specification is one of a series for “The prevention of crime by urban planning and building

design”, that consists of the following parts:
Part 1 – Definitions of specific terms
Part 2 – Urban planning
Part 3 – Dwellings
Part 4 – Shops and offices

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this CEN Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

and United Kingdom.
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Introduction

In considering security measures aimed at preventing crime and antisocial behaviour and the fear of crime in

residential areas, one of the most difficult tasks is determining the type and level of the threat (e.g. vandalism,

burglary, aggression) and the scope of measures to be taken in order to reduce it.

The causes of crime have been researched for many years. There are many factors that can influence the

possibility of an offence being committed or not. Certain factors, for example socio-economic conditions are

beyond the remit of this standard. Other factors such as neighbourhood layout and building design can be

considered along with more specific reference to target-hardening measures.

Three basic criminological approaches have been adopted: Rational Choice, Routine Activities and Defensible

Space.

a) Rational Choice states that potential offenders will normally undertake their own risk assessment before

deciding to commit a crime. They will consider the chances of being seen, the ease of entry and the

chance of escape without detection.

b) The Routine Activities theory assumes that for an offence to take place there need to be three factors

present: a motivated offender, a suitable target or victim and a lack of capable guardian. To prevent a

crime it is necessary to alter the influence of one of these factors. For example, an offender can be de-

motivated by increasing the level of surveillance or by making access more difficult. A target can also be

made less attractive by increasing security or removing escape routes. Similarly, the presence or

influence of a capable guardian, either real or implied, can assist in creating a sense of neighbourliness.

c) The Defensible Space theory applies to the different levels of acceptance that exist for people to

legitimately be in different types of space. Everyone has a right to be in a public space, such as a street,

but they do not have the right to be in the garden of another person’s dwelling, which is a private space. It

is equally important to differentiate and distinguish public space from semi-public and semi-private space,

to make it possible to use either formal or informal social control over those spaces in ways that prevent

crime and antisocial behaviour developing or progressing unhindered.

Most offences are committed because perpetrators enjoy opportunities: easy access, hiding places, absence

of demarcation between public and private space, poor lighting and/or favourable landscaping. By

understanding the motivation of potential offenders and counterbalancing it by specific physical security

measures combined with real or symbolic design elements, this Technical Specification aims to assist

designers, planners, estate managers and stakeholders in the area of crime prevention to:

a) Define the protection measures most appropriate to the site.

b) Influence decisions relating to building design, the layout of the site, landscaping, and other related details

in order to make dwellings attractive and safe for inhabitants and unattractive targets for potential

offenders.

In residential areas with either individual dwellings and/or residential blocks, the purpose is not only to protect

properties against burglary but also to prevent access by unwanted visitors, the illegal appropriation of space,

degradation of the environment and to fight fear of crime.

The design of the built environment can also influence individual perceptions of fear of crime (e.g. in dark

footpaths), as perceptions of crime often exceed the reality.

Recommendations relating to the planning of new and existing urban areas, ranging from a few streets to a

city centre, an industrial estate, or a large open space for public use, are given in ENV 14383-2.

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1 Scope

This Technical Specification gives guidance and recommendations for reducing the risk of crimes against

people and property in dwellings and their immediate surroundings through planning and design. It covers

new and existing dwellings, in single or multiple units.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

prEN 14383-1, Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 1: Definitions of specific terms

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this Technical Specification, the terms and definitions given in prEN 14383-1 apply.

4 Objectives and methodology
4.1 General

While it is important to consider individual buildings in detail, it is also essential to be aware of the influence

exerted by the design and layout of the neighbourhood. This is sometimes referred to as the ‘Meso’ level and

includes road layout, infrastructure and location of facilities. Town planners, designers, developers and

professionals with crime prevention expertise should be involved as a design team, to ensure that designing

out crime factors are taken into account in the early stages of the planning process.

The joint approach should consider the various factors that can reduce the opportunity to commit crime. Some

of the most important factors are ownership, human presence and conflict minimisation.

The design and layout of public space in the neighbourhood should encourage local residents to regard it as

their own and take responsibility for it. If this can be achieved, crime and antisocial behaviour are less likely to

occur, or continue without local people reacting to it.

NOTE One of the strongest prevention factors for potential offenders is the risk of being seen and identified, which is

why human presence and natural surveillance are so important. These factors are easier to achieve with

mixed usage as this can prolong liveliness and movement throughout an extended period of the day. Street furniture

should be designed to enable good sight lines and provide wide natural surveillance. Equally access to buildings should

front onto public space for the same reason.

Fear of crime, whether justified or perceived, should be considered and the design of the environment should

take this into account. Any design feature that could possibly give rise to a potential conflict situation should

be avoided. Safe and integrated options for pedestrians and/or cyclists should be included and give a feeling

of safety that will encourage their use.
Buildings meant for residential purposes can be split into two categories:
a) Individual dwellings, detached or in groups;
b) Residential blocks with apartments.

In the area of crime prevention, three objective criteria have been taken into account:

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a) Risk to body and life;
b) The nature and value of the property to be protected;
c) The degree of accessibility of this property.

The history of crime in Europe demonstrates that property theft is often linked with crimes against people

(subjected to physical assault at home or close to their residence).

Technical protection measures will assist in preventing crime against persons and property and unauthorised

access to buildings.

Recommendations are also given for the protection of vehicles and other property kept in common areas.

The methodology will consist of describing the behaviour patterns of potential offenders, providing a risk

analysis tool for the site under consideration, whether individual dwellings or residential blocks, and proposing

technical recommendations and solutions.
4.2 Designing out crime in individual neighbourhoods

Any crime prevention strategy is essentially one of risk management. Consequently, before an effective

strategy can be developed, it is important to identify and understand the risk factors involved.

When assessing the level of risk it is essential to give high priority to local factors. A diagnostic survey of crime

in the immediate neighbourhood should be carried out to identify the types of crime reported, where and when

incidents occurred and who the groups of victims were.

NOTE This can be achieved by spatial mapping to identify crime clustering or hot spots.

It is also important to identify factors that may influence the opportunity for crime in a particular area but which

may not necessarily be obvious. For example, a desire line that passes through a residential area may link

two features also attractive to potential offenders. Although the features may be some distance away from the

dwellings, they can influence the possibility of crime.

Where a new residential development is planned, it is important to consider the crime generating potential of

the development and to take into consideration the findings of the diagnostic survey of crime in neighbouring

areas (see Annex E).
4.3 Image of the neighbourhood

First impressions gained by potential offenders will have the greatest influence on their decision to offend or

not. Although potential offenders may be attracted to a well-maintained residential area due to its obvious

prosperity, it is similarly probable that the residents are proud of their property and therefore also more

watchful and protective.

Households that take joint prevention measures and action to improve the environment are likely to

experience less crime and an improvement in the quality of life. To facilitate this, the design of the

development should have a clear identity and the layout should allow maximum permissible natural

surveillance within the residential area.

Consideration should also be given to provision of a mix of dwelling types and occupancy.

NOTE Generally speaking burglars will prefer to avoid confrontation. An unoccupied building is more vulnerable than

an occupied building. Even a lack of visibility from the street or other buildings increases the risk. A burglar’s enemies are

time, noise and a risk of human presence nearby (discovery by police or others).
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Apart from burglary, other so-called “public space” delinquency acts can generate fear of crime, namely

degradation of public and private property (vandalism, arson in refuse bins), vehicular crime (car theft, theft of

bicycles, mopeds and motor bikes, trafficking in spare parts), and culminating in attacks on people.

These offences and other crimes can be perpetrated by either local residents or people from other areas, and

different approaches to prevention are needed.
4.4 Types of burglar

For the purpose of this Technical Specification, burglars are categorised as being either opportunist or

experienced.

Opportunist burglars are those who will commit an offence if the opportunity presents itself. They are

interested in buildings with easy access, a low level of surveillance and ready escape routes.

The potential offender will know that most dwellings have articles worth stealing and will feel confident that the

reward will be worth the minimal risk involved. Other factors that may influence an opportunist burglar include

the absence of vehicles from the hard standing in front of a dwelling, poor or no lighting, lack of an alarm

system, or a general feeling that none of the residents in the neighbourhood are taking an interest in the area.

The opportunist burglar is likely to carry only lightweight hand tools, such as a crowbar or screwdriver, but

may also make use of implements left within easy reach by the resident, such as a spade. Accessible

windows and doors, which only have a short forced entry resistance time, offer the ease of access that this

type of burglar is seeking (see Annex A).

An experienced burglar will, prior to carrying out an offence, conduct an important phase of gathering

information. It is also probable that they will have a specific target in mind and may be prepared to use more

effective tools to gain entry to the premises (see Annex A). They very often have expertise in bypassing or

sabotaging mechanical, electronic or CCTV detection security devices.
5 Risk analysis and assessment of related protection levels

The following assessment of the level of risk makes it possible to define the most appropriate protection levels

over five classes, in ascending order from 1 to 5 (see Table 1).
Table 1 — Level of risk and crime prevention measures
Level of Action to be taken
Level of risk
protection
1 Very low
Simple physical protective measures
2 Low
Additional physical protective measures required
3 Medium
Additional physical + limited electronic protection measures required
4 High
Extensive physical + medium electronic protection measures required
Extensive physical + extensive electronic protection measures
5 Very high
required

The risk analysis in Annex B is based on a two-step procedure. The method used is based on questionnaires,

which consider potential significance and potential risk. The result matches increasing risk with appropriate

measures of protection.
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A second and simpler analysis in Annex C is based on the evaluation of increasing risk factors, which are

quantified on a scale from 0 to 5. By adding these factors in the same way as a potential offender would, an

evaluation of vulnerability is obtained. The higher the figure, the higher the risk factor and the greater the

preventive measures that are needed.
Risk factors may require regular checking and up dating.
6 Level of protection
6.1 Recommended resistance class of products

Table 2 shows the recommended resistance class of products in ascending order from 1 to 5 to achieve the

levels of protection established in Table 1.

Table 2 — Recommended resistance class of products to achieve specified levels of protection

European Level of protection
Product Standard
1 2 3 4 5
ENV 1627 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3-4 Class 4-5 Class 5-6
Entrance dors
Security lock EN 12209 Grade 2 Grade3 Grade 3 Grade4 Grade 5
Cylinder for lock EN 1303 Class 4 Class 4 Class 4 Class 5 Class 5
Security lock furniture EN 1906 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 4
ENV 1627 Class 1 Class 2 Class3 Class 4 Class 4
Accessible window
Accessible glazing EN 356 Class P4A Class P5A Class P6B Class P7B Class P8B
ENV 1627 Class 1 Class 2 Class2 Class 3 Class 4
Shutter used to protect accessible window or door

If the shutter is used together with a burglar resistant window or a door, the resistance class can be

reduced
ENV 1627 - Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4
Window or door which only can be reached with a
climbing device
EN 356 Double glazing Double glazing Class P4A Class P5A Class P6B
Glazing which only can be reached with a climbing
device
EN 50130, - Grade 1 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Alarm or intrusion system
EN 50131-1 (Optional) (Optional)
Safe EN 1143-1 Required when the valuables exceed a specific amount

If door leaf and frame are strongly constructed, a single point locking system should suffice up to resistance class 3. If door and frame are weaker, a

multipoint locking system should be used on doors of resistance class 3 and higher.

Doors in resistance classes 5 and 6 should be tested with the security lock and lock cylinder fitted, in accordance with the requirements of ENV 1627.

The components are always examined fitted e.g. a door with the frame, hinges and the lock. Doors in the resistance classes 1 to 4 the user can select the

lock cylinder and the security lock fitting, for these classes, components are also tested separately (see EN 1303 and EN 1906:2002, Annex A). Doors in the

resistance classes 5 and 6 lock cylinder and security lock fitting are a part of the tests in accordance with ENV 1630.

Glazing of building parts in accordance with ENV 1627, resistance class 5 and 6 should be protected against attack with angle grinders.

For protection against attack by firearms or explosion glazing should comply with:

EN 1063: Resistance against bullet attack
EN 13541: Resistance against explosion pressure

The documents mentioned above describe only the qualities of the glass themselves. The requirements for complex components are described in the following

documents:

EN 1522: Bullet Resistance, EN 13123-1: Explosion resistance, Shock tube or EN 13123-2, Range test.

EN 356, EN 1063 and EN 13541 cover security levels of glazing but not fixing, which should comply with relevant manufacturers' recommendations.

Shutters can be used together with a tested burglar resistant door or window. The two components can in this case have lower resistance classes. Note,

only shutters in the closed position have burglar resistance characteristics.
Balconies on higher floors can often be reached by experienced burglars.
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6.2 Additional recommendations for specific risks
6.2.1 Semi-private areas and spaces in common use

To further enhance security, consideration should be given to the installation of a CCTV surveillance system

and/or an access control system. CCTV surveillance systems should comply with the requirements of EN

50132-7. Access control systems should comply with EN 50133-1.
6.2.2 Additional requirements for personal security

The protection of persons against firearms (see EN 1063, EN 1522) or the effects of explosives (see EN

13541, EN 13123-1, EN 13123-2) should be individually specified in accordance with these standards.

7 Individual dwellings
7.1 Risk analysis

For the creation of a risk analysis for individual dwellings see forms B.1 to B.3.

Annex C shows a simplified risk analysis for the evaluation of existing risk and the recommended protective

measures.
7.2 Enhancing the security of individual dwelling areas

The various elements that can influence the protection of dwellings against theft, burglary or aggression occur

in three concentric zones:
a) the peripheral environment;
b) the immediate surroundings of the dwelling, or perimeter;
c) the building itself and internal areas.
7.3 Peripheral environment
This includes:
a) access routes,
b) control of pedestrian or vehicle access,
c) lighting
7.3.1 Access routes:

Whenever possible, the access routes (vehicular, pedestrian, etc.) should be open and visible from the

entrance of an area in order to deter location searches by potential burglars. For example, this can be

obtained by grouping dwellings in such a way that an important number will face a relatively limited length of

street.

Road surfacing will also contribute to this threshold feeling (e .g. by forming symbolic / psychological barriers

such as traffic calming humps). The risk of crime may also be reduced by minimising access points.

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7.3.2 Territoriality

As far as possible, and as a deliberate measure to prevent crime, the areas around dwellings in a

neighbourhood should maximise territoriality.

The sense of territoriality should be tangible enough to discourage potential offenders who would feel more at

risk of being challenged, or observed committing a crime. One commonly accepted method of achieving this is

by the application of ‘defensible space’ concepts, i.e. the classification of space into four different kinds of

area: public space, semi-public space, semi-private space and private space. To maximise security of

dwellings and their surroundings the layout of spaces and their management should avoid giving the

impression of abandoned territory.

Offenders are likely to become astute at judging the territorial quality of an area and the risks associated with

its invasion. These risks are higher the more private the space and are emphasised by barriers between

private and public space. These may be physical, such as hedges, walls etc, or more symbolic, such as

signboards, vegetation or a change in surface material.
7.3.3 Design and layout of public space

The design and layout of public space should meet the recommendations given in ENV 14383-2.

Public spaces are open areas with uncontrolled access, such as roads and car parking areas. Where possible

public areas should be designed to make the legitimate user feel safe and the potential offender feel

vulnerable. By using clear sight lines and good lighting, offenders can be denied places of concealment.

Care should be taken when locating pedestrian footpaths as they can increase permeability within a

development and supply unnecessary access points to dwellings.

Approach roads to residential areas should be kept to a minimum and should be well planned, well lit and

visible from the windows of nearby dwellings.

Measures aimed at deterring search behaviour in neighbourhoods include surface-texturing the threshold of

the access road and providing entrance markers to create the impression of crossing from a public to a semi-

public area. A well-populated cul-de-sac can create an area where intruders are likely to feel at risk of being

observed, and residents and visitors may feel more secure. Dwellings should be grouped so that maximum

mutual surveillance of approaches and vulnerable entry points is possible, in which anyone coming from or

going to a dwelling can be seen by neighbours.

Walls in public / semi-public areas are likely to be the most attractive to graffiti artists and provision of anti-

graffiti surface protection should be considered at the design stage.
7.3.4 Design and layout of semi-public space

Semi-public spaces are areas that are more public than private. Footpath systems, resident parking, garage

courts, enclosed play areas and accesses to multiple dwelling complexes fall into this category.

Criminal activities in visitor car parks may be minimised by using either of two approaches:

a) visitor parking is located as near as possible to the dwellings so that the occupants can have sight and

supervision over them.

b) visitor parking is located further away with access controls for residents; access for emergency or

assistance vehicles should be ensured.
The footpath system should be planned accor
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