Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders - Terminology - Part 1: General terms (ISO 18451-1:2015)

ISO 18451-1:2015 defines terms that are used in the field of pigments, dyestuffs and extenders.
For some terms, reference is made to ISO 4618 in which also terms and definitions for colourants are given, relating to their use in coating materials.
In addition to terms in English and French (two of the three official ISO languages), this part of ISO 18451 gives the equivalent terms in German; these are published under the responsibility of the member body for Germany (DIN). However, only the terms and definitions given in the official languages can be considered as ISO terms and definitions.
NOTE Those terms that are defined elsewhere in this part of ISO 18451 are shown in italics.

Pigmente, Farbstoffe und Füllstoffe - Begriffe - Teil 1: Allgemeine Begriffe (ISO 18451-1:2015)

Pigments, colorants et matières de charge - Terminologie - Partie 1: Termes généraux (ISO 18451-1:2015)

L'ISO 18451-1:2015 définit les termes utilisés dans le domaine des pigments, colorants et matières de charge.
Pour certains termes, il est fait référence à l'ISO 4618 qui fournit également des termes et définitions relatifs aux matières colorantes utilisées dans les produits de peinture.
En complément des termes en anglais et français (deux des trois langues officielles de l'ISO), l'ISO 18451‑1:2015 donne les termes équivalents en allemand; ces termes sont publiés sous la responsabilité du comité membre pour l'Allemagne (DIN). Toutefois, seuls les termes et définitions donnés dans les langues officielles peuvent être considérés comme étant des termes et définitions de l'ISO.
NOTE Les termes qui sont définis ailleurs dans l'ISO 18451-1:2015 sont marqués en caractères italiques.

Pigmenti, barvila in polnila - Terminologija - 1. del: Splošni izrazi (ISO 18451-1:2015)

ISO 18451-1:2015 določa izraze, ki se uporabljajo za pigmente, barvila in polnila.
Pri nekaterih izrazih se sklicuje na standard ISO 4618, v katerem so podani tudi izrazi in definicije barvil, ki se nanašajo na njihovo uporabo v materialih za premaze.
Izrazi v tem delu standarda ISO 18451 so razen v angleškem in francoskem jeziku (ki sta dva od treh uradnih jezikov ISO) navedeni tudi v nemškem jeziku. Slednji so objavljeni z odgovornostjo ustreznih organov za Nemčijo (DIN). Vendar je kot izraze in definicije ISO mogoče šteti samo tiste, ki so v uradnih jezikih.
OPOMBA: Izrazi, ki so določeni drugje v tem delu standarda ISO 18451, so prikazani v poševnem tisku.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
12-Sep-2017
Withdrawal Date
28-May-2019
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
29-May-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
01-december-2017

Pigmenti, barvila in polnila - Terminologija - 1. del: Splošni izrazi (ISO 18451-

1:2015)

Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders - Terminology - Part 1: General terms (ISO 18451-

1:2015)

Pigmente, Farbstoffe und Füllstoffe - Begriffe - Teil 1: Allgemeine Begriffe (ISO 18451-

1:2015)

Pigments, colorants et matières de charge - Terminologie - Partie 1: Termes généraux

(ISO 18451-1:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18451-1:2017
ICS:
01.040.87 Industrija barv (Slovarji) Paint and colour industries
(Vocabularies)
87.060.10 Pigmenti in polnila Pigments and extenders
SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
EN ISO 18451-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.87; 87.060.10
English Version
Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders - Terminology - Part 1:
General terms (ISO 18451-1:2015)

Pigments, colorants et matières de charge - Pigmente, Farbstoffe und Füllstoffe - Begriffe - Teil 1:

Terminologie - Partie 1: Termes généraux (ISO 18451- Allgemeine Begriffe (ISO 18451-1:2015)

1:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 30 August 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18451-1:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
EN ISO 18451-1:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
EN ISO 18451-1:2017 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 18451-1:2015 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 256 “Pigments,

dyestuffs and extenders” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken

over as EN ISO 18451-1:2017 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 298 “Pigments and extenders” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2018, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18451-1:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18451-1:2017 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18451-1
First edition
2015-11-01
Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders —
Terminology —
Part 1:
General terms
Pigments, colorants et matières de charge — Terminologie —
Partie 1: Termes généraux
Reference number
ISO 18451-1:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
ISO 18451-1:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
ISO 18451-1:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (informative) Alphabetical index ..................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
ISO 18451-1:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 256, Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders.

ISO 18451 consists of the following parts, under the general title Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders —

Terminology:
— Part 1: General terms

— Part 2: Classification of colouring materials according to colouristic and chemical aspects

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18451-1:2015(E)
Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders — Terminology —
Part 1:
General terms
1 Scope

This part of ISO 18451 defines terms that are used in the field of pigments, dyestuffs and extenders.

For some terms, reference is made to ISO 4618 in which also terms and definitions for colourants are

given, relating to their use in coating materials.

In addition to terms in English and French (two of the three official ISO languages), this part of ISO 18451

gives the equivalent terms in German; these are published under the responsibility of the member

body for Germany (DIN). However, only the terms and definitions given in the official languages can be

considered as ISO terms and definitions.

NOTE Those terms that are defined elsewhere in this part of ISO 18451 are shown in italics.

2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
abrasiveness

property of pigments (2.95) or extenders (2.34) and their preparations to cause wear at the used

apparatus by mechanical action
2.2
aluminium pigment
pigment (2.95) consisting essentially of finely divided pure aluminium Al 99,5
Note 1 to entry: The aluminium particles have lamellar form.
2.3
apparent density after tamping

ratio of mass to volume of a powder after compressing (e.g. by tamping or vibration) under specified

conditions
2.4
barite
naturally occurring barium sulfate, BaSO
2.5
binder demand

amount of a binder or binder solution that is required to obtain, under specified dispersion conditions,

a mass of defined rheology
2.6
bismuth vanadate pigment

yellow inorganic pigment (2.95) consisting of bismuth vanadate with or without isomorphous inclusion

of bismuth molybdate
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2.7
blanc fixe
barium sulphate
synthetic barium sulphate, produced by a precipitation process
Note 1 to entry: Naturally occurring barium sulfate is called barite (2.4).
2.8
bleeding

migration (2.76) of a colourant (2.19) from a material into another material being in contact with it

2.9
blooming
migration (2.76) of a colourant (2.19) to the surface of the coloured material
2.10
cadmium pigment

inorganic coloured pigment consisting essentially of cadmium zinc sulphide (yellow pigments) or of

mixed crystals of cadmium sulphide and cadmium selenide (red pigments)
2.11
calcined clay
calcined aluminium silicate

aluminium silicate (Al O ⋅ 2SiO ), lamellar, mainly amorphous in structure as determined by X-ray

2 3 2

diffraction, produced from natural clay by thermal dehydration, consisting partly of cristalline mullite

3(Al O ⋅ 2SiO )
2 3 2
2.12 Calcite
2.12.1
calcite
crystalline calcium carbonate
calcium carbonate of trigonal crystal structure
2.12.2
calcite
crystalline calcium carbonate

designation for extenders (2.34) produced from calcareous spar of marble or for precipitated

calcitic calcium carbonates
2.13
carbon black

pigment (2.95) synthetically produced by thermally oxidative cracking of aromatic oils and gases

Note 1 to entry: It is distinguished between carbon black and industrial carbon black.

2.14
ceramic decoration colour

preparation consisting of coloured or colourless glass powder and inorganic pigments (2.95) for coating

of ceramics or glass by melting at temperatures above 450 °C
2.15
chalking

appearance of a loosely adherent fine powder (2.97) on the surface of a film or pigmented plastic arising

from the degradation of the binder
2.16
chroma
difference of a colour (2.20) from an achromatic colour of the same lightness
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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2.17
chromium oxide pigment

inorganic coloured pigment consisting essentially of chromium (III) oxide (Cr O ) in the form of a dry

2 3
powder
2.18
CIC-pigment
coloured inorganic complex pigment

coloured pigment, rutile or spinell based, produced by replacement of titanium in the rutile lattice or

aluminium or magnesium in the spinel lattice through other atoms
Note 1 to entry: Such pigments are incorrectly named mixed phase pigments.
2.19
colourant
generic term for all colouring substances

Note 1 to entry: Colourants comprise pigments (2.95) which are insoluble in the medium as well as dyestuffs

(2.30) which are soluble in the medium.

Note 2 to entry: A pigment may contain the pure chemical substance and/or a surface treatment and/or additives.

Note 3 to entry: A colourant may also contain traces of impurities, which may originate from raw materials

and/or the production processes.

Note 4 to entry: In order to improve application properties, a colourant may contain additives.

2.20
colour

sensation resulting from the visual perception of electromagnetic radiation of a given spectral composition

Note 1 to entry: The use of the German word “Farbe” alone, i.e. not in combinations of words, for coating materials

is to be rejected.

Note 2 to entry: A colour is characterized by hue (2.49), saturation (2.105) or chroma (2.16), and lightness (2.65).

Note 3 to entry: It is distinguished between chromatic and achromatic colours.
2.21
colour difference
differences in lightness (2.65), chroma (2.16) and hue (2.49)

Note 1 to entry: Colour differences, for example, occur between different specimens, between the same specimens

but of different history and within a specimen inhomogeneous with regard to colour.

2.22
colour strength equivalent
reciprocal of the relative tinting strength (2.104) of a pigment (2.95)

Note 1 to entry: It indicates how many parts of a sample are colouristically equivalent to 100 parts of a reference

sample. In other words, the colour strength equivalent of a weaker pigment (2.95) is greater than 100.

2.23 Compound
2.23.1
compound
mixture of pigments (2.95) and/or extenders (2.34), ready for use
2.23.2
compound

moulding material, ready for use, containing all the colourants (2.19), extenders (2.34)

and additives
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
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2.24
core pigment

pigment (2.95) the mostly inorganic core of which is enveloped with one or more (mostly inorganic)

substances so that its optical properties are hardly effected by the material of the shell but its

application properties are improved
2.25
corrosion-inhibiting pigment
anticorrosive pigment

pigment (2.95) that inhibits or avoids, in priming coats on metals, the corrosion of the metal surface,

normally by chemical or physicochemical action
2.26
depth of shade

measure for the intensity of a colour perception that increases with increasing chroma (2.16) and

decreases with increasing lightness (2.65)

Note 1 to entry: Colourations having the same depth of shade appear to be prepared using the same concentrations

of colourants having the same tinting strength (2.121).
2.27
dispersibility

property of a pigment (2.95) or extender (2.34) characterized by its ability to be wetted, separated and

distributed in a medium

Note 1 to entry: The dispersibility depends on its wettability and on the number and strength of the adhering

areas between the components of the agglomerates (2.93.3).

Note 2 to entry: As a measure of the dispersibility under specified dispersion conditions, e.g. the speed of the

tinting strength (2.121) development and/or the decrease of the fineness of grind (2.37) can be taken.

2.28
dispersing

separation of the agglomerates (2.93.3) of the pigment (2.95) or extender (2.34) powder into smaller

particles [agglomerates (2.93.3), aggregates (2.93.2) and primary particles (2.93.1)] and their wetting by

the medium at the same time

Note 1 to entry: Occasionally, separation of aggregates (2.93.2) and breaking, for example, of needle-shaped

primary particles (2.93.1) also takes place. Furthermore, a statistically uniform distribution of the particles (2.93)

formed in this way to all volume elements of the medium is a part of the dispersing process.

2.29
dolomite

natural calcium magnesium carbonate containing between 1,18 and 1,23 parts by mass of CaCO to 1

part by mass of MgCO
2.30
dyestuff
colourant (2.19), soluble in the application medium

Note 1 to entry: Colourants (2.19) for glass, ceramics and vitreous enamel that are dissolved in the glass phase

are also called “Lösungsfarben” in German language. In these cases, oxides of transition elements are used.

Note 2 to entry: In German usage, in the pharmaceutical and foodstuffs fields, the term “Farbstoff” is used as a

synonym for “colourant”.
2.31
earth pigment

pigment (2.95) produced from earths, e.g. by classification, if necessary with additional thermal treatment

4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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2.32
effect pigment

platelet-like pigment (2.95) that confers not only colour (2.20) but additional properties such as

iridescence (interference at thin layers), angle dependency of colour (colour travel, colour flop, light-

dark flop), or texture

Note 1 to entry: See also metal effect pigment (2.72), nacreous pigment (2.78), interference pigment (2.51).

2.33
electro chromic pigment

pigment (2.95) which changes its colour (2.20) depending on the electric current or the voltage

2.34
extender

substance in granular or powder form, insoluble in the medium (e.g. coating material) and used to

modify or influence certain physical properties

Note 1 to entry: The German terms “Extender”, “Extenderpigment”, “Pigmentextender” or “Verschnittmittel”

should be avoided.

Note 2 to entry: Whether a given substance is to be considered as pigment (2.95) or extender depends on its

application.
2.35
fastness
stability of the colour (2.20)

Note 1 to entry: For characterization of the respective stress, the term fastness, e.g. of a coating, is used in word

combinations such as light fastness, acid fastness, solvent fastness. The acid fastness, for example, of a coating is

the stability of the colour (2.20) of the coating under the influence of acids.
2.36
final level of dispersion

level of dispersion (2.62) when it has become constant under the defined conditions

Note 1 to entry: The final level of dispersion of a pigment (2.95) depends on the binder system in which it is

dispersed, on the dispersion process and on the composition of the milling base.
2.37
fineness of grind
measure for the largest solid particles in a liquid matrix

Note 1 to entry: The term fineness of grind is not to be confused with the term grain hardness.

2.38
floating

separation of one or more pigments (2.95) from a coloured coating material, casing streaks or areas on

the surface of the coating material
2.39
flooding

separation of the pigments (2.95) in a liquid coating giving rise to a colour (2.20) which, although

uniform over the whole surface, is markedly different from that of the freshly applied wet film before

drying/hardening
Note 1 to entry: See leafing (2.61).
2.40
food dyestuff

substance that gives colour (2.20) to a foodstuff or restores the colour of a foodstuff

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2.41
full shade
colour (2.20) of a mass tone system (2.70) in a non-hiding layer
2.42
functional extender

extender (2.34), when applied in the application medium, processes or enhances specific functions due

to its physical or chemical properties

Note 1 to entry: Examples for physical properties are: elasticity, durability, hardness, anti-fatigue.

2.43
functional pigment

pigment (2.95), when applied in the application medium, possesses specific functions due to its unique

physical or chemical properties rather than only colouring

Note 1 to entry: Examples for specific functions are: UV absorption, electric properties such as conductivity,

anti-corrosion properties, photocatalytical properties, function as barrier pigment, infrared absorption or

infrared reflection.
2.44
goniochromatic pigment

effect pigment (2.32) showing an angle-depending colour change between different interference colours

2.45
heat stability

resistance to a heat treatment of the colour (2.20) of the test specimens under specified conditions of test

2.46
heavy-metal containing pigment
pigment (2.95) containing heavy metal(s) as constituent

Note 1 to entry: Heavy metals are all metals having a density greater than 4,5 g/cm .

2.47
hiding power

ability of material, containing colourants (2.19), to obliterate the colour (2.20) or colour differences

(2.21) of the substrate (2.114)

Note 1 to entry: The use of the German expressions “Deckkraft” und “Deckfähigkeit” should be avoided.

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.138, modified — Note 2 deleted]
2.48
hiding power value
numerical value of the hiding power (2.47), as determined using a defined method
2.49
hue
type of chroma (2.16) of a colour (2.20)

Note 1 to entry: The hue is designated in daily life by words such as red, yellow, green, blue, violet, etc.

2.50
inclusion pigment

pigment (2.95), the colouring component of which is included in a coat of high thermal and chemical

resistance

Note 1 to entry: The coat renders it possible that the colouring component can be used at much higher

temperatures. Furthermore, the resistance, e.g. to acids and alkalies, will be improved essentially.

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2.51
interference pigment
pearlescent pigment

effect pigment (2.32), the effect of which is based completely or predominantly on the phenomenon of

interference, e.g. pearlescent pigment, fire-coloured metal bronze
Note 1 to entry: Interference pigments can be coated with one or more layers.
2.52
intrinsic hardness

hardness of the primary particle of a pigment (2.95) or extender (2.34) as a property of the material

Note 1 to entry: Only indirect conclusions to the practically effective intrinsic hardness can be made, for example,

from abrasion tests.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of inorganic pigments, the Mohs hardness is often given as a reference value for the

intrinsic hardness.
2.53
iron blue pigment

pigment (2.95) formed by the reaction of iron salts with cyanoferrate(II) or cyanoferrate(III) ions and

followed, if necessary, by treatment with oxidizing agents
2.54
iron oxide pigment

pigment (2.95) consisting of natural or synthetic iron oxides, if necessary with additions of extenders

2.55
kaolinite
main constituent of natural clay (2.88)
2.56
lake

pigment (2.95) produced by precipitation of a dissolved organic dyestuff (2.30) with a precipitating agent

Note 1 to entry: Lake is not “Lack” as commonly used in German language but a colourant (2.19). In Austrian and

Swiss usage, the German expression “Farblack” is not usual.
2.57 Lake pigment
2.57.1
lake pigment

pigment (2.95) produced by precipitation of a sulphone or carbonic acid-containing azo

dyestuff with one or more suitable metal salts

Note 1 to entry: Lake pigments predominantly contain metal cation magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium,

aluminium or manganese.
2.57.2
lake pigment

pigment (2.95) produced by precipitation of a basic dyestuff (2.30) with heteropoly acids

2.58
lead chromate pigment

yellow, orange or red pigment (2.95) consisting of lead chromate with or without lead sulphate and/or

lead molybdate

Note 1 to entry: Designations in common use for lead chromate pigments are, for example, chrome yellow,

molybdate orange and molybdate red.
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2.59
lead chrome green pigment

inorganic pigment (2.95) produced from lead chromate pigments (2.58) and iron blue pigments (2.53)

without additions of extenders (2.34) and other colourants (2.19)
2.60
lead chrome/phthalocyanine pigment

pigment (2.95) produced from lead chromate pigments (2.58) and phthalocyanine blue pigments without

additions of other colourants (2.19)
2.61
leafing

flooding (2.39) of specially treated effect pigments (2.32) to the surface of a coating material shortly

after application
2.62
level of dispersion

extent to which pigment (2.95) particles have been separated, distributed and stabilized by milling in a

binder system under defined conditions
2.63
light fastness

resistance to colour changes due to exposure to light, without direct atmospheric effects (therefore, not

“weather resistance”)

Note 1 to entry: Light fastness commonly is evaluated by visual assessment using standard reference colour

standards (or by instrumental assessment).
2.64
lightening power

ability of a pigment (2.95) to increase the lightness (2.65) of a coloured, grey or black medium

2.65
lightness

intensity of a light perception as it is inseparable connected with each colour perception

Note 1 to entry: Definition aligned to CIELAB.
2.66
lithopone

white pigment obtained by combined precipitation of zinc sulphide (ZnS) and barium sulphate (BaSO )

2.67
luminance factor
measure of the lightness (2.65) of surface colours (2.115)

Note 1 to entry: Generally, this luminance factor is 100 times the reflectance factor R . Depending on the object

and the measuring geometry 100 times the reflectance, ρ, or the transmittance factor, T, can be taken as the

luminance factor. The luminance factor is connected with the tristimulus values by the luminance coefficients.

2.68
luminous pigment
pigment (2.95) that absorbs radiation and emits light (of higher wavelength)
Note 1 to entry: This effect is called luminescence.

Note 2 to entry: The optical effect is based on its ability to absorb radiation and to emit light of higher wavelength

with temporal delay (phosphorescence) or without temporal delay (fluorescence).
2.69
mass tone
colour (2.20) of a mass tone system (2.70) in optically infinite (hiding) layer
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2.70
mass tone system
pigmented system, containing one pigment (2.95) only
2.71
masterbatch

preparation which, in a solid polymer carrier, contains substances [colourants (2.19), extenders (2.34),

additives] in much higher concentration than in the moulded component or semi-finished product to be

produced using this preparation

Note 1 to entry: The substances are present either completely dispersed or dissolved.

2.72
metal effect pigment
platelet-like pigment (2.95) consisting of metal

Note 1 to entry: Metal effect pigments can be orientated in parallel and show then metallic gloss due to light

reflection at the flakes.
2.73
metal pigment
pigment (2.95) consisting of metals or metal alloys
EXAMPLE Zinc dust pigment.
2.74
mica
alkali-containing hydrated aluminium silicates in lamellar form
EXAMPLE Muscovite, biotite and phlogopite.
Note 1 to entry: Not to be confused with micaceous iron oxide (2.75).
2.75
micaceous iron oxide

refined mineral or synthetic product consisting essentially of iron (III) oxide (Fe O )

2 3

Note 1 to entry: Micaceous iron oxide has lamellar form and is grey in colour (2.20) with metallic gloss.

2.76
migration

transfer of a colourant (2.19) from a medium coloured with it to the surface [blooming (2.9)] or into

another medium
[SOURCE: bleeding (2.8)]
2.77
muscovite
natural lamellar hydrated potassium aluminium silicate

Note 1 to entry: Muscovite can be used as raw material for effect pigments (2.32).

2.78
nacreous pigment
gloss pigment consisting of transparent flakes with high refractive index

Note 1 to entry: Nacreous pigments can be orientated in parallel and show then nacreous lustre as characterized

by multiple reflection. Nacreous pigments that also show interference colours are also called pearl pigment or

interference pigment (2.51).
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SIST EN ISO 18451-1:2017
ISO 18451-1:2015(E)
2.79
nanodispersion

material in which nano-objects (2.82) are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition

Note 1 to entry: Nanodis
...

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