Safety of machinery - Laser processing machines - Part 1: Laser safety requirements

This document describes laser radiation hazards arising in laser processing machines, as defined in 3.7. It also specifies the safety requirements relating to laser radiation hazards, as well as the information to be supplied by the manufacturers of such equipment (in addition to that prescribed by IEC 60825).
Requirements dealing with noise as a hazard from laser processing machines are included in ISO 11553‑3:2013.
This document is applicable to machines using laser radiation to process materials.
It is not applicable to laser products, or equipment containing such products, which are manufactured solely and expressly for the following applications:
- photolithography;
- stereolithography;
- holography;
- medical applications (per IEC 60601-2-22);
- data storage.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Apr-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Apr-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11553-1
Second edition
2020-04
Safety of machinery — Laser
processing machines —
Part 1:
Laser safety requirements
Sécurité des machines — Machines à laser —
Partie 1: Exigences de sécurité laser
Reference number
ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Hazards generated by laser radiation ............................................................................................................................................ 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Laser radiation hazards/sources of laser radiation emission ....................................................................... 6

4.3 Laser radiation hazards induced by external effects (interferences) ...................................................... 7

4.4 Characteristics of laser radiation ............................................................................................................................................ 7

5 Safety requirements and measures .................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Risk assessment with regard to laser radiation hazards .................................................................................... 8

5.3 Implementation of risk reduction measures................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3.2 Safety measures against laser radiation hazards in dependence of the locations .. 9

5.3.3 Safety measures against laser radiation hazards..............................................................................10

5.3.4 Engineering control measures ..........................................................................................................................13

6 Verification of the safety requirements and risk reduction measures .....................................................14

7 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................15

8 Labelling .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Potential hazards .....................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172, Optics and photonics, Subcommittee

SC 9, Laser and electro-optical systems, in collaboration with IEC/TC 76, Optical radiation safety and laser

equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11553-1:2005), which has been technically

revised with the following main changes:

— the terms "beam delivery systems", "beam path components", "beam shaping components", "beam

switching components" and "fibre optic cable" and "fibre connector" were added;
— the document was restructured;
— the Title was adapted;

— other hazards than laser radiation hazards are not considered in this document but are described

in Annex A;

— operating modes (automatic mode, setting mode, manual intervention mode, service mode) and the

operating mode selector switch were added;

— Clause 5 is separated in requirements regarding different locations and the different modes of

operation;
— in Clause 6 the verification procedures were described in more detail;
— Annex B was deleted.
A list of all the parts of ISO 11553 can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
Introduction

The Machinery Safety Directive issued by the European Parliament and the Council of the EC outlines

essential and mandatory requirements that must be met in order to ensure that machinery is safe. In

response, CEN/CENELEC initiated a programme to produce safety standards for machines and their

applications. This document is one in that series.

It has been prepared as a harmonized standard to provide a means of conforming to the essential safety

requirements of the Machinery Directive and associated EFTA Regulations.

This document is a type B standard as stated in ISO 12100. The provisions of this document may be

supplemented or modified by a type C standard.

For machines which are covered by the scope of a type C standard and which have been designed and

built according to the provision of that standard, the provisions of that type C standard take precedence

over the provisions of this type B standard.
The purpose of this document is to prevent injuries to persons by

— listing potential laser radiation hazards generated by machines containing lasers,

— specifying safety measures and verifications necessary for reducing the risk caused by specific

hazardous conditions,
— providing references to pertinent standards, and

— specifying the information which is to be supplied to the users so that they can establish proper

procedures and precautions.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
Safety of machinery — Laser processing machines —
Part 1:
Laser safety requirements
1 Scope

This document describes laser radiation hazards arising in laser processing machines, as defined in 3.7.

It also specifies the safety requirements relating to laser radiation hazards, as well as the information

to be supplied by the manufacturers of such equipment (in addition to that prescribed by IEC 60825).

Requirements dealing with noise as a hazard from laser processing machines are included in

ISO 11553-3:2013.

This document is applicable to machines using laser radiation to process materials.

It is not applicable to laser products, or equipment containing such products, which are manufactured

solely and expressly for the following applications:
— photolithography;
— stereolithography;
— holography;
— medical applications (per IEC 60601-2-22);
— data storage.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs

ISO 11145:2018, Optics and photonics — Lasers and laser-related equipment — Vocabulary and symbols

ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 13849-1:2015, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General

principles for design

ISO 13849-2:2012, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 2: Validation

ISO 13850:2012, Safety of machinery — Emergency stop function — Principles for design

IEC 60204-1:2016, Safety of machinery — Electrical equipment of machines — Part 1: General requirements

IEC 60825-1:2014, Safety of laser products — Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements

IEC 60825-4:2006, Safety of laser products — Part 4: Laser guards

IEC 62061:2005, Safety of machinery — Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and

programmable electronic control systems
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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11145:2018, ISO 12100:2010,

IEC 60825-1:2014 and IEC 60825-4:2006 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp.
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
beam delivery system

system comprised of all components, including all optical beam components and potential beam paths

and enclosures, which when combined, transfer laser radiation emitted from the laser (according to

definition in IEC 60825-1:2014) to the workpiece. The beam delivery system can include all elements

for guiding, shaping and switching the laser beams as well as the enclosure of and support for the beam

path components

[SOURCE: IEC 60825-4:2006/AMD 2:2011, G.2.1, modified — replaced "workpiece. These components may

include" by "workpiece and where the components can include" and changed laser beam to laser beams.]

3.2
beam path component
optical component which lies on a defined beam path
Note 1 to entry: See IEC 60825-1:2014, 3.16.

EXAMPLE A beam steering mirror, a focus lens, a fibre optic cable or a fibre optic cable connector.

3.3
beam shaping component

optical component integrated in the beam path to transform the profile or cross-section of the laser

beam by means of apertures, reflective, refractive or diffractive optical components

EXAMPLE Lens or integrating optical element for hardening applications.
3.4
beam switching component

optical component or an assembly of components introduced in the beam path to direct or divert, under

external control, the beam path along (a) predetermined direction(s)

Note 1 to entry: The external control allows the beam path to be switched from one predetermined direction to

another.
3.5
fibre optic cable

optical beam guiding component that enables the transfer of laser radiation along a transparent medium

Note 1 to entry: The fibre optic cable can be equipped with sensors to monitor breakage and/or temperature.

Note 2 to entry: A fibre optic cable can have a glass or another core that carries the laser radiation and

is surrounded by cladding. The outside of the fibre is protected by cladding and can be further protected by

additional layers of other materials such as polymer or a metal to protect the fibre from mechanical deformation,

ingress of water, etc. In this document, this term also includes other forms of transmission devices such as

waveguides.
3.6
fibre connector

fibre component, that connects the fibre optic cable with other components in the beam path

Note 1 to entry: The fibre connector can be equipped with sensors to monitor its position (connected/

disconnected).
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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)

Note 2 to entry: Typically, fibre connectors connect the fibre with the laser and the laser processing head.

3.7
laser processing machine

machine in which (an) embedded laser(s) provide(s) sufficient energy or power to melt, evaporate, or

cause a phase transition in at least a part of the workpiece, and which is ready to use in function and safety

3.8
hazard area
danger zone

space within and/or around machinery in which a person can be exposed to a hazard

Note 1 to entry: Laser hazard area, within which the beam irradiance or radiant expose exceeds the MPE including

the possibility of accidental misdirection of the laser beam (see definition according to IEC 60825-1:2014).

3.9
process zone

area where the laser beam interacts with the material of the workpiece

3.10
location with controlled access

location where the hazard is inaccessible except to authorized persons who have received adequate

training in laser safety and servicing of the system involved

Note 1 to entry: The access to the location is controlled by authorization systems, e.g. keys, password.

Note 2 to entry: See Table 1.

EXAMPLE Service engineers that need to work in a guarded laser hazard area, or in excess of the MPE

respectively. Protective measures include, besides technical and administrative means, adequate personal

protective equipment (laser protective eyewear, protective clothing).
3.11
location with restricted access

location where the hazard is inaccessible to the public but may be accessible to other observers or other

personnel untrained in laser safety

Note 1 to entry: The location with restricted access, for which personnel are kept from being exposed to the laser

radiation hazards by guards/walls, barriers or other methods.
Note 2 to entry: See Table 1.

EXAMPLE Performing service at a laser processing machine located in a shop floor, which is the restricted

area. The laser hazard area is screened by means of vertical mobile laser guards/walls, which are labelled with

safety signs respectively. Reflected laser radiation can propagate to upper floors or scaffold platforms. Personnel

having access to the shop floor is trained in organizational measures, so that they follow the organizational

safety measures (prohibitions/warnings).
3.12
location with unrestricted and uncontrolled access
location where access is not limited or controlled

Note 1 to entry: All people, including the public can have access to the location.

Note 2 to entry: See Table 1.

Note 3 to entry: If the machine is used under public access, servicing can take place by generating locations with

restricted access or locations with controlled access.

EXAMPLE Typically, these machines are exhibited or demonstrated on fairs and exhibitions. Since the public

can have access to the location, no hazards may emanate from the laser processing machine.

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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
Table 1 — Description of locations
Location Controlled Restricted Unrestricted and uncontrolled
Authorized and trained Personnel untrained in laser
People All, including the public
in laser safety safety but not the public
3.13
automatic mode
production

operating mode, during which the machine is used as intended (normal

use), including
— loading and unloading of parts and/or materials to be processed,

— processing during which the laser beam works alone or in conjunction with other tools

Note 1 to entry: During automatic mode (normal use) safeguarding equipment is closed.

Note 2 to entry: The loading/unloading can take place fully or partly automated or manual.

3.14
setting mode

operating mode, during which laser adjustments or settings are carried

out by the operator

Note 1 to entry: This is required for changes e.g. of the workpiece, the processing movement paths or the process

parameters. During setting mode safeguarding equipment is open, but safety measures, such as significantly

reduced speed, or step-mode, reduced laser output power, allow the operator to intervene in the process.

3.15
manual intervention mode

operating mode, during which single workpieces can be laser processed

and the process can be observed by the operator
3.16
service mode

operating mode, in which the machine is operated, to carry out

corrective actions

EXAMPLE Fault diagnosis, equipment strip-down and repairing, cleaning of optical elements or adjustments

or alignment.
3.17
operating mode selector switch

switch or another selection device, which allows the use of the laser

processing machine in several control or operating modes, requiring different protective measures

and/or work procedures and which can be locked in each position
Note 1 to entry: The selection device includes but is not limited to software.
3.18
modification

change to the machine, which makes it capable of processing materials in a manner which differs from

the original design, or which makes it capable of processing materials differently from how it was

envisaged in the original design, or which affects the safety characteristics of a machine

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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
3.19
subassembly
constituent part needed for proper performance of the laser processing machine

Note 1 to entry: A laser processing subassembly can be of any laser class in accordance with IEC 60825-1:2014.

3.20
workpiece

material intended to be processed by laser radiation, i.e. the target of the laser beam

3.21
maximum permissible exposure
MPE

level of laser radiation to which, under normal circumstances, persons may be exposed without

suffering adverse effects

Note 1 to entry: The MPE levels represent the maximum level to which the eye or skin can be exposed without

consequential injury immediately or after a long time and are related to the wavelength of the laser radiation,

the pulse duration or exposure duration, the tissue at risk and, for visible and near infra-red laser radiation in

the range 400 nm to 1 400 nm, the size of the retinal image. Maximum permissible exposure levels are (in the

existing state of knowledge) specified in IEC 60825-1:2014, Annex A.

Note 2 to entry: The MPE values given in IEC 60825-1:2014, Annex A are informative and are provided so that

the manufacturer can calculate the NOHD, perform a risk analysis and inform the user about safe usage of the

product. Exposure limits for the eye and the skin of employees in the workplace and the general public are in

many countries specified in national laws. These legally binding national exposure limits might differ from the

MPEs given in IEC 60825-1:2014, Annex A.

[SOURCE: IEC 60825-1:2014, 3.59, modified — in Notes to entry, included IEC 60825-1:2014 before

Annex A indication for clarity.]
3.22
nominal ocular hazard area
NOHA

area within which the beam irradiance or radiant exposure exceeds the appropriate corneal maximum

permissible exposure (MPE), including the possibility of accidental misdirection of the laser beam

Note 1 to entry: If the NOHA includes the possibility of viewing through optical aids, this is termed the

"extended NOHA".
[SOURCE: IEC 60825-1:2014, 3.64]
3.23
foreseeable exposure limit
FEL

maximum laser exposure on the front surface of the laser guard, within the maintenance inspection

interval, assessed under normal and reasonably foreseeable fault conditions
[SOURCE: IEC 60825-4:2006, 3.4]
4 Hazards generated by laser radiation
4.1 General

A number of different hazards can emanate from a laser processing machine. This document is

(exclusively) addressed to the specific hazards resulting from laser radiation arising in laser processing

machines.

Secondary hazards, which are caused by laser beam/material interaction, such as the generation of

hazardous substances (fumes, vapours, gases), fire/explosion risks or the generation of secondary

radiation, e.g. UV-radiation or ionizing radiation, are not considered in this document.

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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)

Other hazards which can emanate from a laser processing machine are given in Annex A.

Particular hazards are also covered by harmonized standards (examples):

For noise reduction and noise measurement methods for laser processing machines and hand-held

processing devices and associated auxiliary equipment (accuracy grade 2) see ISO 11553-3:2013,

Annex A.

For assessment and reduction of risks arising from radiation (laser and ionizing radiation excluded)

emitted by machinery see EN 12198-1 to EN 12198-3.

For the evaluation of the emission of airborne hazardous substances, generated during laser

material processing (such as particulate and gaseous substances; e.g. fumes, vapours, gases) see

EN 1093 (all parts).

For reduction of risks to health resulting from hazardous substances emitted by machinery see

ISO 14123-1 and ISO 14123-2.
4.2 Laser radiation hazards/sources of laser radiation emission

Laser radiation hazards can originate from a direct laser beam or a reflected/scattered laser beam. The

normal use as well as malfunctions/reasonably foreseeable fault conditions have to be considered.

Possible emission sources of a direct beam are:
a) aperture of an embedded laser source,
b) beam delivery system within a laser processing machine,
c) laser beam emitted from the processing head (to the workpiece),
d) laser beam emitted from a scanning unit (to the workpiece).
Possible emission sources of a reflected beam are:

— elements (with reflective surface) within the beam delivery system of the laser processing machine,

— the workpiece holder (if the workpiece is missing),
— elements in the processing zone,

— elements inside the housing of a machine (e.g. handling system, suction pipes, parts of guards),

— the workpiece, processed by the laser processing machine.

The optical properties (e.g. surface roughness and reflectivity) of the material exposed to the laser

beam decisively determine the kind of reflection (direct/specular reflection or scattered reflection) and

thus the risk level. This has impact on both the foreseeable exposure limit (FEL) at the inner surface of

a machine enclosure/guard or the resulting irradiance or the radiant exposure at a machine workplace

or at a certain distance to the machine.

Inadequate design or malfunctions of laser components and machinery equipment can also be the

reason for laser radiation hazards/emission (or a misguided laser beam):
— damaged optical fibre cable,
— damaged passive optical elements (e.g. mirrors, lenses),
— misaligned beam path (inadequate optical elements, incorrectly positioned),
— not properly working active beam guiding and shaping elements,

— not properly working handling system or robot positioning of the laser processing head,

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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)

— gaps in the enclosure/guard of a laser processing machine, through which laser radiation can

propagate,
— damage of protective enclosure/guards/screens.

NOTE Information on reasonably foreseeable fault conditions related to beam guidance is given in

IEC 60825-4:2006, Annex B.

Inadequate design of safety functions, and safety related parts of control systems (SRP/CS) respectively,

for the safe isolation or deactivation of the laser beam (e.g. by shutters, relays controlling power supply to

the laser) can cause severe laser radiation risks. In the following, safety functions are exemplarily given:

— emergency stop;

— opening of maintenance covers or doors for workpiece input and output with access to laser

radiation;
— opening of doors to enter laser cabins with access to the laser hazard area;

— disassembling (manually) of fibre connectors with access to the direct laser beam;

— active control of guards and windows with regard to damage by laser radiation.
4.3 Laser radiation hazards induced by external effects (interferences)

Power conditions and the environment in which the laser processing machine operates may cause the

machine to malfunction, thus giving rise to hazardous conditions related to laser radiation and/or

making it necessary for someone to intervene within hazard zones.
Environmental interferences include
— temperature,
— humidity,
— external shock/vibration,
— vapours, dust or gases from the environment,
— electromagnetic/radio frequency interference,
— source voltage interruption/fluctuation, and
— insufficient hardware/software compatibility and integrity of machine parts.

EXAMPLE Environmental conditions can cause adverse impacts on the laser beam characteristics, which

can deteriorate absorption efficiency; shock/vibration can cause misalignment of optical elements and thus the

laser beam.
4.4 Characteristics of laser radiation

The hazards related to laser radiation depend on the characteristics of the radiation.

For a hazard analysis and a risk assessment, the laser radiation emitted from a laser processing machine

is characterized by including but not limited to the following:
— wavelength;
— operating mode (cw, pulsed);
— beam profile (mode, energy distribution);
— beam quality codes: BPP, M , K;
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ISO 11553-1:2020(E)
— polarization;
— foreseeable exposure limit (FEL) at the inner side of an enclosure/guard;

— irradiance/radiant exposure at a machine workplace or specified distance to the laser machine;

— maximum exposure time.
5 Safety requirements and measures
5.1 General requirements
The extent to which hazards are covered is indicated in the Scope.
Manufacturers shall ensure the safety of laser processing machines by
a) hazard identification and risk assessment,
b) implementation of safety measures to minimize risks by laser radiation,
c) verification of the safety measures, and
d) provision of appropriate information for the user.

Based on the risk assessment (see 5.2), appropriate safety measures against laser radiation shall be

incorporated into the laser processing machine by design and manufacture.
5.2 Risk assessment with regard to laser ra
...

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