Nanomanufacturing - Key control characteristics - Part 8-1: Nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices - Test method for defect states by thermally stimulated current

IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 There are two types of thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement methods, classified by the origin of the current. One is generated by the detrapping of charges. The other one is generated by depolarization. IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 focuses on the former method, and specifies the measurement method to be developed for determining defect states of nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices.
IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 includes:
– outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure TSC,
– methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
– case studies.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Apr-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
09-Apr-2020
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IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 - Nanomanufacturing - Key control characteristics - Part 8-1: Nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices - Test method for defect states by thermally stimulated current
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IEC TS 62607-8-1
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics –
Part 8-1: Nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices – Test method for defect
states by thermally stimulated current
IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 62607-8-1
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics –
Part 8-1: Nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices – Test method for defect
states by thermally stimulated current
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 07.120; 07.030 ISBN 978-2-8322-7978-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ....................................................................... 7

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 7

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 8

4 Measurement of TSC ....................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Sample preparation ................................................................................................. 8

4.3 Experimental procedures ........................................................................................ 8

5 Reporting data ................................................................................................................. 9

6 Data analysis / interpretation of results ............................................................................ 9

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Peak method [1] .................................................................................................... 10

6.3 T –T method [2] [3] ................................................................................... 10

start stop

6.4 Initial rise method [4] ............................................................................................ 10

Annex A (informative) Case study ........................................................................................ 11

A.1 TSC measurement of Au/GaAs (reference sample) ............................................... 11

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

A.1.2 Estimating activation energy of defect states by peak method........................ 14

A.2 TSC measurement of Ir/Ta O ............................................................................. 18

2 5

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

A.2.2 Estimating activation energy of defect states by Peak method ....................... 23

Annex B (informative) Possible methods to analyse TSC spectra ......................................... 26

B.1 Peak method ......................................................................................................... 26

B.2 T –T method ............................................................................................. 26

start stop

B.3 Initial rise method ................................................................................................. 27

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 29

Figure 1 – Structure of TSC measurement device ................................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Visualization of TSC measurement sequence ......................................................... 9

Figure A.1 – Photos of (a) the Au electrode configuration on GaAs reference sample,

and (b) sample setting .......................................................................................................... 11

Figure A.2 – Structure of TSC measurement device .............................................................. 12

Figure A.3 – TSC data comparison by samples ..................................................................... 13

Figure A.4 – TSC data comparison by heating rate ............................................................... 14

Figure A.5 – Determination of TSC peak positions using the second derivative curves .......... 16

2 4

Figure A.6 – Arrhenius plots of (a) ln(T /β) vs. 1/T and (b) ln(T /β) vs. 1/T ................. 17

m m m m

Figure A.7 – TSC data comparison by samples ..................................................................... 19

Figure A.8 – TSC data comparison of Sample A by heating rate ........................................... 20

Figure A.9 – TSC data comparison of Sample B by heating rate ........................................... 20

Figure A.10 – TSC data comparison of Sample C by heating rate ......................................... 21

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IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

Figure A.11 – TSC data comparison by carrier injection method (Samples A, B and C) ......... 22

Figure A.12 – Samples A, B and C: Determination of TSC peak positions using the

second derivative curves ...................................................................................................... 23

Figure A.13 – Arrhenius plots for TA1, Sample A .................................................................. 24

Figure B.1 – Peak method .................................................................................................... 26

Figure B.2 – T –T method ......................................................................................... 27

start stop

Figure B.3 – Determination of trap level energy through initial rise method ........................... 28

Table 1 – TSC measurement sequence steps and parameters ................................................ 9

Table A.1 – TSC measurement sequence steps and parameters / case study ....................... 13

Table A.2 – Activation energies of T1 to T6 for y = ln (T /β) ............................................... 17

Table A.3 – Activation energies of T1 to T6 for y = ln (T /β) ............................................... 17

Table A.4 – TSC measurement sequence steps and parameters / case study (2) .................. 18

Table A.5 – Conditions of Ta O sputtering deposition ......................................................... 19

2 5

Table A.6 – Activation energies of Samples A, B and C ........................................................ 24

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– 4 – IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
NANOMANUFACTURING –
KEY CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS –
Part 8-1: Nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices –
Test method for defect states by thermally stimulated current
FOREWORD

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Technical Specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide

whether they can be transformed into International Standards.

IEC TS 62607-8-1, which is a Technical Specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 113: Nanotechnology for electrotechnical products and systems.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
DTS Report on voting
113/493/DTS 113/510/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Specification can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62607 series, published under the general title Nanomanufacturing –

Key control characteristics, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

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• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
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– 6 – IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020
INTRODUCTION

Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement has been a simple and widely used method

to get information about charge trapping and electric polarization phenomena of various

materials such as dielectrics, ferroelectrics, semiconductors, ceramics, plastics, and other

organic materials for the past several decades. Recently, TSC measurement has been

recognized as a versatile tool to evaluate defect states and structures in advanced electronic

materials including nano-enabled materials and devices. The defect states in devices such as

metal-oxide interfacial devices, C-60 FETs, organic LEDs and emerging photovoltaic cells act

as charge carrier traps influencing their performance and reliability. As such, a standardized

protocol for TSC measurement will be useful to add validity of the experimental data for the

purposes of productization of nano-enabled materials and devices. The reference sample for

the reproducible TSC measurement is also required.

This document offers a measurement method to be developed for determining defect states of

nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices, which is suitable for evaluating the electronic

state even though the resistance of the device changes widely.
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IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
NANOMANUFACTURING –
KEY CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS –
Part 8-1: Nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices –
Test method for defect states by thermally stimulated current
1 Scope

There are two types of thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement methods, classified by

the origin of the current. One is generated by the detrapping of charges. The other one is

generated by depolarization. This part of IEC 62607 focuses on the former method, and

specifies the measurement method to be developed for determining defect states of nano-

enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices.
This document includes:
– outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure TSC,
– methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
– case studies.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
ISO/TS 80004-1, Nanotechnologies – Vocabulary – Part 1: Core terms
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TS 80004-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
device under test
DUT
representative sample device used in testing

[SOURCE: IEC 62876-2-1:2018, 3.1.2, modified – In the definition, the word "sample" has been

added.]
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– 8 – IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020
3.1.2
thermally stimulated current
TSC

current flowing through an external circuit connecting to DUT, originated from the electricity

trapped at low temperature and released due to raising temperature
3.2 Abbreviated terms
DUT device under test
sccm standard cubic centimetres per minute
TSC thermally stimulated current
GaAs gallium arsenide
Ta O ditantalum pentaoxide, tantalum oxide
2 5
4 Measurement of TSC
4.1 General
The typical test set-up for measuring TSC is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Structure of TSC measurement device

Temperature dependence of TSC value shall be expressed by plotting TSC (A) on the ordinate

against temperature on the abscissa.
4.2 Sample preparation

TSC signal is very sensitive to physical and chemical conditions at the sample/electrode

interface. The surface preparation before the electrode formation process should be mentioned

in the standardization protocol, as shown in Figure 1 and Table 1.
4.3 Experimental procedures

• Step 1: Conditioning (Pre-treatment conditions) – Restore the sample to a state where all

trapped charges are released.
• Step 2: Cooling – Cool the sample to the trapping temperature.

• Step 3: Holding time – Keep the sample at the trapping temperature to stabilize the sample

condition.

• Step 4: Trapping – Done by optical injection or voltage injection, or a combination of both.

• Step 5: Measurement – Measure TSC while heating up to the targeted end temperature.

• Step 6: Ending (Post-measurement treatment) – Set back to the room temperature before

taking the sample out from the sample chamber.
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IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
Figure 2 – Visualization of TSC measurement sequence
Table 1 – TSC measurement sequence steps and parameters
Step Parameter 1 Parameter 2 Parameter 3 Parameter 4
Conditioning (Pre- Conditioning Holding time Releasing
measurement treatment) temperature voltage
Cooling Trapping Cooling rate
temperature
3 Hold Holding time

Trapping (photoexcitation) Wavelength Light irradiation Holding time Discharge time

(bandpass filter) time
Trapping (Voltage/Current Applied voltage Current Holding time Discharge time
injection)
Measurement End Heating rate Collecting
temperature voltage
Ending (Post-measurement Target Heating rate Holding time
treatment) temper
...

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