Traditional Chinese medicine -- Vocabulary

This document defines terms for the theory, technology and methods of Chinese Materia Medica processing. It is not applicable to Kampo medicine.

Médecine traditionnelle chinoise -- Vocabulaire

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Publication Date
26-Mar-2020
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6060 - International Standard published
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05-Feb-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18662-2
First edition
2020-03
Traditional Chinese medicine —
Vocabulary —
Part 2:
Processing of Chinese Materia Medica
Médecine traditionnelle chinoise — Vocabulaire —
Partie 2: Transformation des matières médicales chinoises
Reference number
ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General 总论 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................1

3.2 Chinese Materia Medica nature 中药药性类 ..................................................................................................................2

3.3 Principle of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制原理类 .............................................................4

3.4 Assisting material of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制辅料类 ......................................5

3.5 Procedure of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制方法类 .........................................................9

3.6 Craft of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制工艺类 ....................................................................11

3.7 Quality of processed Chinese Materia Medica 中药炮制品质量类 ..........................................................14

3.8 Preservation of processed Chinese Materia Medica 中药炮制品保管类 ............................................15

3.9 Storage of processed Chinese Materia Medica 中药炮制品贮藏类 .........................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Alphabetical English name index .......................................................................................................................................................................18

Alphabetical Chinese name index ......................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 249, Traditional Chinese medicine.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
Introduction

Chinese Materia Medica has been around for thousands of years and is widely used as a natural

method for processing decoction pieces, healthcare products and natural remedies. The first recorded

monograph of Chinese Materia Medica, Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica (Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing) in

the second century, listed 365 Chinese Materia Medica species, including herbs, animals and minerals. In

1596, the Compendium of Materia Medica (Ben Cao Gang Mu) was published with 1 892 Chinese Materia

Medica species. Chinese Materia Medica spread from China to its neighbouring countries thousands of

years ago and has just found its way to other countries worldwide in recent decades. Today, Chinese

Materia Medica has gained popularity and widespread use, with the global Chinese Materia Medica

trade steadily growing.

However, no International Standards for Chinese Materia Medica terminology have been published up

until now, resulting in almost every Chinese Materia Medica term being translated in several different

ways. This has hindered international education, academic exchanges and trade. The need for an

International Standard for basic vocabulary for Chinese Materia Medica has become imperative.

This Chinese Materia Medica document is provided to facilitate international academic exchange,

research and development, management and trade.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
Traditional Chinese medicine — Vocabulary —
Part 2:
Processing of Chinese Materia Medica
1 Scope

This document defines terms for the theory, technology and methods of Chinese Materia Medica

processing. It is not applicable to Kampo medicine.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General 总论
3.1.1
discipline of Chinese Materia Medica 中药学

branch of knowledge which incorporates the basic theories, sources, origins, collection, processing,

properties, functions and clinical application of Chinese Materia Medica under the guidance of

traditional Chinese medicine theories
3.1.2
discipline of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制学

subject that studies the theories, procedure, specifications, quality standards, history and current state

of Chinese Materia Medica processing
3.1.3
Chinese Materia Medica 中药

medicinal parts of medicinal plants, animals, and minerals after preliminary processing, which are

used as raw materials in Chinese medicines
Note 1 to entry: This includes the raw materials used to make decoction pieces.

Note 2 to entry: Preliminary processing can include washing and drying. Large and bulky items can also be cut

into smaller pieces or shorter lengths.
[SOURCE: ISO 18668-1:2016, 3.2, modified — Note 2 to entry added.]
3.1.3.1
raw material 药材
collected unprocessed material
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
3.1.3.2
decoction pieces 饮片

prescription medicines processed from Chinese Materia Medica under the direction of traditional

Chinese medicine and processing methods for Chinese medicines

Note 1 to entry: They can be directly used in clinical practice or for the production of prepared medicines.

[SOURCE: ISO 18668-1:2016, 3.3, modified.]
3.1.4
Chinese Materia Medica nature 药性
therapeutic properties of a Chinese Materia Medica item
3.1.5
Chinese Materia Medica processing 炮制

physical or chemical technique of converting Chinese Materia Medica into decoction pieces based on

the theory of pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine, the nature of Chinese Materia Medica, and

the need for dispensing, preparation and clinical application
3.1.6
adjuvants 辅料
additives added during the processing of Chinese Materia Medica

Note 1 to entry: Adjuvants are included, for example, to enhance therapeutic effect, reduce toxicity, relieve side

effects, adjust medicine properties and affect physicochemical properties.
3.2 Chinese Materia Medica nature 中药药性类
3.2.1
four properties 四气
four Chinese Materia Medica properties: cold, hot, warm and cool
3.2.1.1
cold property 寒性
cold medicinal property to clear heat
Note 1 to entry: Cold property is applied in “treating hot with cold”.
3.2.1.2
hot property 热性
hot medicinal property to dispel cold
Note 1 to entry: Heat property is applied in "treating cold with heat”.
3.2.1.3
warm property 温性
warm medicinal property to dispel cold
3.2.1.4
cool property 凉性
cool medicinal property to clear heat
3.2.1.5
neutral property 平性
medicinal property without identifiable cold, hot, warm or cool properties
3.2.2
five flavours 五味
five medicinal tastes: pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty
Note 1 to entry: Each of the five flavours has different therapeutic effects.
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
3.2.2.1
pungent taste 辛味
acrid taste which has the functions of dispersing, moving qi and blood
3.2.2.2
sweet taste 甘味

taste of sugar which has the functions of tonifying and replenishing, harmonizing the middle energizer,

adjusting the medical properties, releasing spasms and relieving pain
3.2.2.3
sour taste 酸味
vinegar taste which has the action of astringing and consolidating
3.2.2.4
bitter taste 苦味

heavy salty taste which has the action of clearing heat, downbearing counterflow qi, promoting

defecation, eliminating dampness and preserving yin
3.2.2.5
salty taste 咸味

taste of salt which has the action of purging and relaxing bowels to promote defecation, softening

hardness and dissipating bindings
3.2.2.6
bland taste 淡味

very light, dull, sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, salty or astringent taste which has the action of discharging

dampness and promoting urination
3.2.2.7
astringent taste 涩味

sharp taste which has the same action of medicines sour in taste, such as sweating, diarrhoea, frequent

urination, seminal emission, spermatorrhea and haemorrhage
3.2.3
ascending-descending-floating-sinking functional tendencies 升降浮沉

four functional tendencies of medicinal materials in the human body, namely upward, downward,

outward and inward, which are used to specify their pharmaceutical nature
3.2.4
meridian entry 归经

theory of medicinal nature which classifies properties and functional locations of medicinal materials,

and specifies their therapeutic action on a certain part of the body, under the guidance of the zang-fu

viscera, meridians and collaterals theories
3.2.5
seven effects 七情

seven different effects of compatibility of medicinal materials, namely single use, mutual suppression,

mutual restraint, mutual assistance, mutual reinforcement, mutual incompatibility caused by toxins or

side effects and mutual inhibition
3.2.5.1
single use 单行
use of one medicinal material alone for a disorder
3.2.5.2
mutual incompatibility caused by toxins or side effects 相反

property of two or more medicinal materials which produce toxins and side effects when used in

combination
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
3.2.5.3
mutual inhibition 相恶

property of a medicinal material to reduce the medical effects of another medicinal material when used

in combination
3.2.5.4
mutual suppression 相杀

property of a medical material to remove the toxins or side effects of another medicinal material when

used in combination
3.2.5.5
mutual restraint 相畏

toxicity or side effects of one medicinal material constrained by another medicinal material when used

in combination
3.2.5.6
mutual assistance 相使

two medicinal materials, used together, where one is the primary ingredient and the other is used to

enhance the effects of the primary ingredient
3.2.5.7
mutual reinforcement 相须
two medicinal materials used together to enhance medical effects
3.2.6
toxicity 毒性
harmful effects of Chinese Materia Medica on the human body
3.2.7
side effect 副作用
unexpected reaction to a medication

Note 1 to entry: Side effects are often slight or of little harm to the human body. Side effects may occur even with

correctly administered dosages and may disappear after the medication ceases.
3.3 Principle of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制原理类
3.3.1
processing with opposite materials 相反为制

processing method of applying adjuvants or Chinese Materia Medica that have opposite natures to

alleviate or change Chinese Materia Medica natures
3.3.2
processing with similar materials 相资为制

processing method of applying two or more Chinese Materia Medica or adjuvants that have the same or

similar natures to increase their therapeutic functions
3.3.3
mutual restraint processing 相畏为制
相杀为制

processing method of applying adjuvants that can restrict the toxicity and side effects of certain Chinese

Materia Medica
3.3.4
mutual inhibition processing 相恶为制

processing method of applying adjuvants to ease the strong nature of Chinese Materia Medica, thereby

achieving a balanced nature and avoiding damaging healthy qi
3.3.5
shape processing 制其形

processing method to change the shapes of Chinese Materia Medica and to separate the medicinal parts

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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
3.3.6
flavour processing 制其味
processing method to adjust the flavour of the medicine
Note 1 to entry: This includes elimination of bad tastes.
3.3.7
quality processing 制其质

processing method to change the texture of a Chinese Materia Medica or medication

3.3.8
nature processing 制其性
processing method to alter the nature of a Chinese Materia Medica or medication
3.3.9
chemical processing 化学炮制

processing method which applies chemicals or adjuvants to stimulate change of the components of the

chemical materials according to the properties of those materials and the rules of change during the

processing of Chinese Materia Medica

Note 1 to entry: Change here includes increase, decrease, transformation or detoxication.

Note 2 to entry: Chemical processing is undertaken to enhance therapeutic effects and reduce toxicity.

3.3.10
biological processing 生物炮制
processing method which inactivates or applies an enzyme or microorganism

Note 1 to entry: This is performed to preserve the effective ingredients in the decoction pieces, to stimulate the

enzyme and the active ingredient to increase and transform, to decrease the toxicity and even to transform the

toxic constituents into atoxic ones.
3.4 Assisting material of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制辅料类
3.4.1
liquid adjuvants 液体辅料
liquid additives added during processing of Chinese Materia Medica
3.4.1.1
liquor and wine 酒
beverage made from a fermented substance

Note 1 to entry: The substance includes Chinese sorghum, barley, rice, grapes or other fruit. Liquor and wine,

with the main constituent of alcohol, has a sweet, pungent flavour and a hot but toxic nature. It can unobstruct

the blood vessels, enhance medicinal functions, conduct the therapeutic effect upward, dissipate cold and

eliminate unpleasant smells. Liquor and yellow wine are employed in processing and preparation of Chinese

Materia Medica.
3.4.1.1.1
yellow wine 黄酒

yellow-brown transparent liquid made from the fermentation of rice, millet, wheat or yeast, with an

alcohol content between 10 % and 20 % and relative density of 0,98

Note 1 to entry: This liquid has a unique fragrance. The chemical compositions include sugars, esters, acids,

amino acids and minerals.
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
3.4.1.1.2
liquor 白酒

strong, fragrant, transparent, colourless distilled spirit made from the fermentation of rice, grain,

millet, Chinese sorghum or yeast, with 50% to 70% alcohol content and relative density of 0,82 to 0,91

Note 1 to entry: The chemical compositions include acids, esters and aldehydes.
3.4.1.2
vinegar 醋

yellow-brown to dark brown, transparent, sour liquid made from rice, wheat, Chinese sorghum or lees,

composed of 4 % to 6 % acetic acid

Note 1 to entry: Rice vinegar has a unique fragrance and is an ideal choice during processing, and a mature

example is best. It has a warm property, a bitter flavour, and functions of dissipating stasis and relieving pain,

regulating qi and moving water, removing toxins, eliminating bad smells and enhancing the medicinal function

in liver meridian.
3.4.1.3
honey 蜂蜜

golden-brown, semi-transparent, sweet, sticky fluid produced by bees from the nectar of flowers

Note 1 to entry: Honey is fragrant and mainly made of fructose and glucose. It has a neutral property, a sweet

flavour and functions of tonifying the middle energizer, moistening dryness, relieving pain, removing toxins

and eliminating unpleasant smells. When Chinese Materia Medica are processed with honey, they coordinate to

enhance the effect of tonifying the middle energizer and qi, invigorating the spleen and harmonizing the stomach,

moistening the lungs and relieving coughs.
3.4.1.3.1
refined honey 炼蜜
purified product of heated honey

Note 1 to entry: The heating process is aimed at destroying the enzymes, killing the microorganisms, decreasing

water content and increasing stickiness. Refined honey can be classified into slightly refined honey, medium-

refined honey and fully-refined honey in terms of heating degrees.
3.4.1.4
saline water 食盐水

transparent filtered liquid made from dissolved salts, which contains much sodium chloride and a little

magnesium chloride, magnesium sulphate and calcium sulphate

Note 1 to entry: When Chinese Materia Medica are fried with saline water, it can conduct the therapeutic effect

downwards to the kidney meridian, tonify the liver and kidneys, downbear deficient fire and promote urination.

3.4.1.5
ginger juice 姜汁
juice made from squeezed fresh ginger rhizomes or boiled dried ginger rhizomes

Note 1 to entry: Ginger has a mild warm property, a pungent flavour, and functions of warming the middle

energizer and dissipating cold, unblocking vessels by rescuing yang, drying damp and resolving phlegm,

stopping vomiting and removing toxins. When Chinese Materia Medica are processed with ginger juice, their cold

properties will be depressed, and the function of fortifying the stomach, stopping vomiting and reducing toxins

will be enhanced.
3.4.1.6
liquorice juice 甘草汁
dark-brown, filtered liquid made from decocted liquorice

Note 1 to entry: Liquorice has a neutral property and a sweet flavour, and functions of fortifying the spleen,

replenishing qi, clearing heat, removing toxins, dispelling phlegm and relieving tension and pain. When processed

with liquorice juice, the property of Chinese Materia Medica will be moderated and the toxins will be reduced.

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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
3.4.1.7
black bean juice 黑豆汁
opaque, dark filtered liquid made from black bean seeds

Note 1 to entry: Black bean has a neutral property and a sweet flavour, and functions of activating the blood,

draining water, nourishing liver yin and kidney yin, nourishing blood, dispelling wind and removing toxins.

When Chinese Materia Medica are processed with black bean juice, they can enhance the functions of nourishing

liver yin and kidney yin and reducing toxins and side effects.
3.4.1.8
fresh animal bile 胆汁

yellowish-green, semi-transparent sticky fluid with an unpleasant smell, usually from pigs and goats

Note 1 to entry: Bile has a bitter flavour, a cold property, and the functions of clearing the liver and improving

vision, draining the gallbladder, reducing swelling, removing toxins and moistening dryness. When processed

with bile, the dry-heat property, toxicity and side effects of Chinese Materia Medica will be moderated, and the

functions of dispelling phlegm and stopping coughs will be enhanced.
3.4.1.9
rice-washing water 米泔水
greyish-white, opaque fluid from rice washing

Note 1 to entry: Rice-washing water is often deployed to remove oiliness, reduce the pungent-dry property

of Chinese Materia Medica, reinforce the function of tonifying spleen and harmonize the middle energizer by

immersing the oily Chinese Materia Medica into it.
3.4.1.10
sesame oil 麻油
oil squeezed from ripe sesame seeds in cold or heat pressing

Note 1 to entry: Sesame oil has a mild cold property, a sweet flavour, and functions of moistening dryness,

promoting defecation, clearing heat, removing toxins, and regenerating flesh, which is often deployed in the

processing of hard or toxic Chinese Materia Medica to make it crispy and less toxic.

3.4.1.11
mutton tallow 羊脂油
refined lipid oil from a goat or sheep

Note 1 to entry: Mutton tallow maintains a white solid form at room temperature and turns to transparent liquid

when heated. It has a heat property, a sweet flavour, and functions of warming and dissipating cold, tonifying

kidney yang, tonifying deficiency and moistening dryness. When Chinese Materia Medica are processed with

mutton tallow, their functions of warming and tonifying the kidney yang will be enhanced.

3.4.2
solid adjuvants 固体辅料
solid additives added during processing of Chinese Materia Medica
3.4.2.1
rice 稻米
mature seeds or grains of a type of aquatic cereal plant

Note 1 to entry: It has a neutral property, a sweet flavour, and functions of tonifying the middle energizer and

qi, invigorating the spleen and harmonizing the stomach. When Chinese Materia Medica are processed with rice,

the toxins and side effects will be reduced, the irritation will be reduced, and their effect of tonifying the middle

energizer and qi will be enhanced.
3.4.2.2
wheat bran 麦麸
brownish-yellow seed coat of wheat
Note 1 to entry: Wheat bran has a neutral property and a sweet, bland flavour.
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)

Note 2 to entry: When stir-fried with Chinese Materia Medica, wheat bran can moderate dryness, eliminate

unpleasant smells and enhance the effects of the Chinese Materia Medica, and also dye the Chinese Materia

Medica with its smoke.
3.4.2.3
alum 白矾

irregular, colourless, transparent or semi-transparent massive crystal refined from alum ore

Note 1 to entry: Alum is hard but crispy, soluble to water, with the main chemical constituent of KAl(SO4)2•12H2O.

It has a cold property, a sour but astringent flavour, and functions of removing toxins, resolving phlegm, killing

parasites, astringing, drying damp and preventing decay. When Chinese Materia Medica are processed with alum

the impact of toxins is lessened, and their functions of resolving phlegm will be enhanced.

3.4.2.4
talc powder 滑石粉

powder refined, smashed and dried from silicate mineral talc, with the main chemical constituent of

hydrous magnesium silicate

Note 1 to entry: Talc is a white or whitish powder with a cold property, a sweet, bland flavour, and functions of

relieving strangury by promoting urination, clearing heat and removing toxins. When Chinese Materia Medica

are stir-fried with talc, they can be heated evenly. This method is especially applicable to pliable and tough

Chinese Materia Medica.
3.4.2.5
bean curd 豆腐
milky, white solid made from smashed soybean seeds via processing

Note 1 to entry: It has a cold property, a sweet flavour, and functions of tonifying qi and harmonizing the middle

energizer, generating thin bodily liquid to moisten dryness, clearing heat and removing toxins. When processed

with Chinese Materia Medica, it can reduce toxins and eliminate dirt.
3.4.2.6
soil 土

smoky, black and brown scorched earth, with the main chemical constituents of silicate, calcium salt

and other basic oxides

Note 1 to entry: Humus flava usta are most commonly used, while sienna and red halloysite can also be used. It

has a warm property, a pungent flavour, and functions of warming the middle energizer and harmonizing the

stomach, while arresting hemorrhage, stopping vomiting and astringing intestines to relieve diarrhea. When

Chinese Materia Medica are processed with earth, the irritation will be reduced and the effect will be enhanced.

3.4.2.7
clam shell powder 蛤粉
greyish-white powder made from calcined, smashed, dry clam shell

Note 1 to entry: It has a cold property, a bitter, salty flavour, with the functions of clearing heat and draining

damp, resolving phlegm and softening hardness. When Chinese Materia Medica are stir-fried with clam shell

powder, it will bubble up and become crispy.
3.4.2.8
river sand 河砂
hard, medium-sized sand

Note 1 to entry: When Chinese Materia Medica are stir-fried with river sand, the favourable heat conductivity of

the sand and enlarged contact area will result in evenly heated Chinese Materia Medica. This method is especially

applicable to hard Chinese Materia Medica to make them crispy and easy to smash, thus facilitating extraction of

the effective component.
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ISO 18662-2:2020(E)
3.4.2.9
cinnabar powder 朱砂

ground or water-ground clean, fine powder with the main chemical constituent of mercuric sulphide

Note 1 to entry: Cinnabar powder has a mild, cold property, a sweet flavour and functions of calming fright,

tranquilizing spirit and removing toxins.
3.5 Procedure of Chinese Materia Medica processing 中药炮制方法类
3.5.1
cleaning 净制

operating procedure of removing impurities and non-medicinal parts and the separation of

medicinal parts

Note 1 to entry: Chinese Materia Medica that cannot be directly used clinically after cleaning are called "cleaned

Chinese Materia Medica" and those that can be directly used clinically are called "decoction pieces".

3.5.2
cutting 切制

operating procedure of softening Chinese Materia Medica after cleaning and then chopping them into

pieces, shreds, cubes and segments

Note 1 to entry: Chinese Materia Medica after cutting are called "decoction pieces".

3.5.3
stir-frying 炒制

procedure where cleaned and cut decoction pieces are put into a pre-heated container and heated

continuously at the appropriate temperature while stirring or rotating

Note 1 to entry: This process is classified into plain-frying and frying with solid adjuvants.

Note 2 to entry: Stir-frying may be with or without adjuvants.
3.5.3.1
plain-frying 清炒
stir-frying without any adjuvants

Note 1 to entry: Plain-frying can be classified into yellowish-frying, burnt frying and carbonized frying according

to the different frying degrees.
3.5.3.1.1
yellowish frying 炒黄

procedure of stir-frying with mild or moderate fire until the surface of the decoction pieces turns

yellow or darker, bubbles up, or cracks and releases a unique smell
3.5.3.1.2
burnt frying 炒焦

procedure of stir-frying with moderate or strong fire until the surface of the decoction pieces is burnt

yellow or burnt brown outside, turns darker inside and releases a sweet burnt smell

3.5.3.1.3
carbonized frying 炒炭

operating procedure of putting the cleaned and cut decoction pieces into a pre-heated container, heating

it continuously with moderate or strong fire
...

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