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The present document specifies a method for direct extraction of DNA from soil samples to analyse the abundance and composition of microbial communities by various techniques of molecular biology including real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). This method is mainly dedicated to agricultural and forest soils. This method can possibly not be suitable for soils rich in organic matter (e.g. peat soils) or soils heavily polluted with organic pollutants or heavy metals. The direct extraction of DNA from soil samples provides unique insight into the α- and β-diversity of microbial communities. Next-generation sequencing of amplicons obtained by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of soil DNA constitutes a promising domain which will in the near future contribute to the development of routine tools to monitor microbial communities in soil environments.

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This document specifies one of the methods for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining effects of soil contaminants and individual chemical substances on the reproduction of the oribatid mite Oppia nitens by dermal and alimentary uptake. This chronic (28-day) test is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality (e.g., contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, agricultural or other sites under concern and waste materials). This method is not intended to replace the earthworm or Collembola tests since it represents another taxonomic group (= mites; i.e., arachnids), nor the predatory mite test since this species represents a different trophic level and ecological niche. Effects of substances are assessed using standard soil, preferably a defined artificial soil substrate. For contaminated soils, the effects are determined in the test soil and in a control soil. According to the objective of the study, the control and dilution substrate (dilution series of contaminated soil) should be either an uncontaminated soil with similar properties to the soil sample to be tested (reference soil) or a standard soil (e.g., artificial soil). Information is provided on how to use this method for testing substances under temperate conditions. This document is not applicable to substances for which the air/soil partition coefficient is greater than 1, or to substances with vapour pressure exceeding 300 Pa at 25 °C. NOTE The stability of the test substance cannot be assured over the test period. No provision is made in the test method for monitoring the persistence of the substance under test.

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This document is one of the family of standards (ISO 15799, ISO 19204) providing guidance on the characterization of soils and soil materials in relation to their retention and habitat functions and uses. It is appropriate to use it in conjunction with the two other standards in this family. It provides guidance on the choice and evaluation of tests applied for ecotoxicological characterization of soils and soil materials. Recommendations for test strategies with respect to the protection of ground and surface waters and the maintenance of the habitat function of soil are included. The tests recommended represent a minimum test battery that can be complemented by additional tests, or even be replaced by others, according to the intended uses or protection goals envisaged. The effect values indicated in this document do not refer to regulation but represent the lowest level at which an adverse effect is considered likely to occur.

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This document specifies a method for sampling, handling and extracting enchytraeids from terrestrial field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). Basic information on the ecology of enchytraeids and their use as bioindicators in the terrestrial environment is included in the Bibliography. This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which enchytraeids occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400-101. These details can vary according to the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled and an overview on the determination of effects of pollutants on enchytraeids in field situations is given in Reference [6]. Methods for some other soil organism groups such as earthworms or arthropods are given in ISO 23611-1, ISO 23611-2, ISO 23611-4 and ISO 23611-5. This document is not applicable for very wet or flooded soils and might be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains). When sampling soil invertebrates, it is highly recommendable to characterize the site (e.g. concerning soil properties, climate and land use). However, such a characterization is not covered by this document. ISO 10390, ISO 10694, ISO 11272, ISO 11274, ISO 11277, ISO 11461 and ISO 11465 are more suitable for measuring pH, particle size distribution, C/N ratio, organic carbon content and water-holding capacity.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of several enzyme activities (arylsulfatase, α −glucosidase, β -glucosidase, Cellubisidase, β -Xylosidase, phosphodiesterase (PDE), chitinase, phosphomonoesterase (PME), leucine-aminopeptidase, Alanine-aminopeptidase) simultaneously (or not) using fluorigenic substrates in soil samples. Enzyme activities of soil vary seasonally and depend on the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of soil. Its application for the detection of harmful effects of toxic chemicals or other anthropogenic impacts depends on the simultaneous comparison of enzyme activities in a control soil similar to the test soil, or on exposure tests with chemicals or treatments.

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This document describes a method to compare the quality of soils by determining the fatty acid composition of the leaves of plant species grown in these soils. This method does not make it possible to determine an optimal value of the Omega-3 index and, therefore, cannot be used to determine the intrinsic quality of a soil from a specific area (regarded as homogeneous). The method can only be used to compare the quality of soils between various areas. This method is applicable to: — soils from contaminated sites; — amended soils; — soils after remediation; ? soil with waste products (e.g. slurry, manure, sludge or composts). Alternatively, the quality of soils can be assessed by determining the Omega-3 index of Lactuca sativa seedlings grown in these soils under controlled conditions (i.e. phytotronic chamber) and by comparing these values to those obtained from control soils (see Annex B).

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This document specifies a chronic test method for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining effects of soil contaminants and substances on the reproduction of Hypoaspis aculeifer by ? mainly ? alimentary uptake. This method is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, industrial, agricultural or other sites under concern and waste materials (e.g. dredged material, municipal sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, composed material, or manure, especially those for possible land disposal). The reproduction (= number of juveniles) is the measured parameter of the test. The test reflects the bioavailability of a mixture of contaminants in natural soils (contaminated site soils) to a species which represents a trophic level which is not covered by other ISO standards. This test is not intended to replace the earthworm (see ISO 11268-2) or Collembola (see ISO 11267) reproduction tests since this species belongs not only to a different trophic group but also a different taxonomic group (= mites; i.e. arachnids) than those used usually. Effects of substances are assessed using a standard soil, preferably a defined artificial soil substrate. For contaminated soils, the effects are determined in the soil to be tested and in a control soil. Depending on the objective of the study, the control and dilution substrate (dilution series of contaminated soil) are either an uncontaminated soil comparable to the soil to be tested (reference soil) or a standard soil (e.g. artificial soil). This document provides information on how to use this method for testing samples (soils or substances) under temperate conditions. This document is not applicable to substances for which the air/soil partition coefficient is greater than one, or to substances with vapour pressure exceeding 300 Pa at 25 °C. NOTE The stability of the test substance cannot be ensured over the test period. No provision is made in the test method for monitoring the persistence of the substance under test.

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This document is one of a family of International Standards providing guidance on soils and soil materials in relation to certain functions and uses including conservation of biodiversity. It applies in conjunction with these other standards. It provides guidance on the selection of experimental methods for the assessment of the ecotoxic potential of soils and soil materials (e.g. excavated and remediated soils, refills, embankments) with respect to their intended use and possible adverse effects on aquatic and soil dwelling organisms. NOTE This is a reflection of the maintenance of the habitat and retention function of the soil. In fact, the methods listed in this document are suitable for usage in a TRIAD approach, i.e. for an ecological assessment of potentially contaminated soils (see ISO 19204). This document does not cover tests for bioaccumulation. The ecological assessment of uncontaminated soils with a view to natural, agricultural or horticultural use is not within the scope of this document. Such soils can be of interest if they can serve as a reference for the assessment of soils from contaminated sites. The interpretation of results gained by applying the proposed methods is not in the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a protocol to identify ecotoxicological test specimens (mainly invertebrates and plants) to the species level, based on the DNA barcoding technique. This protocol can be used by laboratories performing DNA barcoding in order to standardize both the wet-lab and data analysis workflows as much as possible, and make them compliant with community standards and guidelines. This document does not intend to specify one particular strain for each test method, but to accurately document the species/strain which was used. NOTE 1 This does not imply that DNA barcoding is performed in parallel to each test run, but rather regularly (e.g. once a year, such as reference substance testing) and each time a new culture is started or new individuals are added to an ongoing culture. This document does not aim at duplicating or replacing morphological-based species identifications. On the contrary, DNA barcoding is proposed as a complementary identification tool where morphology is inconclusive, or to diagnose cryptic species, in order to ensure that the results obtained from different ecotoxicological laboratories are referring to the same species or strain. This document is applicable to identifications of immature forms which lack morphological diagnostic characters (eggs, larvae, juveniles), as well as the streamline identification of specimens collected in field monitoring studies, where large numbers of organisms from diverse taxa are classified. NOTE 2 In principle, all species regularly used in ecotoxicological testing can be analysed by DNA barcoding. Besides the earthwoms Eisenia fetida and E. andrei, further examples for terrestrial species are Lumbricus terrestris, L. rubellus, Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea rosea, and A. caliginosa, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Enchytraeus albidus, and E. crypticus (Haplotaxida); Folsomia candida, F. fimetaria, Proisotoma minuta, and Sinella curviseta (Collembola); Hypoaspis aculeifer and Oppia nitens (Acari); Aleochara bilineata and Poecilus cupreus (Coleoptera); Scathophaga stercoraria, Musca autumnalis (Diptera) or Pardosa sp. (Arachnida). Nematodes or snails and even plants can also be added to this list.

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This document specifies a method for determining activity of dehydrogenases in soil, using 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT)[1]-[5]. As the INT reduction is less sensitive to O2, the method is more robust than the TTC-method described in ISO 23753-1.

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This document specifies a method for determining the activity of dehydrogenases enzymes in soil using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC).

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This document provides standard procedures for the collection, handling and storage of soil for subsequent biological testing under aerobic conditions in the laboratory. It applies to the collection, handling and storage for assessing the effects of soil on microorganisms, invertebrates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth, behaviour) and plants (e.g. development, growth). This document is not applicable to the handling of soil where anaerobic conditions need to be maintained throughout. This document describes how to minimize the effects of differences in temperature, water content, and availability of oxygen on aerobic processes as well as the fractionation of soil particles to facilitate reproducible laboratory determinations[1][2]. This document is mainly applicable to temperate soils. Soils collected from extreme climates (e.g. permafrost, tropical soils) can require special handling. NOTE This document does not provide standard procedures on the collection, handling and storage of soil organisms when assessing the structure and function of soil organism communities in the field. Such standard procedures are provided in ISO 23611‑1 to ISO 23611‑6.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of several hydrolase activities (arylamidase, arylsulfatase, β-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, acid, alkaline and global phosphatases, urease) simultaneously (or not) in soil samples, using colorimetric substrates. Enzyme activities of soil vary seasonally and depend on soil chemical, physical and biological characteristics. This method can be applied either to detect harmful effects on soil enzyme activities derived from toxic substances or other anthropogenic agents in contaminated soils against a control soil, or to test chemicals.

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This document specifies a laboratory test for characterizing the ability (or inability) of soils to reduce the greenhouse gas N2O into N2 as it was previously shown that soils with a low ability to reduce N2O into N2 constitute situations with a risk of large emission of N2O[6], higher than those basically estimated by the use at the plot scale of the equations proposed in the IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories[10]. This test is performed in laboratory on a composite of sieved samples collected at the plot scale. It can be performed on all types of soils sampled all over the year except in very exceptional and extreme conditions of dryness. Results obtained are stable over time for situations that do not receive neither organic nor lime amendments.

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This document specifies a laboratory test for characterizing the denitrifying enzyme activities in soils[5]. It globally characterizes the transformation of the nitrate form to the nitrous oxide and dinitrogen forms. This method was first proposed by Reference [5] with the acronym DEA for Denitrifying Enzyme Activities. It is a standardized technique used in numerous scientific studies. DEA estimates the process of denitrification of fresh soil samples incubated under optimal conditions of substrates (nitrate and carbon sources) and environment (anaerobiosis, controlled temperature) for the denitrification process. The de novo enzyme synthesis is blocked by the use of chloramphenicol. DEA is believed to represent the size of the denitrifying enzyme pool present in the soil sample at the time of sample collection. This test is performed in laboratory on a composite of sieved samples collected at the plot scale. It can be performed on all types of soils sampled all over the year.

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This document specifies a semi-static method for determining the effects of contaminants on growth and survival of young snails, usually Helix aspersa aspersa Müller. The animals are exposed via the cutaneous and digestive route using a test substrate (artificial or natural soil according to the objective of the study) to which defined amounts of the following are added: - substances, mixtures or preparations; - soils (contaminated or of unknown quality) or waste materials. This test takes into account the possible changes in the test substance, preparation, soil or waste material because the test mixtures are prepared and renewed every week during the 28-day test period. A static method may be implemented in addition to the semi-static method (optional). This method is described in Annex A. This method does not apply to substances for which the air/soil partition coefficient is greater than one, or to substances with vapour pressure exceeding 300 Pa, at 25 °C.

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This document specifies a method for sampling and handling earthworms from field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which earthworms occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400‑101 and guidance on the determination of effects of pollutants on earthworms in field situations is given in ISO 11268‑3. These aspects can vary according to the national requirements or the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled (see also Annex C). This document is not applicable for semi-terrestrial soils and it can be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains). Methods for some other soil organism groups, such as collembolans, are covered in other parts of ISO 23611.

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ISO 14239:2017 specifies six suitable incubation systems for measuring the rates and extent of mineralization of organic compounds in soil by measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution. All incubation systems are applicable to soluble or insoluble compounds but choice of system depends on the overall purposes of the study. ISO 14239:2017 does not apply to the use of such systems for material balance studies, which are often test-substance specific.

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ISO 19204:2017 describes in a general way the application of the soil quality TRIAD approach for the site-specific ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. In detail, it presents in a transparent way three lines of evidence (chemistry, ecotoxicology and ecology) which together allow an efficient, ecologically robust but also practical risk assessment of contaminated soils. This procedure can also be applicable to other stress factors, such as acidification, soil compaction, salinization, loss of soil organic substance, and erosion. However, so far, no experience has been gained with these other applications. Therefore, this document focuses on soils contaminated by chemicals. NOTE 1 This document focuses on ecological risk assessment. Thus, it does not cover human health end points. In view of the nature of this document, the investigation procedure is described on a general level. It does not contain details of technical procedures for the actual assessment. However, this document includes references relating to technical standards (e.g. ISO 15799, ISO 17616) which are useful for the actual performance of the three lines of evidence. In ecological risk assessment, the effects of soil contamination on the ecosystem are related to the intended land use and the requirements that this use sets for properly functioning soil. This document describes the basic steps relating to a coherent tool for a site-specific risk assessment with opportunities to work out site-specific details. ISO 19204:2017 can also be used for the evaluation of clean-up operations, remediation processes or management measures (i.e. for the evaluation of the environmental quality after having performed such actions). NOTE 2 This document starts when it has already been decided that an ecological risk assessment at a given site needs to be performed. In other words, the practical performance of the soil quality TRIAD and the evaluation of the individual test results will be described. Thus, nothing will be said about decisions whether (and if yes, how) the results of the assessment are included in soil management measures or not. NOTE 3 The TRIAD approach can be used for different parts of the environment, but this document focuses mostly on the soil compartment. Comparable documents for other environmental compartments are intended to be prepared in addition (e.g. the terrestrial aboveground compartment) in order to perform a complete site assessment, based on the same principles and processes.

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ISO 18763:2016 describes a technique for determining the effects of soil and soil-related materials on the seed germination and early growth of higher plants. These endpoints are useful indicators for the assessment of the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms. It is applicable to all soils in which soil organisms are active and may be used to evaluate: - the effects on plants due to toxicity of solid or liquid chemicals contaminating soil or materials (compost, sludge, waste) and chemicals added to soil; - the changes in the soil effect on plants after restoration measures.

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ISO 18187:2016 specifies a rapid method for assessing solid samples in an aerobic suspension, by determining the inhibition of dehydrogenase activity of Arthrobacter globiformis using the redox dye resazurin. It is applicable for assessing the effect of water-soluble and solid matter bounded non-volatile contaminants of natural samples, such as soils and waste materials. The test yields a result within 6 h and can therefore be used for screening potentially contaminated material.

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ISO 18311:2016 specifies a technique for determining the effects of anthropogenic impacts (e.g. substances) in the context of the prevailing environmental conditions on the feeding activity of soil organisms in the field. In addition, the use of this method for monitoring the biological quality of soil is described (see Annex A). The breakdown of organic matter by soil invertebrates and microorganisms is a crucial process that determines important soil functions such as nutrient availability for plants and the maintenance of soil fertility. In addition, decomposing plant litter provides habitats and food for a wide range of organisms, thus supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services [33][34]. ISO 18311:2016 is applicable to all soils in which soil organisms are active. The use of the bait-lamina test is independent from whether there is a litter layer or not. The sampling design of field studies in general is specified in ISO 23611‑6 (see also Reference [20]). The design can vary according to the aim of the study as well as conditions (e.g. soil properties, contamination, etc.) of the site to be investigated. ISO 18311:2016 is not applicable for semi-terrestrial or very shallow soils. It can be difficult to use it under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains).

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ISO 17601:2016 specifies the crucial steps of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to measure the abundance of selected microbial gene sequences from soil DNA extract which provides an estimation of selected microbial groups. It is noteworthy that the number of genes is not necessarily directly linked to the number of organisms that are measured. For example, the number of ribosomal operon is ranging from one copy to 20 copies in different bacterial phyla. Therefore, the number of 16S rRNA sequences quantified from soil DNA extracts does not give an exact estimate of the number of soil bacteria. Furthermore, the number of sequences is not necessarily linked to living microorganisms and can comprise sequences amplified from dead microorganisms.

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ISO 11268-3: 2014 specifies techniques for determining the effects of substances on earthworms in the field and provides a basis for determining the effects of chemicals applied to or incorporated into soil, including soil injections or drilled pelleted formulations.

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ISO 11267:2014 specifies one of the methods for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining effects of soil contaminants and substances on the reproduction of Folsomia candida Willem by dermal and alimentary uptake. This chronic test is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, industrial, agricultural or other sites of concern and waste materials. Effects of substances are assessed using a standard soil, preferably a defined artificial soil substrate. For contaminated soils, the effects are determined in the soil to be tested and in a control soil. According to the objective of the study, the control and dilution substrate (dilution series of contaminated soil) are either an uncontaminated soil comparable to the soil to be tested (reference soil) or a standard soil (e.g. artificial soil). ISO 11267:2014 provides information on how to use this method for testing substances under temperate conditions. The method is not applicable to volatile substances, i.e. substances for which H (Henry's constant) or the air/water partition coefficient is greater than 1, or for which the vapour pressure exceeds 0,013 3 Pa at 25 °C.

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ISO 16387:2014 specifies one of the methods for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining effects of soil contaminants and substances on the reproduction of Enchytraeus sp. by dermal and alimentary uptake in a chronic test. It is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, agricultural or other sites under concern and waste materials. ISO 16387:2014 provides information on how to use this method for testing substances under temperate conditions.

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The purpose of ISO 29200:2013 is to describe a method for assessing genotoxic effects (chromosome breakage or dysfunction of the mitotic spindle) of soils or soil materials on the secondary roots of a higher plant: Vicia faba (broad bean). This method allows the assessment of genotoxicity (toxicity for genetic material) of soils and soil materials like compost, sludge, waste, fertilizing matters, etc. Two ways of exposure can be considered: a direct exposure of plants to the soil (or soil material) which is relevant for the real genotoxic potential and an exposure of plants to the water extract of the soil (or soil material). This last way of exposure to a leachate or an eluate allows the detection of the mutagens which are not adsorbed to soils and which may be transferred to aquatic compartments. Moreover, this test may be used to evaluate genotoxic effects of chemical substances and to waters, effluents, etc.

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ISO 11268-2:2012 specifies one of the methods for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining the effects of soil contaminants and chemicals on the reproduction of Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei by dermal and alimentary uptake. This chronic test is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, agricultural or other sites concerned, and waste materials. Effects of substances are assessed using a standard soil, preferably a defined artificial soil substrate. For contaminated soils, the effects are determined in the test soil and in a control soil. According to the objective of the study, the control and dilution substrate (dilution series of contaminated soil) should be either an uncontaminated soil comparable to the soil sample to be tested (reference soil) or a standard soil (e.g. artificial soil). Information is provided on how to use this method for testing chemicals under temperate as well as under tropical conditions. The method is not applicable to volatile substances, i.e. substances for which H (Henry's constant) or the air/water partition coefficient is greater than 1, or for which the vapour pressure exceeds 0,013 3 Pa at 25 °C. This method does not take into account the persistence of the substance during the test.

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1 Scope This part of ISO 11268 specifies one of the methods for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining the acute toxicity of soil contaminants and chemicals to Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei by dermal and alimentary uptake. It is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, agricultural or other sites concerned, and waste materials. Effects of substances are assessed using a standard soil, preferably a defined artificial soil substrate. For contaminated soils, the effects on survival are determined in the test soil and in a control soil. According to the objective of the study, the control and dilution substrate (dilution series of contaminated soil) should be either an uncontaminated soil comparable to the soil sample to be tested (reference soil) or a standard soil (e.g. artificial soil). Information is provided on how to use this method for testing chemicals under temperate as well as under tropical conditions. The method is not applicable to volatile substances, i.e. substances for which H (Henry's constant) or the air/water partition coefficient is greater than 1, or for which the vapour pressure exceeds 0,013 3 Pa at 25 °C. This method does not take into account the possible degradation of the substances or contaminants during the test.

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1 Scope This International Standard specifies a test method for determining the activity of active aerobic, heterotrophic microbial biomass in soils. This method is applicable to the monitoring of soil quality and to the evaluation of the ecotoxic potential of soils and soil materials. It is also applicable for soils sampled along contamination gradients in the field and to soils that are contaminated experimentally in the field or in the laboratory.

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This part of ISO 23611 provides guidance for the design of field studies with soil invertebrates (e.g. for the monitoring of the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). Detailed information on the sampling of the most important soil organisms is provided in the other parts of this International Standard (ISO 23611-1 to ISO 23611-5). This part of ISO 23611 is used for all terrestrial biotopes in which soil invertebrates occur. Basic information on the design of field studies in general is already laid down in ISO 10381-1. This information can vary according to the national requirements or the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled. NOTE While this part of ISO 23611 aims to be applicable globally for all terrestrial sites that are inhabited by soil invertebrates, the existing information refers mostly to temperate regions. However, the (few) studies from other (tropical and boreal) regions, as well as theoretical considerations, allow the conclusion that the principles laid down in this part of ISO 23611 are generally valid, References [4], [6], [40], [21]. This part of ISO 23611 gives information on site-specific risk assessment of contaminated land, study of potential side effects of anthropogenic impacts (e.g. the application of chemicals or the building of roads), the biological classification and assessment of soils in order to determine the biological quality of soils, and longterm biogeographical monitoring in the context of nature protection or restoration, including global change (e.g. as in long-term ecological research projects).

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This International Standard specifies laboratory procedures for measuring the mineralization and nitrification of nitrogen by the soil microbiota. For investigations on the evaluation of soil quality or on effects of contamination, a procedure is given to measure the rates and extent of N-mineralization in soil or soils of known or unknown quality. For investigation of the potential toxicity of chemicals to N-mineralization in soils, a simple procedure is given which allows the impact of single chemicals to be assessed and provides a basis for comparison of the toxicities of different chemicals.

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ISO 15685:2012 specifies a rapid method for the determination of the potential rate of ammonium oxidation and inhibition of nitrification in soils. This method is suitable for all soils containing a population of nitrifying microorganisms. It can be used as a rapid screening test for monitoring soil quality and quality of wastes, and is suitable for testing the effects of cultivation methods, chemical substances [except volatiles i.e. H > 1 (Henry's constant)], extracts of biosolids and pollution in soils.

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ISO 11269-1:2012 describes a method for the determination of the effects of contaminated soils or contaminated samples on the root elongation of terrestrial plants. This method is applicable to soils, soil materials, compost, sludge, waste or chemical testing. It is applicable to the comparison of soils of known and unknown quality and to the measurement of effects of materials (compost, sludge, waste) or chemicals deliberately added to the soil. The method is not intended to be used as a measure of the ability of the soil to support sustained plant growth.

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This part of ISO 11269 describes a method to assess the quality of an unknown soil and the soil habitat function by determining the emergence and early growth response of at least two terrestrial plant species compared to reference or standard control soils. It is applicable to soils of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils or soils after remediation.

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ISO 23611-5:2011 specifies a method for sampling, extracting and preserving macro-invertebrates from soils, including the litter zone. The proposed method is a prerequisite for using these animals as bio-indicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). The main premise of this method is rapid assessment (completing the sampling of a plot in one or two days with only basic equipment and a small number of field assistants), in order to be able to address all the taxonomic groups of soil macro-invertebrates at the same time and in the same place. The Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF) method has evolved and some modifications have been introduced in order to use it in temperate regions. The sampling and extraction methods in ISO 23611-5:2011 are applicable to almost all types of soils, with the exception of soils in extreme climatic conditions (hard, frozen or flooded soils) and matrices other than soil, e.g. tree trunks, plants or lichens. Sampling design is specified in ISO 23611-6.

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ISO 17512-2:2011 specifies a rapid screening method for evaluating the habitat function of soils based on the avoidance behaviour of springtails. The test is a rapid method that reflects the bioavailability of contaminants in natural soils and substances spiked into soils to Folsomia candida. In both cases, it is possible to establish a dose-response-relationship. The avoidance behaviour of the springtails is the measurement endpoint of the test. This test is not intended to replace the Collembola reproduction test.

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ISO/TS 29843-2:2011 specifies a simple method for the extraction of only phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from soils.

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ISO/TS 29843‑1:2010 specifies an extended method for the extraction and determination of both phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) from soils. ISO/TS 29843‑2 specifies a simple method for the extraction of only PLFA from soils.

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ISO/TS 10832:2009 specifies a method to evaluate the effects of pollutants on spore germination of a mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae. This direct acute toxicity bioassay allows the evaluation of potential effects of pollutants and contaminated soils on beneficial soil microorganisms important for plant growth within the concept of sustainable agriculture. ISO/TS 10832:2009 is applicable to chemical substances, and contaminated soils, waste and soil-waste mixture and sludge.

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ISO 17512-1:2008 specifies a rapid screening method for evaluating the habitat function of soils and the influence of contaminants and chemicals on earthworm behaviour. The sublethal test is a rapid method that reflects the bioavailability of contaminant mixtures in natural soils and substances spiked into soils to Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei. The avoidance behaviour of the worms is the measurement endpoint of the test. This test is not intended to replace the earthworm reproduction test. Two different designs (a two section unit and a six section unit) have been developed and successfully applied. Both designs are applicable to either single-concentration (e. g. for assessing the quality of a field soil) or multi-concentration (e. g. for assessing the toxicity of a spiked chemical) tests. In both cases, the earthworms are allowed to make the initial choice on which compartment, control and a treatment [in the two section test vessel between right and left side; in the six section test vessel between the (3 + 3) alternating compartments], to enter.

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ISO 23611-4:2007 specifies a method for sampling and handling free-living nematodes from terrestrial field soils as a prerequisite for using them as bio-indicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). ISO 23611-4:2007 applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which nematodes occur. It is not applicable to aquatic nematodes because these nematodes do not pass through the filter.

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ISO 23611-2:2006 specifies a method for sampling, extracting and preserving collembolans and mites from field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bio-indicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). The sampling and extraction methods of ISO 23611-2:2006 are applicable to almost all types of soils. Exceptions may be soils from extreme climatic conditions (hard, frozen or flooded soils) and other matrices than soil, e.g. tree trunks, plants or lichens.

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ISO 20963:2005 describes a method for the determination of the effects of contaminated soils and substances on the survival of the larvae of Oxythyrea funesta. The larvae are exposed to the pollutants by cuticular and alimentary uptake. For contaminated soils, the effects on the survival are determined in the test soil and in a control soil. Depending on the objectives of the study, the control and dilution substrates (dilution series of contaminated soil) are either uncontaminated soil comparable to the soil sample to be tested or artificial soil substrate. Effects of substances are assessed using a defined artificial soil substrate. ISO 20963:2005 is not applicable to volatile substances, i.e. substances for which Henry's constant or the air/water partition coefficient is greater than 1, or for which the vapour pressure exceeds 0,001 33 Pa at 25 °C. This method does not take into account the possible degradation of the substances or pollutants during the test.

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ISO 17126:2005 specifies test procedures for the determination of effects of contaminated soils or other contaminated samples on the emergence of lettuce seeds. ISO 17126:2005 is applicable to contaminated soils, soil materials, compost, sludge and chemical testing. It is applicable to the measurement of effects of substances deliberately added to the soil and to the comparison of soils of known and unknown quality. ISO 17126:2005 is not applicable to volatile contaminants.

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ISO 22030:2005 describes a method for determining the inhibition of the growth and reproductive capability of higher plants by soils under controlled conditions. Two species are recommended: a rapid-cycling variant of turnip rape (Brassica rapa CrGC syn. Rbr) and oat (Avena sativa). The duration of test should be sufficient to include chronic endpoints that demonstrate the reproductive capability of the test plants. By using natural test soils, e.g. from contaminated sites or remediated soils, and by comparing the development of the test plants in these soils with reference or standard control soils, the test is applicable to assess soil quality, especially the function of the soil as a habitat for plants. This method can be modified to allow use of the chronic plant assay for the testing of chemicals incorporated into soil. By preparing a dilution series of a test substance in standard control soils, the same endpoints can be measured to assess the chronic toxicity of chemicals. This method is not applicable to volatile substances, i.e. substances for which Henry's constant or the air/water partition coefficient is greater than 1, or for which the vapour pressure exceeds 0,013 3 Pa at 25 °C.

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ISO 16702:2002 describes methods for the determination of soil microbial respiration of aerobic, unsaturated soils. The methods are suitable for the determination of O2 uptake or CO2 release, either after addition of a substrate (substrate-induced respiration), or without substrate addition (basal respiration). ISO 16702:2002 is applicable to the measurement of soil respiration in order to: determine the microbial activity in soil (see [2]); establish the effect of additives (nutrients, pollutants, soil improvers, etc.) on the metabolic performance of microorganisms; determine the microbial biomass (see [3]); determine the metabolic quotient qCO2.

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