Wind turbines - Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models - Wind turbines

IEC 61400-27 defines standard electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind power
plants. The specified models are time domain positive sequence simulation models, intended
to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The models are applicable for dynamic
simulations of short term stability in power systems. IEC 61400-27 includes procedures for
validation of the specified electrical simulation models. The validation procedure for
IEC 61400-27 is based on tests specified in IEC 61400-21.
IEC 61400-27 consists of two parts with the following scope:
– IEC 61400-27-1 specifies dynamic simulation models for generic wind turbine topologies/
concepts / configurations on the market. IEC 61400-27-1 defines the generic terms and
parameters with the purpose of specifying the electrical characteristics of a wind turbine at
the connection terminals. The models are described in a modular way which can be
applied for future wind turbine concepts. The dynamic simulation models refer to the wind
turbine terminals. The validation procedure specified in IEC 61400-27-1 focuses on the
IEC 61400-21 tests for response to voltage dips, reference point changes and grid
protection.
– IEC 61400-27-2 specifies dynamic simulation models for the generic wind power plant
topologies / configurations on the market including wind power plant control and auxiliary
equipment. In addition IEC 61400-27-2 specifies a method to create models for future wind
power plant configurations. The wind power plant models are based on the wind turbine
models specified in IEC 61400-27-1.
The electrical simulation models specified in IEC 61400-27 are independent of any software
simulation tool.

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-1: Elektrische Simulationsmodelle - Windenergieanlagen

Eoliennes - Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation électrique - Eoliennes

L'IEC 61400-27-1:2015 spécifie des modèles de simulation dynamiques pour les topologies/concepts/configurations génériques d'éoliennes disponibles sur le marché. Elle définit les termes et paramètres génériques ayant pour objet de spécifier les caractéristiques électriques d'une éolienne au niveau des bornes de connexion. Les modèles sont décrits de manière modulaire et peuvent être appliqués aux futurs concepts d'éoliennes. Les modèles de simulation dynamiques se rapportent aux bornes de l'éolienne. La procédure de validation spécifiée dans l'IEC 61400-27-1 se concentre sur les essais de l'IEC 61400-21 pour la réponse aux creux de tension, les variations de la valeur de consigne et la protection du réseau.

Vetrne turbine - 27-1. del: Električni simulacijski modeli - Vetrne turbine

IEC 61400-27 določa standardne električne simulacijske modele za vetrne turbine in vetrne elektrarne. Predpisani modeli so simulacijski modeli pozitivnega zaporedja v časovnem območju, namenjeni za uporabo pri analizah stabilnosti napajalnega sistema in mreže. Modeli se uporabljajo za dinamične simulacije kratkotrajne stabilnosti v napajalnih sistemih. IEC 61400-27 vključuje postopke za overjanje predpisanih električnih simulacijskih modelov. Postopek za overjanje za IEC 61400-27 temelji na preskusih, določenih v standardu IEC 61400-21.
IEC 61400-27 vključuje dva dela z naslednjima področjema uporabe:
– IEC 61400-27-1 določa dinamične simulacijske modele za splošne topologije/koncepte/konfiguracije vetrnih turbin na tržišču. IEC 61400-27-1 določa splošne pogoje in parametre za namene določitve električnih značilnosti vetrne turbine pri povezovalnih priključkih. Modeli so opisani na modularen način, ki ga je mogoče uporabiti za bodoče koncepte vetrnih turbin. Dinamični simulacijski modeli se nanašajo na priključke turbine. Postopek za overjanje, določen v standardu IEC 61400-27-1, se osredotoča na preskuse odzivov na upade napetosti, spremembe referenčnih točk in zaščito mreže iz standarda IEC 61400-21.
– IEC 61400-27-2 določa dinamične simulacijske modele za splošne topologije/konfiguracije na tržišču, vključno z nadzorom vetrne elektrarne in pomožno opremo. IEC 61400-27-2 poleg tega določa metodo za ustvarjanje modelov za bodoče konfiguracije vetrnih elektrarn. Modeli vetrnih elektrarn temeljijo na modelih vetrnih turbin, predpisanih v standardu IEC 61400-27-1. Električni simulacijski modeli, predpisani v standardu IEC 61400-27, niso odvisni od nobenega programskega orodja za simulacije.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Nov-2015
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Nov-2015
Due Date
10-Jan-2016
Completion Date
10-Nov-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
01-december-2015
9HWUQHWXUELQHGHO(OHNWULþQLVLPXODFLMVNLPRGHOL9HWUQHWXUELQH
Wind turbines - Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models - Wind turbines
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61400-27-1:2015
ICS:
27.180 Sistemi turbin na veter in Wind turbine systems and
drugi alternativni viri energije other alternative sources of
energy
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 61400-27-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2015
ICS 27.180
English Version
Wind turbines - Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models - Wind
turbines
(IEC 61400-27-1:2015)

Eoliennes - Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation électrique - Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-1: Elektrische

Eoliennes Simulationsmodelle - Windenergieanlagen
(IEC 61400-27-1:2015) (IEC 61400-27-1:2015)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2015-03-20. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 61400-27-1:2015 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
EN 61400-27-1:2015
European foreword

The text of document 88/510/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 61400-27-1, prepared by IEC TC 88 "Wind

turbines" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 61400-27-

1:2015.
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which the document has (dop) 2016-04-16
to be implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2018-03-20
• latest date by which the national
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61400-27-1:2015 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated:

IEC 61400-25 (Series) NOTE Harmonised as EN 61400-25 (Series).
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
EN 61400-27-1:2015
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050 series International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - series
IEC 61400-21 - Wind turbines -- Part 21: Measurement and EN 61400-21 -
assessment of power quality characteristics
of grid connected wind turbines
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
IEC 61400-27-1
Edition 1.0 2015-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Wind turbines –
Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models – Wind turbines
Eoliennes –
Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation électrique – Eoliennes
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-2226-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
– 2 – IEC 61400-27-1:2015  IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and subscripts ............................................................ 12

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 12

3.2 Abbreviations and subscripts ................................................................................ 17

3.2.1 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 17

3.2.2 Subscripts ..................................................................................................... 18

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 19

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

4.2 Symbols (units) ..................................................................................................... 19

5 Specification of models .................................................................................................. 21

5.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 21

5.2 General specifications ........................................................................................... 21

5.3 Model interface ..................................................................................................... 23

5.4 Parameters and initialisation ................................................................................. 24

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

5.4.2 Parameter categories .................................................................................... 24

5.4.3 Global parameters ......................................................................................... 24

5.4.4 Initialisation ................................................................................................... 24

5.5 Modular structure of models .................................................................................. 25

5.5.1 Generic modular structure ............................................................................. 25

5.5.2 Type 1 ........................................................................................................... 26

5.5.3 Type 2 ........................................................................................................... 28

5.5.4 Type 3 ........................................................................................................... 30

5.5.5 Type 4 ........................................................................................................... 33

5.6 Module library ....................................................................................................... 37

5.6.1 Aerodynamic models ..................................................................................... 37

5.6.2 Mechanical models ........................................................................................ 38

5.6.3 Generator set models .................................................................................... 39

5.6.4 Electrical equipment ...................................................................................... 44

5.6.5 Control models .............................................................................................. 44

5.6.6 Grid protection model .................................................................................... 55

6 Specification of validation procedure ............................................................................. 57

6.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 57

6.2 General specifications ........................................................................................... 58

6.3 Validation procedure ............................................................................................. 59

6.3.1 Voltage dips .................................................................................................. 59

6.3.2 Reference point changes ............................................................................... 64

6.3.3 Grid protection ............................................................................................... 64

Annex A (informative) Validation test documentation............................................................ 66

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 66

A.2 Simulation model and validation setup information ................................................ 66

A.3 Template for validation test results ....................................................................... 66

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SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
IEC 61400-27-1:2015  IEC 2015 – 3 –

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 66

A.3.2 Voltage dips .................................................................................................. 67

A.3.3 Reference point changes ............................................................................... 67

A.3.4 Grid protection ............................................................................................... 68

Annex B (normative) Limits to possible model accuracy ....................................................... 69

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 69

B.2 Inevitable simulation errors ................................................................................... 69

B.3 Measurement errors .............................................................................................. 69

Annex C (normative) Digital 2 order critically damped low pass filter ................................. 71

Annex D (informative) Simplified plant level model ............................................................... 72

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 72

D.2 Area of application ................................................................................................ 72

D.3 Voltage and reactive power controller model description ....................................... 72

D.4 Frequency and active power controller model description...................................... 74

Annex E (informative) Two-dimensional aerodynamic model ................................................ 76

E.1 Objective .............................................................................................................. 76

E.2 Model approach .................................................................................................... 76

E.3 Model parameter fits ............................................................................................. 77

E.4 Use cases ............................................................................................................. 80

E.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 80

E.4.2 Stability study use cases ............................................................................... 80

E.4.3 Validation use cases ...................................................................................... 80

E.5 Model initialisation at derated conditions ............................................................... 80

Annex F (informative) Generic Software Interface for use of models in different

software environments .......................................................................................................... 81

F.1 Description of the approach .................................................................................. 81

F.2 Description of the Software interface .................................................................... 82

F.2.1 Description of data structures ........................................................................ 82

F.2.2 Functions for communication through the ESE-interface ................................ 83

F.2.3 Inputs, Outputs, Parameters .......................................................................... 85

Annex G (normative) Block symbol library ............................................................................ 86

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 86

G.2 Time step delay .................................................................................................... 86

G.3 Stand-alone ramp rate limiter ................................................................................ 86

G.4 First order filter with absolute limits, rate limits and freeze flag ............................. 87

G.5 Lookup table ......................................................................................................... 88

G.6 Comparator ........................................................................................................... 88

G.7 Timer .................................................................................................................... 88

G.8 Anti windup integrator ........................................................................................... 89

G.9 Integrator with reset .............................................................................................. 90

G.10 First order filter with limitation detection ................................................................ 90

G.11 Delay flag ............................................................................................................. 91

G.12 Raising edge detection ......................................................................................... 91

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 93

Figure 1 – Classification of power system stability according to IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task

Force on Stability Terms and Definitions ................................................................................. 9

Figure 2 – Example of step response. ................................................................................... 15

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SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
– 4 – IEC 61400-27-1:2015  IEC 2015

Figure 3 – General interface between WT model, grid model and WP model ......................... 23

Figure 4 – General interface for initialisation of WT model, WP model and grid model. ......... 25

Figure 5 – Generic modular structure of WT models.............................................................. 26

Figure 6 – Main electrical and mechanical components of type 1 WTs .................................. 26

Figure 7 – Modular structure for the type 1A WT model......................................................... 27

Figure 8 – Modular structure for the type 1B WT model......................................................... 28

Figure 9 – Main electrical and mechanical components of type 2 WTs .................................. 29

Figure 10 – Modular structure for the type 2 WT model ......................................................... 29

Figure 11 – Modular structure for the type 2 control model .................................................... 30

Figure 12 – Main electrical and mechanical components of type 3 WTs ................................ 31

Figure 13 – Modular structure for the type 3 WT model ......................................................... 31

Figure 14 – Modular structure for the type 3 control models .................................................. 32

Figure 15 – Main electrical and mechanical components of type 4 WTs ................................ 33

Figure 16 – Modular structure for the type 4A WT model ....................................................... 34

Figure 17 – Modular structure for the type 4A control model ................................................. 34

Figure 18 – Modular structure for the type 4B WT model ....................................................... 35

Figure 19 – Modular structure for the type 4B control model ................................................. 36

Figure 20 – Block diagram for constant aerodynamic torque model ....................................... 37

Figure 21 – Block diagram for one-dimensional aerodynamic model ..................................... 37

Figure 22 – Block diagram for two-dimensional aerodynamic model ...................................... 38

Figure 23 – Block diagram for two mass model ..................................................................... 39

Figure 24 – Block diagram for type 3A generator set model .................................................. 40

Figure 25 – Block diagram for type 3B generator set model .................................................. 42

Figure 26 – Block diagram for type 4 generator set model ..................................................... 43

Figure 27 – Block diagram for the reference frame rotation model......................................... 44

Figure 28 – Block diagram for pitch control power model ...................................................... 45

Figure 29 – Block diagram for pitch angle control model ....................................................... 46

Figure 30 – Block diagram for rotor resistance control model ................................................ 47

Figure 31 – Block diagram for type 3 P control model ........................................................... 48

Figure 32 – Block diagram for type 3 torque PI ..................................................................... 49

Figure 33 – Block diagram for type 4A P control model ......................................................... 49

Figure 34 – Block diagram for type 4B P control model ......................................................... 50

Figure 35 – Block diagram for Q control model...................................................................... 52

Figure 36 – Block diagram for current limiter ......................................................................... 54

Figure 37 – Block diagram for constant Q limitation model .................................................... 54

Figure 38 – Block diagram for QP and QU limitation model ................................................... 55

Figure 39 – Block diagram for grid protection system ............................................................ 56

Figure 40 – Block diagram for u-f measurement .................................................................... 57

Figure 41 – Signal processing structure with "play-back" method applied. ............................. 60

Figure 42 – Signal processing structure with "full grid simulation" method applied. ............... 61

Figure 43 – Voltage dip windows........................................................................................... 63

Figure D.1 – Block diagram for WP reactive power controllers .............................................. 74

Figure D.2 – Block diagram for WP active power controller ................................................... 75

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SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
IEC 61400-27-1:2015  IEC 2015 – 5 –

Figure E.1 – Aerodynamic power as function of blade angle Θ and wind speed v ................. 77

Figure E.2 – Partial derivative of power with respect to rotor speed change

∂p /∂ω as function of blade angle Θ and wind speed v .............................................. 77

aero WTR

Figure E.3 – Partial derivative of power with respect to blade angle dp as function of

blade angle Θ ....................................................................................................................... 78

Figure E.4 – Partial derivative of power with respect to rotor speed change dp as

function of wind speed v for 1 p.u. (solid line) and 0,5 p.u. (dashed line) active power .......... 78

Figure E.5 – Approximation of aerodynamic power as function of wind speed ....................... 79

Figure E.6 – Approximation of the blade angle as function of wind speed ............................. 79

Figure F.1 – Sequence of Simulation on use of ESE-interface .............................................. 85

Figure G.1 – Block symbol for single integration time step delay ........................................... 86

Figure G.2 – Block symbol for stand-alone ramp rate limiter ................................................. 86

Figure G.3 – Block diagram for implementation of the stand-alone ramp rate limiter ............. 87

Figure G.4 – Block symbol for first order filter with absolute limits, rate limits and

freeze flag ............................................................................................................................ 87

Figure G.5 – Block diagram for implementation of the first order filter with absolute

limits, rate limits and freeze state.......................................................................................... 87

Figure G.6 – Block diagram for implementation of the freeze state without filter (T = 0) ......... 88

Figure G.7 – Block symbol for lookup table ........................................................................... 88

Figure G.8 – Block symbols for comparators ......................................................................... 88

Figure G.9 – Block symbol for timer ...................................................................................... 89

Figure G.10 – Function of timer ............................................................................................ 89

Figure G.11 – Block symbol for anti windup integrator .......................................................... 89

Figure G.12 – Block diagram for implementation of anti windup integrator ............................ 90

Figure G.13 – Block symbol for integrator with reset ............................................................. 90

Figure G.14 – Block symbol for first order filter with limitation detection ................................ 90

Figure G.15 – Block diagram for implementation of first order filter with limitation

detection ............................................................................................................................... 91

Figure G.16 – Block symbol for delay flag ............................................................................. 91

Figure G.17 – Block diagram for implementation of delay flag ............................................... 91

Figure G.18 – Block symbol raising edge detection ............................................................... 92

Figure G.19 – Block diagram for raising edge detection ........................................................ 92

Table 1 – Global WT model parameters ................................................................................ 24

Table 2 – Initialisation variable used explicitly in model block diagrams ................................ 25

Table 3 – Modules used in type 1A model ............................................................................. 27

Table 4 – Modules used in type 1B model ............................................................................. 28

Table 5 – Modules used in type 2 model ............................................................................... 30

Table 6 – Modules used in type 3 model ............................................................................... 32

Table 7 – Modules used in type 4A model ............................................................................. 35

Table 8 – Modules used in type 4B model ............................................................................. 36

Table 9 – Parameter list for one-dimensional aerodynamic model ......................................... 37

Table 10 – Parameter list for two-dimensional aerodynamic model ....................................... 37

Table 11 – Parameter list for two-mass model....................................................................... 39

Table 12 – Parameter list for type 3A generator set model .................................................... 40

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SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015
– 6 – IEC 61400-27-1:2015  IEC 2015

Table 13 – Parameter list for type 3B generator set model .................................................... 41

Table 14 – Parameter list for type 4 generator set model ...................................................... 43

Table 15 – Parameter list for reference frame rotation model ................................................ 43

Table 16 – Parameter list for pitch control power model ........................................................ 44

Table 17 – Parameter list for pitch angle control model ......................................................... 45

Table 18 – Parameter list for rotor resistance control model .................................................. 46

Table 19 – Parameter list for p control model type 3 ............................................................. 47

Table 20 – Parameter list for p control model type 4A ........................................................... 49

Table 21 – Parameter list for p control model type 4B ........................................................... 50

Table 22 – General WT Q control modes M ...................................................................... 50

Table 23 – UVRT Q control modes M ......................................................................... 51

qUVRT

Table 24 – Parameter list for q control model ........................................................................ 51

Table 25 – Description of F flag values ........................................................................ 53

UVRT

Table 26 – Parameter list for current limiter model ................................................................ 53

Table 27 – Parameter list for constant Q limitation model...................................................... 54

Table 28 – Parameter list for QP and QU limitation model ..................................................... 55

Table 29 – Parameter list for grid protection model ............................................................... 56

Table 30 – Windows applied for error calculations ................................................................ 63

Table A.1 – Required information about simulation model and validation setup ..................... 66

Table A.2 – Additional information required if full grid method is applied ............................... 66

Table A.3 – Validation summary for voltage dips ...............................................

...

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