Hydrogen fuel - Product specification and quality assurance - Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell applications for road vehicles

This European Standard specifies the quality characteristics of hydrogen fuel and the corresponding quality assurance in order to ensure uniformity of the hydrogen product as dispensed for utilisation in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell road vehicle systems.

Wasserstoff als Kraftstoff - Produktfestlegung und Qualitätssicherung - Protonenaustauschmembran (PEM) - Brennstoffzellenanwendungen für Straßenfahrzeuge

Dieses Dokument legt die Qualitätseigenschaften von Wasserstofftreibstoff und die zugehörige Qualitätssicherung fest, um eine Gleichförmigkeit des Wasserstoffprodukts sicherzustellen, das für die Nutzung in Fahrzeugsystemen mit Protonen-Austauschmembran-Brennstoffzellen (Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM) getankt wird.

Carburant hydrogène - Spécification de produit et assurance qualité - Applications des piles à combustible à membrane à échange de protons (MEP) pour les véhicules routier

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les caractéristiques de qualité du carburant hydrogène et l'assurance qualité correspondante, afin d'assurer l'uniformité du produit hydrogène tel que distribué pour une utilisation dans les systèmes de véhicules routiers à piles à combustible à membrane à échange de protons (MEP).

Vodik kot gorivo - Specifikacija izdelka in zagotavljanje kakovosti - Membrane za protonsko izmenjavo (PEM) - Gorivne celice za cestna vozila

Ta evropski standard določa kakovostne značilnosti vodika kot goriva in povezano zagotavljanje kakovosti za namene zagotavljanja enotnosti vodikovega izdelka za uporabo v sistemih cestnih vozil z gorivnimi celicami z membranami za protonsko izmenjavo (PEM).

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Aug-2017
Publication Date
11-Nov-2018
Withdrawal Date
16-Oct-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Oct-2022
Due Date
03-Nov-2022
Completion Date
17-Oct-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17124:2018
01-december-2018

Vodik kot gorivo - Specifikacija izdelka in zagotavljanje kakovosti - Membrane za

protonsko izmenjavo (PEM) - Gorivne celice za cestna vozila
Hydrogen fuel - Product specification and quality assurance - Proton exchange
membrane (PEM) fuel cell applications for road vehicles
Wasserstoff als Kraftstoff - Produktfestlegung und Qualitätssicherung -
Protonenaustauschmembran (PEM) - Brennstoffzellenanwendungen für
Straßenfahrzeuge

Carburant hydrogène - Spécification de produit et assurance qualité - Applications des

piles à combustible à membrane à échange de protons (MEP) pour les véhicules routier

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17124:2018
ICS:
27.075 Tehnologija vodika Hydrogen technologies
SIST EN 17124:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 17124:2018
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SIST EN 17124:2018
EN 17124
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.075; 71.100.20
English Version
Hydrogen fuel - Product specification and quality
assurance - Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell
applications for road vehicles

Carburant hydrogène - Spécification de produit et Wasserstoff als Kraftstoff - Produktfestlegung und

assurance qualité - Applications des piles à Qualitätssicherung - Protonenaustauschmembran

combustible à membrane à échange de protons (MEP) (PEM) - Brennstoffzellenanwendungen für

pour les véhicules routier Straßenfahrzeuge
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 May 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17124:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 17124:2018
EN 17124:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Hydrogen Quality Control Approaches ................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Sampling ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3 Monitoring ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Hydrogen Quality Assurance Methodology ........................................................................................... 8

6.1 General Requirements – Potential sources of impurities ................................................................ 8

6.2 Prescriptive Approach for Hydrogen Quality Assurance ................................................................. 8

6.3 Risk Assessment for Hydrogen and Quality Assurance .................................................................... 8

7 Routine Quality Control .............................................................................................................................. 12

8 Non-routine Quality Control ..................................................................................................................... 12

9 Non compliances ........................................................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Impact of impurities ...................................................................................................... 14

A.1 General .............................................................................................................................................................. 14

A.2 Inert Gases: Argon, Nitrogen ..................................................................................................................... 14

A.3 Oxygen............................................................................................................................................................... 14

A.4 Carbon Dioxide .............................................................................................................................................. 14

A.5 Carbon Monoxide .......................................................................................................................................... 14

A.6 Methane ............................................................................................................................................................ 15

A.7 Water ................................................................................................................................................................. 15

A.8 Total sulphur compounds .......................................................................................................................... 15

A.9 Ammonia .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

A.10 Total Hydrocarbons ..................................................................................................................................... 15

A.11 Formaldehyde ................................................................................................................................................ 16

A.12 Formic Acid ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

A.13 Halogenated Compounds ........................................................................................................................... 16

A.14 Helium ............................................................................................................................................................... 16

A.15 Solid and liquid particulates (Aerosols) ............................................................................................... 16

Annex B (informative) Example of Supply chain evaluation with regards to potential sources

of impurities ................................................................................................................................................... 18

B.1 Potential Sources of Impurities ............................................................................................................... 18

B.2 Production ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

B.2.1 General .............................................................................................................................................................. 18

B.2.2 Reforming ........................................................................................................................................................ 18

B.2.3 Alkaline Electrolysis .................................................................................................................................... 19

B.2.4 Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis ............................................................................... 19

B.2.5 Byproducts ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

B.2.6 New production methods ........................................................................................................................... 19

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B.3 Transportation .............................................................................................................................................. 20

B.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20

B.3.2 Pipeline ............................................................................................................................................................ 20

B.3.3 Filling centre and tube trailer .................................................................................................................. 20

B.4 HRS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 21

B.5 Special operations: Commissioning, Maintenance ........................................................................... 21

B.6 Particles ........................................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex C (informative) Example of Risk Assessment — Centralized production, pipeline

transportation ............................................................................................................................................... 22

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 30

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SIST EN 17124:2018
EN 17124:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17124:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 268 “Cryogenic

vessels and specific hydrogen technologies applications”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,

Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 17124:2018
EN 17124:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the quality characteristics of hydrogen fuel and the corresponding quality

assurance in order to ensure uniformity of the hydrogen product as dispensed for utilization in proton

exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell road vehicle systems.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
constituent
component (or compound) found within a hydrogen fuel mixture
3.2
contaminant

impurity that adversely affects the components within the fuel cell system or the hydrogen storage

system
Note 1 to entry: An adverse effect can be reversible or irreversible.
3.3
detection limit

lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance with a stated

confidence limit
3.4
determination limit
lowest quantity which can be measured at a given acceptable level of uncertainty
3.5
fuel cell system

power system used for the generation of electricity on a fuel cell vehicle, typically containing the following

subsystems: fuel cell stack, air processing, fuel processing, thermal management and water management

3.6
hydrogen fuel index
fraction or percentage of a fuel mixture that is hydrogen
3.7
irreversible effect

effect which results in a permanent degradation of the fuel cell power system performance that cannot

be restored by practical changes of operational conditions and/or gas composition

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EN 17124:2018 (E)
3.8
on-site fuel supply

hydrogen fuel supplying system with a hydrogen production system in the same site

3.9
off-site fuel supply

hydrogen fuel supplying system without a hydrogen production system in the same site, receiving

hydrogen fuel which is produced out of the site
3.10
particulate

solid or liquid particle (aerosol) that can be entrained somewhere in the delivery, storage, or transfer of

the hydrogen fuel
3.11
reversible effect

effect which results in a non-permanent degradation of the fuel cell power system performance that can

be restored by practical changes of operational conditions and/or gas composition

4 Requirements

The fuel quality requirements at the dispenser nozzle applicable to the aforementioned grades of

hydrogen fuel for PEM fuel cells in road vehicles shall meet the requirements of Table 1. The fuel

specifications are not process or feedstock specific. Non-listed contaminants have no guarantee of being

benign.
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EN 17124:2018 (E)

Table 1 — Fuel quality specifications for PEM fuel cell road vehicle applications

Constituent Characteristics
a 99,97 %
Hydrogen fuel index (minimum mole fraction)
Total non-hydrogen gases 300 μmol/mol
Maximum concentration of individual contaminants
Water (H O) 5 μmol/mol
b 2 μmol/mol
Total hydrocarbons (THC) (Excluding Methane)
Methane (CH ) 100 µmol/mol
Oxygen (O ) 5 μmol/mol
Helium (He) 300 μmol/mol
Nitrogen (N ) 300 μmol/mol
Argon (Ar) 300 μmol/mol
Carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 μmol/mol
c 0,2 μmol/mol
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Total sulphur compounds (H S basis) 0,004 μmol/mol
c 0,2 μmol/mol
Formaldehyde (HCHO)
c 0,2 μmol/mol
Formic acid (HCOOH)
Ammonia (NH ) 0,1 μmol/mol
d 0,05 μmol/mol
Halogenated compounds (Halogenate ion basis)
Maximum particulates concentration 1 mg/kg

For the constituents that are additive, such as total hydrocarbons and total sulphur

compounds, the sum of the constituents shall be less than or equal to the acceptable limit.

The hydrogen fuel index is determined by substracting the “total non-hydrogen gases” in this

table, expressed in mole percent, from 100 mol percent.

Total hydrocarbons include oxygenated organic species. Total hydrocarbons shall be measured

on a carbon basis (μmolC/mol).
Total of CO, HCHO, HCOOH shall not exceed 0,2 µmol/mol

All halogenated compounds which could potentially be in the hydrogen gas (for example,

hydrogen chloride (HCl), and organic halides (R-X)) should be determined according to the hydrogen

quality assurance discussed in Clause 6 and the sum shall be less than 0,05 µmol /mol).

5 Hydrogen Quality Control Approaches
5.1 General requirements

Quality verification requirements for the qualification tests shall be performed at the dispenser nozzle

under the applicable standardized sampling and analytical methods where available. Alternatively, the

quality verification requirements may be performed at other locations in accordance with the quality

assurance risk assessment.
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There are two kinds of quality control at a Hydrogen Refueling Stations (HRS): on line monitoring or off

line analysis after sampling. These methods can be used individually or together to ensure hydrogen

quality levels.
5.2 Sampling

Spot sampling at an HRS involves capturing a measured amount for chemical analysis. Sampling is used

to perform an accurate and comprehensive analysis of impurities, which is done externally, typically at a

laboratory. Since the sampling process involves drawing a gas sample, it is typically done on a periodic

basis and requires specialized sampling equipment and personnel to operate it. The sampling procedure

shall ensure and maintain the integrity of the sample.
NOTE ISO/TS 19880-1 includes recommendations for sampling procedure.
5.3 Monitoring

An HRS can have real time monitoring of the hydrogen gas stream for one or more impurities on a

continuous or semi-continuous basis. A critical impurity can be monitored to ensure it does not exceed a

critical level, or monitoring of canary species are used to alert of potential issues with the hydrogen

production or purification process. Monitoring equipment is installed in-line with the hydrogen gas

stream and shall meet the process requirements of the HRS, as well as be calibrated on a periodic basis.

6 Hydrogen Quality Assurance Methodology
6.1 General Requirements – Potential sources of impurities

For a given HRS, the contaminants listed in the hydrogen specification referred to Table 1 may or may

not be present. There are several parts of the supply chain where impurities can be introduced. Annex B

describes potential impurities at each step of the supply chain.

When a contaminant is classified as potentially present, it shall be taken into account in the Quality

Assurance methodology (risk assessment or prescriptive approach) described below.

6.2 Prescriptive Approach for Hydrogen Quality Assurance

A prescriptive approach can be applied for clearly identified supply chains. An approach to conducting a

quality analysis of the contaminants listed in Clause 5 is to consider the potential sources of

contaminants, and establish protocol for analysing potential contaminants.

Taking into account all existing hydrogen production methods, hydrogen transportation methods and

non-routine procedures, prescriptive quality assurance plan shall be determined.
6.3 Risk Assessment for Hydrogen and Quality Assurance

Risk assessment consists of identifying the probability of having each impurity above the threshold

values of specifications given in Table 1 and evaluating the severity of each impurity for the fuel cell car.

As an aid to clearly defining the risk(s) for risk assessment purposes, three fundamental questions are

often helpful:

— What might go wrong: which event could cause the impurities to be above the threshold value?

— What is the likelihood (probability of occurrence) that impurities could be above the threshold value?

— What are the consequences (severity) for the fuel cell car?

In doing an effective risk assessment, the robustness of the data set is important because it determines

the quality of the output. Revealing assumptions and reasonable sources of uncertainty will enhance

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confidence in this output and/or help identify its limitations. The output of the risk assessment is a

qualitative description of a range of risk. The probability of an occurrence in which each hydrogen

impurity exceeds the threshold value is defined by the following table of occurrence classes:

Table 2 — Occurrence classes for an impurity
Occurrence Class name Occurrence or frequency Occurrence or
class frequency
Very unlikely Contaminant above threshold
0 (Practically never been observed for this type Never
impossible) of source in the industry
Known to occur in the Industry
1 Very rare for the type of source/ Supply 1 per 1 000 000 refueling
chain considered
Has happened more than
2 Rare 1 per 100 000 refueling
once/year in the Industry
Has happened repeatedly for this
3 Possible type of source at a specific 1 out of 10 000 refueling
location
4 Frequent Happens on a regular basis Often
The range of severity level (level of damage for vehicle) is defined in Table 3:
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Table 3 — Severity levels for an impurity
Severity FCEV Performance impact or damage Impact categories
class
Performance Hardware Hardware
impact impact impact
temporary permanent
— No impact
0 No No No
— Minor impact
1 Yes No No
— Temporary loss of power
— No impact on hardware
— Car still operates
— Reversible damage
2 Yes or No Yes No
— Requires specific light maintenance
procedure
— Car still operates
— Reversible damage
3 Yes Yes No
— Requires specific immediate
maintenance procedure . Gradual
power loss that does not compromise
safety
— Irreversible damage
a Yes Yes Yes or No
— Requires major repair (e.g. stack
change)
— Power loss or Car Stop that
compromises safety

Any damage, whether permanent ornon-permanent, which compromises safety will be categorized as 4,

otherwise non-permanent damage will be categorized as 1, 2 or 3.

The severity level of each impurity shall be determined. Indeed, the impact on the car if each impurity

exceeds the threshold values given in Table 1 will depend on the concentration of the contaminant. The

following Table 4 shows the summary of the concentration based impact of the impurities on the fuel cell.

In the first two columns the contaminants with their chemical formulas are given. An estimate of the

exceeded concentration above the threshold value for each impurity is named “Level 1” and is given in

column 5. According to this concentration, a severity class is given in column 4 for each impurity. This

severity class covers the impact of this impurity above the threshold value up to this limit.

If higher concentrations that exceed Level 1 can be reached, the Severity Class is given in column 6.

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EN 17124:2018 (E)
Table 4 — Severity Classes (SC) — Impact of impurities on fuel cell powertrain
Impurity Threshold SC for impurity Level 1 SC for impurity
Value [ppm] concentration Value concentration greater
from threshold than Level 1
(Table 1) [ppm]
to level 1
Total non-H2 gases 300 Not applicable 300 4
Nitrogen and N2, Ar 300 Not applicable 300 4
Argon
Oxygen O2 5 No test data No test data Without test data for
available available proposed level 1 value
validation already SC 4
if Threshold exceeded
Carbon dioxide CO2 2 1 3 4
Carbon monoxide CO 0,2 2–3 1 4
Methane CH4 100 1 300 4
Water H2O 5 4 NA Already SC 4 if
Threshold exceeded
Total sulphur H2S basis 0,004 4 NA Already SC 4 if
compounds Threshold exceeded
Ammonia NH3 0,1 4 NA Already SC 4 Threshold
exceeded
Total CH4 basis 2 1–4 NA Already SC 4 if
hydrocarbons Threshold exceeded
Formaldehyde CH2O 0,2 2–3 1 4
Formic Acid CH2O2 0,2 2–3 1 4
Total carbon Σ CO, 0,2 2–3 1 4
monoxide, CH2O,
formaldehyde and CH O
2 2
formic acid
Total halogenated 0,05 4 NA Already SC 4 if
compounds Threshold exceeded
Helium He 300 Not applicable 300 4
Maximum 1 mg/kg 4 NA Already SC 4 if
particulates Threshold exceeded
concentration
(liquid and solid)
Threshold value according to the requirements in the hydrogen specification.

Higher value to be considered for risk assessment approach until more specific data are available.

The final risk is defined by Table 5, titled “Acceptability table”, and which combines both of the above

tables as follows:
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EN 17124:2018 (E)
Table 5 — Acceptability table
Severity
Occurrence 0 1 2 3 4
as the
combined
probabilities
occurrence
along the
whole supply
chain
Further investigations are
Acceptable risk area Unacceptable risk ;
needed: existing barriers
Key Existing controls additionnal control or
or control may not be
acceptable barriers are required
enough

For each impurity of the specification and for a given HRS (including the supply chain of hydrogen), a risk

assessment shall be applied to define the global risk. Risk control includes decision making to reduce

and/or accept risks. The purpose of risk control is to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. The amount

of effort used for risk control should be proportional to the significance of the risk. Decision makers might

use different processes, including a benefit-cost analysis, for understanding the optimal level of risk

control. Risk control might focus on the following questions:
— Is the risk above an acceptable level?
— What can be done to reduce or eliminate risks?
— What is the appropriate balance among benefits, risks and resources?

For each level of risk, decision shall be taken in order to either refuse the risk and then find mitigation or

barriers to reduce it, or accept the risk level as it is. Risk reduction focuses on processes for mitigation or

avoidance of quality risks when it exceeds an acceptable level (yellow or red zone in Table 5). Risk

reduction might include actions taken to mitigate the severity and/or probability of occurrence.

An example of such approach is given in Annex C.
7 Routine Quality Control

Routine analysis is performed on a periodic basis once every specified time period or once for each lot or

batch. The methodology selected in hydrogen quality assurance plan determines the type and frequency

of the routine analysis. A prescriptive methodology may be used as described in 6.2 or a risk assessment

methodology may be used as described in 6.3. Information on the routine analysis for each step of the

supply chain is provided in Annex B.
8 Non-routine Quality Control

The hydrogen quality plan shall identify any non-routine conditions and subsequent required actions.

Some common non-routine conditions include the following:

— a new production system is constructed at a production site or a new HRS is first commissioned;

— the production system at a production site or HRS is modified;
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— a routine or non-routine open inspection, repair, catalyst exchange, or the like is performed on a

production system at the production site or HRS;

— a question concerning quality is raised when, for example, there is a problem with a vehicle because

of hydrogen supplied at the production site or HRS, and a claim is received from a user directly or

indirectly;

— an issue concerning quality emerges when, for example, a voluntary audit raises the possibility that

quality control is not administered properly;
— analysis is deemed necessary for testing, research or any other purposes;

— after any severe malfunctions of transportation system of compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen

and hydrogen pipeline.
9 Non compliances

In case of quality control showing results not compliant with table under Article 5, proper action shall be

taken by the operator to prevent further out of specification H refuelling of the vehicles.

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EN 17124:2018 (E)
Annex A
(informative)
Impact of impurities
A.1 General

The following chapter gives a brief description of the impact of impurities on the stack, fuel cell

components and the complete fuel cell powertrain. Detai
...

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