Graphic technology - Quantification and communication for calculating the carbon footprint of e-media

ISO 20294 specifies the requirements for quantifying the carbon footprint of those processes, materials and technologies within the user's knowledge and control that are necessary for the delivery and use of e-media. It covers requirements to account for e-media archiving, distribution, use and storage. It is based on a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, using defined system boundaries and a specified functional unit as the basis for complete or partial carbon footprinting studies. These data can be referenced throughout supply chains for individual e-media products. This document is applicable to a carbon footprint of a product (CFP) study of e-media regarding contents and e-media devices. This document provides a framework for carbon calculators that organisations can follow and that can be used as the structure for market- or sector-specific carbon footprinting tools. Studies and tools constructed within this framework methodology provide carbon footprint quantifications of e-media that can be validated, verified and provide reference for future studies. This document does not assess any social or economic aspects or impacts, or any other environmental aspects and related impacts potentially arising from the life cycle of a product.

Technologie graphique - Quantification et communication pour calculer l'empreinte carbone des médias électroniques

Grafična tehnologija - Kvantifikacija in komunikacija pri vrednotenju ogljičnega odtisa e-medijev

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Mar-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Feb-2020
Due Date
03-May-2020
Completion Date
11-Mar-2020

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20294
First edition
2018-11
Graphic technology — Quantification
and communication for calculating the
carbon footprint of e-media
Technologie graphique — Quantification et communication pour
calculer l'empreinte carbone des médias électroniques
Reference number
ISO 20294:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20294:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20294:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to carbon footprint ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms relating to greenhouse gases ..................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ............................................................................................................................. 3

3.4 Terms relating to organisations and consumers ....................................................................................................... 4

3.5 Terms relating to electronic media ........................................................................................................................................ 5

3.6 Terms relating to electronic media delivery .................................................................................................................. 6

3.7 Terms relating to information and communication technology .................................................................. 6

4 Principles for carbon footprint quantification ..................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Life cycle perspective ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3 Relative approach and functional unit ................................................................................................................................ 7

4.4 Relevance ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Completeness ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.6 Consistency ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.7 Accuracy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.8 Transparency ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.9 Assumptions for content use ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.10 Avoidance of double counting .................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.11 Implementation criteria .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.12 Uncertainty ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1 General Requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Goal and scope ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 LCA carbon footprint .................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.3 System boundary ..........................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.4 Scope of e-media carbon footprint studies ............................................................................................10

5.2.5 Life cycle stages..............................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 System boundary definitions ...................................................................................................................................................11

5.4 Time boundary for data ...............................................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Carbon footprint quantification of life-cycle stages .............................................................................................12

5.5.1 Inventory analysis ........................................................................................................................................................12

5.5.2 Data collection for each life-cycle stage ....................................................................................................12

5.5.3 General requirements applied to all stages ...........................................................................................13

5.5.4 Production stage for contents ...........................................................................................................................16

5.5.5 Distribution stage for contents (optional) ..............................................................................................16

5.5.6 Use stage for contents ..............................................................................................................................................16

5.5.7 Production stage for e-media devices ........................................................................................................17

5.5.8 Distribution stage for e-media devices ......................................................................................................17

5.5.9 Use stage for e-media devices ...........................................................................................................................17

5.5.10 End-of-life stage for e-media devices (optional) ...............................................................................18

6 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2 Documentation requirements.................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.2 Reporting requirements .........................................................................................................................................18

6.3 Interpretation of the carbon footprint of a product ............................................................................................19

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 20294:2018(E)

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.2 Life cycle interpretation phase .........................................................................................................................19

6.3.3 Allocation method .......................................................................................................................................................19

7 Communication requirements ............................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2 Interpretation and comparison .............................................................................................................................................20

7.3 Product definitions and product category rules ....................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Inventory analysis of input criteria used to define the product profile ..........21

Annex B (normative) Operations and materials in processes and data collection

itemswithin the system boundary...................................................................................................................................................22

Annex C (normative) Allocation method regarding e-media devices .............................................................................24

Annex D (informative) Method regarding the number of downloads .............................................................................26

Annex E (informative) Calculation examples ............................................................................................................................................27

Annex F (normative) Information to be included in e-media carbon footprint comparisons ..............28

Annex G (normative) Limitations of the CFP .............................................................................................................................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20294:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared jointly by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology and

Technical Committee IEC/TC 100, Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment. The draft was

circulated for voting to the national bodies of both ISO and IEC.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 20294:2018(E)
Introduction

Reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is central to the mitigation of climate change

(see Annex A), considered to be arising from natural and anthropogenic activities. Specificity and

consistency in calculating GHG emission values is important for governments, non-governmental

organisations (NGOs), industry and consumers involved in climate change discussions and policy

development. Global markets and financial interests demand transparency and there is no common

model used for carbon footprint studies, which leads to confusion and misinformation: data sets are

very difficult to compare if they are calculated using different models and criteria. The publishing

industry and associated industries [manufacturers of electronic media (e-media) devices, servers,

networks, cloud-based data management systems and digital content developers] have made progress

in recent years as the reach of digital technology has extended to all parts of society and commerce

across the globe. However, it is extremely difficult to track and quantify emissions associated with

e-media.

Standards can provide a common model that minimises variability and complexity and provides the

market with a method for developing tools that are easy to use and that follow a common methodology.

The results of carbon footprint studies can be used to provide the basis of a data corpus that

governments, NGOs, industry, and media consumers and specifiers can use for reference to further

refine carbon footprinting processes. These data must be gathered using tools which use a consistent

calculation method and must be accurate, defensible and trustworthy. This document is intended as a

first step towards subsequent work that can provide such assurance. It is a framework for calculating

and communicating the carbon footprint of examples of e-media and follows an equivalent methodology

to that outlined in ISO 16759.

This document is a starting point, taking the first steps towards developing accurate and comprehensive

carbon footprint data for examples of e-media. It is important to understand that we are at the

beginning of a process that will take years to stabilize, define and implement fully. What we can achieve

now is necessarily primitive because of the lack of data, practice and plural experience. Over time,

carbon footprint studies will create a body of sector-specific data. Capturing all of the data associated

with e-media products is currently extremely difficult because e-media data products exist only in

digital form. They can be used in many contexts and viewed on many different devices, so their carbon

footprint can be substantial, even though it bears no relation to the value of the content. To understand

the environmental impact of e-media, a framework methodology for capturing carbon footprint data is

required as a starting point for consistent carbon footprint calculations over time.

This document has been developed to provide such a model for e-media, including the tools required

to access the data and devices on which e-media are stored for streamed or downloaded use. It

references the delivery devices and the data components that together deliver electronic content to

end users. It is written for manufacturers of electronic e-media devices, servers, networks, cloud-

based data management systems, digital content developers, consumers, related industry associations

and providers of carbon footprinting tools. It offers a program-neutral method for calculating and

communicating the carbon footprint of e-media content products, based on calculated carbon dioxide

equivalent (CO e) values, for the single impact category of climate change. Life span is distinguished

from life cycle because digital data do not reach end of life. Digital data (contents) are perpetual;

however, digital data (contents) also have a life span during which time they are viable and usable, and

after which they are generally stored or deleted. This single criteria approach provides the foundation

for future work addressing multi-criteria impacts which assess all potential impacts that e-media can

have on the environment.

Multi-criteria calculations based on all four phases of life cycle assessment (LCA), as outlined in

ISO 14040, are not within the scope of this document. Further information for conducting LCA is

outlined in ISO 14044. This document also references IEC/TR 62921, a quantification methodology for

GHG emissions for computers and monitors, developed as part of international efforts to provide GHG

calculation guidance for electronic products. According to IEC/TR 62921, quantification of the carbon

footprint of e-media content products requires a defined goal and scope for the carbon footprint of a

product (CFP) study. IEC/TR 62921 also requires a specification of the system boundaries and process

inventory as the basis for calculations. It allows for calculations of the whole or partial life span of

vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20294:2018(E)

contents and the life cycle of e-media devices, while e-media are constituted of contents and e-media

devices. The life span is assessed using the same method as LCA.

This document provides the foundation to develop calculation models that will increase over time in

consistency, transparency, robustness and accountability for e-media carbon footprint quantifications

and their communication. It can provide the following benefits to companies:

— enables accountable and transparent carbon footprint information to be obtained for all parties in

the supply chain, including consumers and media buyers;

— enables consistency in carbon footprint calculator design, to aid relevance and applicability for

different e-media product sectors and geographies;

— provides e-media publishers, distributors, buyers and consumers with a means of quantifying

and communicating the carbon footprint of e-media using a common methodology and defined

boundaries;

— encourages media buyers and consumers of e-media to make informed media investment, purchase

and usage decisions, using information validated with calculation, communication and reporting

tools that are consistent with this document;

— facilitates continuous monitoring of the carbon footprint of e-media as part of their overall

environmental impact, and encourages constant improvement;
— provides reliable and consistent CO emissions data for e-media;

— provides a model for gathering e-media data for emissions management and reduction;

— provides a model for data assumptions for media usage;
— can be used as part of GHG emissions management;
— facilitates performance tracking and progress in GHG emissions reduction.

This document includes examples of carbon footprint studies and guidance for communicating and

verifying carbon footprint information to device developers, content creators, distributors, publishers,

consumers, industry and any other interested parties.

Use of this document facilitates the calculation of the carbon footprint of e-media products and similar

digital content delivered digitally to an electronic device such as a desktop computer, laptop, tablet,

smartphone, e-reader or equivalent electronic device. Its principles can be extended to all digitally

delivered media, including movies and audio and are not restricted to media that are alternatives to print.

Where the results of a carbon footprint study for e-media are intended to be communicated to

businesses and consumers, the communication should follow standards of completeness as defined

here and in other ISO standards, such as ISO 14020.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20294:2018(E)
Graphic technology — Quantification and communication
for calculating the carbon footprint of e-media
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for quantifying the carbon footprint of those processes,

materials and technologies within the user's knowledge and control that are necessary for the delivery

and use of e-media. It covers requirements to account for e-media archiving, distribution, use and

storage. It is based on a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, using defined system boundaries and a

specified functional unit as the basis for complete or partial carbon footprinting studies. These data

can be referenced throughout supply chains for individual e-media products.

This document is applicable to a carbon footprint of a product (CFP) study of e-media regarding contents

and e-media devices.

This document provides a framework for carbon calculators that organisations can follow and that

can be used as the structure for market- or sector-specific carbon footprinting tools. Studies and tools

constructed within this framework methodology provide carbon footprint quantifications of e-media

that can be validated, verified and provide reference for future studies.

This document does not assess any social or economic aspects or impacts, or any other environmental

aspects and related impacts potentially arising from the life cycle of a product.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms relating to carbon footprint
3.1.1
carbon footprint

net amount of GHG emissions (3.2.4) and GHG removals, expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents (3.2.2)

3.1.2
carbon footprint of a product
CFP
carbon footprint (3.1.1) of a product system (3.1.3)
3.1.3
product system

collection of processes with elementary and product flows performing one or more defined functions

and which models the life cycle (3.3.5) of a product
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 20294:2018(E)
3.1.4
product category rules
PCR

set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for developing Type III environmental declarations

and footprint communications for one or more product categories
3.1.5
comprehensive carbon footprint

product-specific carbon footprint (3.1.1) that includes the carbon impacts for each component and

process in the life cycle (3.3.5) of a product
3.1.6
streamlined carbon footprint

product-specific carbon footprint (3.1.1) that includes simplified calculations of the carbon impacts for

each component and process in the life cycle (3.3.5) of a product
3.2 Terms relating to greenhouse gases
3.2.1
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits

radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's

surface, the atmosphere and clouds

Note 1 to entry: Water vapour and ozone are also anthropogenic as well as natural GHGs but are not included as

recognized GHGs due to difficulties in calculating their global warming potential (3.2.3).

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006, 2.1, modified — the original Note has been removed and Notes 1 and 2 to

entry have been added.]
3.2.2
carbon dioxide equivalent
CO equivalent
CO e

unit for comparing the radiative force of a GHG (3.2.1) to that of carbon dioxide

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.2, modified — the Notes have been removed]
3.2.3
global warming potential
GWP

index, based on radiative properties of GHGs (3.2.1), measuring the radiative forcing following a pulse

emission of a unit mass of a given GHG in the present-day atmosphere integrated over a chosen time

horizon, relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO )
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.4, modified.]
3.2.4
greenhouse gas emission
GHG emission
release of a GHG (3.2.1)into the atmosphere
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.5, modified.]
3.2.5
greenhouse gas emission factor
GHG emission factor
coefficient relating activity data with the GHG emission (3.2.4)
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 20294:2018(E)
3.2.6
greenhouse gas source
GHG source
mechanical or natural process that releases a GHG (3.2.1) into the atmosphere

EXAMPLE Electrical energy use where the electrical energy has been created from fossil fuel resources.

3.3 Terms relating to life cycle assessment
3.3.1
allocation method

method by which inputs and outputs are allocated to different examples of e-media (3.5.1)

3.3.2
energy

sources of GHG emissions (3.2.4) used for the provision and use of the product during its life cycle (3.3.5)

3.3.3
functional unit

quantified and defined single iteration of an example of e-media (3.5.1), for use as a reference unit in a

CFP (3.1.2) study
EXAMPLE A single download of an e-book to an e-media device.

[SOURCE: ISO 16759:2013, 3.3.5, modified — In the definition “a printed product” has been replaced by

“e-media” and a new example has been provided.]
3.3.4
interpretation

process of explaining the results of a life cycle assessment (3.3.6) such that it is relevant to the goal and

scope of a CFP (3.1.2) study
3.3.5
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages related to a product from raw material acquisition or generation

from natural resources to end-of-life treatment

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.5.2, modified — definition revised and Note 1 to entry deleted.]

3.3.6
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product

system (3.1.3) throughout its life cycle (3.3.5)
3.3.7
life cycle inventory analys
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 20294:2020
01-april-2020
Grafična tehnologija - Kvantifikacija in komunikacija pri vrednotenju ogljičnega
odtisa e-medijev
Graphic technology - Quantification and communication for calculating the carbon
footprint of e-media

Technologie graphique - Quantification et communication pour calculer l'empreinte

carbone des médias électroniques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 20294:2018
ICS:
13.020.60 Življenjski ciklusi izdelkov Product life-cycles
37.100.01 Grafična tehnologija na Graphic technology in
splošno general
SIST ISO 20294:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20294:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20294:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20294
First edition
2018-11
Graphic technology — Quantification
and communication for calculating the
carbon footprint of e-media
Technologie graphique — Quantification et communication pour
calculer l'empreinte carbone des médias électroniques
Reference number
ISO 20294:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20294:2020
ISO 20294:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20294:2020
ISO 20294:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to carbon footprint ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms relating to greenhouse gases ..................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ............................................................................................................................. 3

3.4 Terms relating to organisations and consumers ....................................................................................................... 4

3.5 Terms relating to electronic media ........................................................................................................................................ 5

3.6 Terms relating to electronic media delivery .................................................................................................................. 6

3.7 Terms relating to information and communication technology .................................................................. 6

4 Principles for carbon footprint quantification ..................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Life cycle perspective ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3 Relative approach and functional unit ................................................................................................................................ 7

4.4 Relevance ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Completeness ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.6 Consistency ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.7 Accuracy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.8 Transparency ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.9 Assumptions for content use ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.10 Avoidance of double counting .................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.11 Implementation criteria .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.12 Uncertainty ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1 General Requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Goal and scope ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 LCA carbon footprint .................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.3 System boundary ..........................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.4 Scope of e-media carbon footprint studies ............................................................................................10

5.2.5 Life cycle stages..............................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 System boundary definitions ...................................................................................................................................................11

5.4 Time boundary for data ...............................................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Carbon footprint quantification of life-cycle stages .............................................................................................12

5.5.1 Inventory analysis ........................................................................................................................................................12

5.5.2 Data collection for each life-cycle stage ....................................................................................................12

5.5.3 General requirements applied to all stages ...........................................................................................13

5.5.4 Production stage for contents ...........................................................................................................................16

5.5.5 Distribution stage for contents (optional) ..............................................................................................16

5.5.6 Use stage for contents ..............................................................................................................................................16

5.5.7 Production stage for e-media devices ........................................................................................................17

5.5.8 Distribution stage for e-media devices ......................................................................................................17

5.5.9 Use stage for e-media devices ...........................................................................................................................17

5.5.10 End-of-life stage for e-media devices (optional) ...............................................................................18

6 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2 Documentation requirements.................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.2 Reporting requirements .........................................................................................................................................18

6.3 Interpretation of the carbon footprint of a product ............................................................................................19

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20294:2020
ISO 20294:2018(E)

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.2 Life cycle interpretation phase .........................................................................................................................19

6.3.3 Allocation method .......................................................................................................................................................19

7 Communication requirements ............................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2 Interpretation and comparison .............................................................................................................................................20

7.3 Product definitions and product category rules ....................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Inventory analysis of input criteria used to define the product profile ..........21

Annex B (normative) Operations and materials in processes and data collection

itemswithin the system boundary...................................................................................................................................................22

Annex C (normative) Allocation method regarding e-media devices .............................................................................24

Annex D (informative) Method regarding the number of downloads .............................................................................26

Annex E (informative) Calculation examples ............................................................................................................................................27

Annex F (normative) Information to be included in e-media carbon footprint comparisons ..............28

Annex G (normative) Limitations of the CFP .............................................................................................................................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20294:2020
ISO 20294:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared jointly by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology and

Technical Committee IEC/TC 100, Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment. The draft was

circulated for voting to the national bodies of both ISO and IEC.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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Introduction

Reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is central to the mitigation of climate change

(see Annex A), considered to be arising from natural and anthropogenic activities. Specificity and

consistency in calculating GHG emission values is important for governments, non-governmental

organisations (NGOs), industry and consumers involved in climate change discussions and policy

development. Global markets and financial interests demand transparency and there is no common

model used for carbon footprint studies, which leads to confusion and misinformation: data sets are

very difficult to compare if they are calculated using different models and criteria. The publishing

industry and associated industries [manufacturers of electronic media (e-media) devices, servers,

networks, cloud-based data management systems and digital content developers] have made progress

in recent years as the reach of digital technology has extended to all parts of society and commerce

across the globe. However, it is extremely difficult to track and quantify emissions associated with

e-media.

Standards can provide a common model that minimises variability and complexity and provides the

market with a method for developing tools that are easy to use and that follow a common methodology.

The results of carbon footprint studies can be used to provide the basis of a data corpus that

governments, NGOs, industry, and media consumers and specifiers can use for reference to further

refine carbon footprinting processes. These data must be gathered using tools which use a consistent

calculation method and must be accurate, defensible and trustworthy. This document is intended as a

first step towards subsequent work that can provide such assurance. It is a framework for calculating

and communicating the carbon footprint of examples of e-media and follows an equivalent methodology

to that outlined in ISO 16759.

This document is a starting point, taking the first steps towards developing accurate and comprehensive

carbon footprint data for examples of e-media. It is important to understand that we are at the

beginning of a process that will take years to stabilize, define and implement fully. What we can achieve

now is necessarily primitive because of the lack of data, practice and plural experience. Over time,

carbon footprint studies will create a body of sector-specific data. Capturing all of the data associated

with e-media products is currently extremely difficult because e-media data products exist only in

digital form. They can be used in many contexts and viewed on many different devices, so their carbon

footprint can be substantial, even though it bears no relation to the value of the content. To understand

the environmental impact of e-media, a framework methodology for capturing carbon footprint data is

required as a starting point for consistent carbon footprint calculations over time.

This document has been developed to provide such a model for e-media, including the tools required

to access the data and devices on which e-media are stored for streamed or downloaded use. It

references the delivery devices and the data components that together deliver electronic content to

end users. It is written for manufacturers of electronic e-media devices, servers, networks, cloud-

based data management systems, digital content developers, consumers, related industry associations

and providers of carbon footprinting tools. It offers a program-neutral method for calculating and

communicating the carbon footprint of e-media content products, based on calculated carbon dioxide

equivalent (CO e) values, for the single impact category of climate change. Life span is distinguished

from life cycle because digital data do not reach end of life. Digital data (contents) are perpetual;

however, digital data (contents) also have a life span during which time they are viable and usable, and

after which they are generally stored or deleted. This single criteria approach provides the foundation

for future work addressing multi-criteria impacts which assess all potential impacts that e-media can

have on the environment.

Multi-criteria calculations based on all four phases of life cycle assessment (LCA), as outlined in

ISO 14040, are not within the scope of this document. Further information for conducting LCA is

outlined in ISO 14044. This document also references IEC/TR 62921, a quantification methodology for

GHG emissions for computers and monitors, developed as part of international efforts to provide GHG

calculation guidance for electronic products. According to IEC/TR 62921, quantification of the carbon

footprint of e-media content products requires a defined goal and scope for the carbon footprint of a

product (CFP) study. IEC/TR 62921 also requires a specification of the system boundaries and process

inventory as the basis for calculations. It allows for calculations of the whole or partial life span of

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contents and the life cycle of e-media devices, while e-media are constituted of contents and e-media

devices. The life span is assessed using the same method as LCA.

This document provides the foundation to develop calculation models that will increase over time in

consistency, transparency, robustness and accountability for e-media carbon footprint quantifications

and their communication. It can provide the following benefits to companies:

— enables accountable and transparent carbon footprint information to be obtained for all parties in

the supply chain, including consumers and media buyers;

— enables consistency in carbon footprint calculator design, to aid relevance and applicability for

different e-media product sectors and geographies;

— provides e-media publishers, distributors, buyers and consumers with a means of quantifying

and communicating the carbon footprint of e-media using a common methodology and defined

boundaries;

— encourages media buyers and consumers of e-media to make informed media investment, purchase

and usage decisions, using information validated with calculation, communication and reporting

tools that are consistent with this document;

— facilitates continuous monitoring of the carbon footprint of e-media as part of their overall

environmental impact, and encourages constant improvement;
— provides reliable and consistent CO emissions data for e-media;

— provides a model for gathering e-media data for emissions management and reduction;

— provides a model for data assumptions for media usage;
— can be used as part of GHG emissions management;
— facilitates performance tracking and progress in GHG emissions reduction.

This document includes examples of carbon footprint studies and guidance for communicating and

verifying carbon footprint information to device developers, content creators, distributors, publishers,

consumers, industry and any other interested parties.

Use of this document facilitates the calculation of the carbon footprint of e-media products and similar

digital content delivered digitally to an electronic device such as a desktop computer, laptop, tablet,

smartphone, e-reader or equivalent electronic device. Its principles can be extended to all digitally

delivered media, including movies and audio and are not restricted to media that are alternatives to print.

Where the results of a carbon footprint study for e-media are intended to be communicated to

businesses and consumers, the communication should follow standards of completeness as defined

here and in other ISO standards, such as ISO 14020.
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Graphic technology — Quantification and communication
for calculating the carbon footprint of e-media
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for quantifying the carbon footprint of those processes,

materials and technologies within the user's knowledge and control that are necessary for the delivery

and use of e-media. It covers requirements to account for e-media archiving, distribution, use and

storage. It is based on a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, using defined system boundaries and a

specified functional unit as the basis for complete or partial carbon footprinting studies. These data

can be referenced throughout supply chains for individual e-media products.

This document is applicable to a carbon footprint of a product (CFP) study of e-media regarding contents

and e-media devices.

This document provides a framework for carbon calculators that organisations can follow and that

can be used as the structure for market- or sector-specific carbon footprinting tools. Studies and tools

constructed within this framework methodology provide carbon footprint quantifications of e-media

that can be validated, verified and provide reference for future studies.

This document does not assess any social or economic aspects or impacts, or any other environmental

aspects and related impacts potentially arising from the life cycle of a product.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms relating to carbon footprint
3.1.1
carbon footprint

net amount of GHG emissions (3.2.4) and GHG removals, expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents (3.2.2)

3.1.2
carbon footprint of a product
CFP
carbon footprint (3.1.1) of a product system (3.1.3)
3.1.3
product system

collection of processes with elementary and product flows performing one or more defined functions

and which models the life cycle (3.3.5) of a product
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3.1.4
product category rules
PCR

set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for developing Type III environmental declarations

and footprint communications for one or more product categories
3.1.5
comprehensive carbon footprint

product-specific carbon footprint (3.1.1) that includes the carbon impacts for each component and

process in the life cycle (3.3.5) of a product
3.1.6
streamlined carbon footprint

product-specific carbon footprint (3.1.1) that includes simplified calculations of the carbon impacts for

each component and process in the life cycle (3.3.5) of a product
3.2 Terms relating to greenhouse gases
3.2.1
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits

radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's

surface, the atmosphere and clouds

Note 1 to entry: Water vapour and ozone are also anthropogenic as well as natural GHGs but are not included as

recognized GHGs due to difficulties in calculating their global warming potential (3.2.3).

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006, 2.1, modified — the original Note has been removed and Notes 1 and 2 to

entry have been added.]
3.2.2
carbon dioxide equivalent
CO equivalent
CO e

unit for comparing the radiative force of a GHG (3.2.1) to that of carbon dioxide

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.2, modified — the Notes have been removed]
3.2.3
global warming potential
GWP

index, based on radiative properties of GHGs (3.2.1), measuring the radiative forcing following a pulse

emission of a unit mass of a given GHG in the present-day atmosphere integrated over a chosen time

horizon, relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO )
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.4, modified.]
3.2.4
greenhouse gas emission
GHG emission
release of a GHG (3.2.1)into the atmosphere
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.5, modified.]
3.2.5
greenhouse gas emission factor
GHG emission factor
coefficient relating activity data with the GHG emission (3.2.4)
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3.2.6
greenhouse gas source
GHG source
mechanical or natural process that releases a GHG (3.2.1) into the atmosphere

EXAMPLE Electrical energy use where the electrical energy has been created from fossil fuel resources.

3.3 Terms relating to life cycle assessment
3.3.1
allocation method

method by which inputs and outputs are allocated to different examples of e-media (3.5.1)

3.3.2
ener
...

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