Space product assurance - Durability testing of coatings and surface finishes

This standard specifies requirements for the durability testing of coatings most commonly used for space applications, i.e.:
-   Thin film optical coatings
-   Thermo-optical and thermal control coatings (the majority are paints, metallic deposits and coatings for stray light reduction)
-   Metallic coatings for other applications (RF, electrical, corrosion protection)
This standard covers testing for both ground and in-orbit phases of a space mission, mainly for satellite applications.
This standard applies to coatings within off the shelf items
This standard specifies the types of test to be performed for each class of coating, covering the different phases of a space project (evaluation, qualification and acceptance)
This standard does not cover:
-   The particular qualification requirements for a specific mission
-   Specific applications of coatings for launchers (e.g. high temperature coatings)
-   Specific functional testing requirements for the different coating classes
-   Test requirements for long term storage
-   Solar cell cover glass coatings
-   Surface treatments and conformal coatings applied on EEE parts

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Dauerhaftigkeitsprüfung von Beschichtungen und Oberflächenbehandlungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Test de résistance pour les traitements et les finitions de surfaces

Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Preskušanje trajnosti prevlek in površinske apreture

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
05-Sep-2018
Publication Date
19-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Apr-2020
Due Date
14-Jun-2020
Completion Date
20-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
01-junij-2020
Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Preskušanje trajnosti
prevlek in površinske apreture
Space product assurance - Durability testing of coatings and surface finishes
Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Dauerhaftigkeitsprüfung von Beschichtungen und
Oberflächenbehandlungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Test de résistance pour les traitements et les

finitions de surfaces
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-17:2020
ICS:
03.120.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo quality
49.040 Prevleke in z njimi povezani Coatings and related
postopki, ki se uporabljajo v processes used in aerospace
letalski in vesoljski industriji industry
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16602-70-17
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2020
ICS 49.040; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Durability testing of coatings
and surface finishes

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Essais de Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Dauerhaftigkeitsprüfung

durabilité des revêtements et finitions de surface von Beschichtungen und Oberflächenbehandlungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 December 2019.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16602-70-17:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 5

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 6

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................. 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................ 9

3.1 Terms from other standards ...................................................................................... 9

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ..................................................................... 9

3.3 Abbreviated terms..................................................................................................... 9

3.4 Conventions............................................................................................................ 10

3.5 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 10

4 Principles .............................................................................................................. 12

4.1 General test approach ............................................................................................ 12

4.2 Categories of use ................................................................................................... 12

4.3 Coating classes ...................................................................................................... 13

4.3.1 Links to other standards ............................................................................ 13

4.3.2 Thin film optical coatings ........................................................................... 13

4.3.3 Thermo-optical and thermal control coatings (TCC) .................................. 14

4.3.4 Other metallic coatings .............................................................................. 15

4.4 Test philosophy ...................................................................................................... 15

4.5 Sample description ................................................................................................. 17

4.5.1 Evaluation phase ...................................................................................... 17

4.5.2 Qualification phase.................................................................................... 17

4.5.3 Production phase ...................................................................................... 18

5 Test programme ................................................................................................... 19

5.1 Evaluation ............................................................................................................... 19

5.2 Qualification ............................................................................................................ 19

5.3 Production .............................................................................................................. 22

5.4 Sample definition for a test programme .................................................................. 23

5.5 Handling and storage of qualification samples ........................................................ 23

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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)

5.6 Test acceptance criteria .......................................................................................... 24

6 Test methods, conditions and measurements ................................................... 25

6.1 Visual inspection ..................................................................................................... 25

6.2 Adhesion ................................................................................................................ 25

6.3 Humidity and temperature ....................................................................................... 26

6.4 Thermal vacuum and cycling .................................................................................. 27

6.5 Cleaning and solvent compatibility .......................................................................... 28

6.6 Abrasion ................................................................................................................. 29

6.7 Particle and UV Radiation ....................................................................................... 29

6.8 Thickness measurement ......................................................................................... 30

6.9 Surface resistivity and ESD .................................................................................... 30

7 Quality assurance ................................................................................................. 31

7.1 Documentation ....................................................................................................... 31

7.2 Maintenance of process qualification ...................................................................... 31

Annex A (normative) Coating qualification test plan - DRD ................................. 32

A.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 32

A.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ...................................... 32

A.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................... 32

A.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 32

A.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 32

A.2.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 32

Annex B (normative) Coating qualification test report - DRD .............................. 33

B.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 33

B.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ......................................... 33

B.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................... 33

B.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 33

B.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 33

B.2.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 34

Annex C (normative) Coating acceptance test report - DRD ............................... 35

C.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 35

C.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ......................................... 35

C.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................... 35

C.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 35

C.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 35

C.2.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 35

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EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)

Annex D (informative) Additional information about test methods .................... 36

D.1 Functional performance testing ............................................................................... 36

D.2 Humidity ................................................................................................................. 37

D.3 Thermal cycling ...................................................................................................... 37

D.4 Thermal endurance (ageing) ................................................................................... 38

D.5 Outgassing ............................................................................................................. 38

D.6 Particle and UV Radiation ....................................................................................... 38

D.7 Atomic oxygen ........................................................................................................ 39

D.8 Air-vacuum testing .................................................................................................. 39

D.9 Laser induced damage testing ................................................................................ 39

D.10 Contamination effects ............................................................................................. 40

D.11 Solar illumination .................................................................................................... 40

Annex E (informative) Tape strengths and type for adhesion testing ................ 41

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 42

Figures

Figure 4-1: Test philosophy for durability testing of coatings ................................................ 15

Tables

Table 4-1: Other ECSS standards covering the manufacture and acceptance testing of

different coating classes ..................................................................................... 13

Table 4-2: Main types of optical coatings (adapted from ISO 9211-1:2010 definitions) ......... 14

Table 5-1:Test matrix for qualification of optical coatings ...................................................... 20

Table 5-2:Test Matrix for qualification of TCC coatings ........................................................ 21

Table 5-3:Test matrix for qualification of thick metallic coatings for RF and electrical

applications, and corrosion protection coatings .................................................. 22

Table 5-4:Test Matrix for Production of Optical Coatings ...................................................... 23

: Typical performance testing ............................................................................... 36

: Typical tapes used for adhesion testing of space coatings ................................. 41

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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
European Foreword

This document (EN 16602-70-17:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5

“Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN (Germany).
This document (EN 16602-70-17:2020) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-17C.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will therefore have

precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.:

aerospace).

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Introduction
Many different environmental factors can have an effect on coating durability

for space applications. This includes in-orbit effects such as thermal cycling and

particle radiation, as well as ground based effects such as cleaning,
contamination and humidity. Space projects have typically been free to choose
their own test requirements, based on a combination of existing standards and
specific requirements for a given project. This approach can lead to ambiguous
definitions about when a coating is “space qualified”. The supplier and
customer often re-negotiate very general aspects of coating qualification for
each new project. The intention of the present standard is to capture the best

practice across the large range of existing national and international standards,

in order to specify a minimum set of durability requirements for coating use in
space applications. Information is also provided about some mission specific

tests (including the atomic oxygen test, thermal ageing test, air-vacuum test and

solar illumination test).
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Scope
This standard specifies requirements for the durability testing of coatings most
commonly used for space applications, i.e.:
• Thin film optical coatings
• Thermo-optical and thermal control coatings (the majority are paints,
metallic deposits and coatings for stray light reduction)
• Metallic coatings for other applications (RF, electrical, corrosion
protection)
This standard covers testing for both ground and in-orbit phases of a space
mission.
This standard includes coatings within off the shelf items
This standard specifies the types of test to be performed for each class of
coating, covering the different phases of a space project (evaluation,
qualification and acceptance)
This standard does not cover:
• The particular qualification requirements for a specific mission
• Specific functional testing requirements for the different coating classes
• Test requirements for long term storage
• Solar cell cover glass coatings
• Surface treatments and conformal coatings applied on EEE parts

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions of

the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system – Glossary of terms
EN 16603-10-12 ECSS-E-ST-10-12 Space engineering – Method for the calculation of
radiation received and its effects, and a policy for
design margins

EN 16602-70-03 ECSS-Q-ST-70-03 Space product assurance- Black anodizing of metals

with inorganic dyes

EN 16602-70-31 ECSS-Q-ST-70-31 Space product assurance- Application of paints and

coatings on space hardware
ISO 9211-4:2012 Optics and photonics – Optical coatings. Part 4:
Specific test methods
ISO 2409:2007 Paints and varnishes: Cross cut test
ISO 4524-5:1985 Metallic coatings – Test methods for electrodeposited
gold and gold alloy coatings – Part 5: Adhesion tests
ISO 3696:1987 Water for analytical laboratory use— Specification
and test methods
ASTM B571-18 Standard practice for qualitative adhesion testing of
metallic coatings
ASTM D1193-06(2011) Standard specification for reagent water
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other standards
a. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-
ST-00-01 apply, in particular for the following term:
1. qualification
b. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-E-
ST-10-12 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. total ionising dose (TID)
2. total non-ionising dose (TNID)
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 coating lot
set of substrates to which a coating is applied at the same time using the same
chamber, bath or other equipment
Can also be called “coating run” or “coating
batch”.
3.2.2 sample repair
localised re-application of a coating
3.2.3 sample de-treat or re-treat
complete removal and re-application of a coating onto an existing substrate
3.3 Abbreviated terms
For the purpose of this Standard, the abbreviated terms and symbols from
ECSS-S-ST-00-01 and the following apply:
Abbreviation Meaning
electrostatic discharge
ESD
geometrically representative model
GRM
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Abbreviation Meaning
identification
isopropylalcohol
IPA
indium tin oxide
ITO
laser induced damage
LID
laser induced contamination
LIC
methyl ethyl ketone
MEK
nonconformance
quality assurance
radio frequency
thermal control coatings
TCC
total ionising dose
TID
total non-ionising dose
TNID
technology readiness level
TRL
ultraviolet
vacuum ultraviolet
VUV
3.4 Conventions
Coating process qualification is equivalent to the ECSS-Q-ST-70 meaning of
process verification.
3.5 Nomenclature
The following nomenclature applies throughout this document:
a. The word “shall” is used in this Standard to express requirements. All
the requirements are expressed with the word “shall”.
b. The word “should” is used in this Standard to express recommendations.
All the recommendations are expressed with the word “should”.
It is expected that, during tailoring,
recommendations in this document are either
converted into requirements or tailored out.
c. The words “may” and “need not” are used in this Standard to express
positive and negative permissions, respectively. All the positive
permissions are expressed with the word “may”. All the negative
permissions are expressed with the words “need not”.
d. The word “can” is used in this Standard to express capabilities or
possibilities, and therefore, if not accompanied by one of the previous
words, it implies descriptive text.
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
In ECSS “may” and “can” have completely
different meanings: “may” is normative
(permission), and “can” is descriptive.
e. The present and past tenses are used in this Standard to express
statements of fact, and therefore they imply descriptive text.
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Principles
4.1 General test approach
This standard gives a minimum set of tests to validate the coating process and
also to give some meaningful results about exposure of the coating in its
operating environment. However, full qualification of the coating for a specific
space mission depends on the mission parameters, and it can be also necessary
to define additional tests which are beyond the scope of the standard.
The practical severity of any test listed can be limited by the substrate (for
example, it is not possible to perform the humidity test on hygroscopic
substrates).
The tests are subdivided into degrees of severity, where appropriate. The
standard gives condensed specification about the test method only. The full test
procedure can be taken from appropriate international standards, or can be
specified by mutual agreement between customer and supplier.
An individual test performed on a one-test-on-one-sample basis can give

information about that single property of a coating reflected by that test and can

be particularly useful for the supplier. In reality, coatings face a variety and
range of severity of environmental exposures, and this is simulated by certain
test sequences. Inevitably, such test sequences represent accumulative
requirements.
4.2 Categories of use
For the space applications covered by this standard, the on-ground
environment for all coatings is generally the same. The coatings are exposed
only to a controlled environment (e.g. inside a cleanroom) and the coatings can
be subjected to mild abrasion such as occurs with carefully controlled cleaning.

In-orbit, the following categories of use are specified in order to determine the

severity of testing:
• Category A: Coating is within a sealed, pressurised unit
• Category B: Coating is exposed to vacuum but shielded inside spacecraft
• Category C: Coating is exposed to vacuum with view to space
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
4.3 Coating classes
4.3.1 Links to other standards
For the present standard, the coatings are classified according to the type of
durability testing. Technical requirements for the manufacture and acceptance

testing of different coatings are also specified in various other ECSS standards.

The link with the present standard is shown in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1: Other ECSS standards covering the manufacture and acceptance testing
of different coating classes
Standard Coating class according to
ECSS-Q-ST-70-17

ECSS-Q-ST-70-03 “Black anodising of metals with in-organic Thermo-optical and thermal

dyes” control

ECSS-Q-ST-70-31 “Application of paints on space hardware” Thermo-optical and thermal

control
ECSS-Q-ST-70-14 “Corrosion” Corrosion protection coatings
ECSS-Q-ST-70-71 “Data for the selection of space materials”
Anodizing Thermo-optical and thermal
control
Platings:
<1 μm Test as for optical coatings
>1 μm Thick metallic deposit
ECSS-E-ST-32-08 “Materials”
Anodizing Thermo-optical and thermal
control
Metallic coatings Thick metallic deposits
Hard coatings N/A
Thermal barriers, moisture barriers, coatings on CFRP N/A
4.3.2 Thin film optical coatings
An optical coating is composed of a combination of thin film layers used to
enhance transmission or reflection properties within an optical system. The
performance of an optical coating is dependent on the number of layers, the

thickness of the individual layers and the refractive index difference at the layer

interfaces, and the properties of the substrate.

Optical coatings can be specified according to the function i.e. according to the

nature of the principal modification to the surface properties that they realise.

The main types of optical coating are identified in Table 4-2.
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
Table 4-2: Main types of optical coatings (adapted from ISO 9211-1:2010
definitions)
Principle function Definition Example of application
Coating increases the Telescope mirror
Reflecting
reflectance of an optical surface
Coating reduces the reflectance Coating on an instrument
Anti-reflecting
of an optical surface entrance window
Coating separating the Partial reflector
Beam splitting
incidence flux into two beams
Coating reducing the Neutral density filter
Attenuating
transmittance in non-selective
manner
Coating modifying the Filter for imaging instrument
Bandpass or band rejection
transmittance in a selective
filter
manner
Coating dividing the incidence Dichroic mirror, near infrared
Selecting or combining long
flux into two or more beams cut-off filter
pass or short pass
each one covering a limited
spectral region
Coating controlling the state of Polarizer
Polarizing
polarization of the emergent
electromagnetic radiation
Coating controlling the phase Phase retarder
Phase changing
change of the emergent
electromagnetic radiation
relative to the incident radiation
Coating absorbing a specified Light trap
Absorbing
value of the incident flux
4.3.3 Thermo-optical and thermal control coatings
(TCC)
TCCs are the elements of passive and active temperature control systems for
temperature regulation of spacecraft. The thermal control coatings can be
classified as follows:
• Type I: true absorber (αs →1, ε →1);
• Type II: solar reflector (αs →0, ε →1);
• Type III: solar absorber (αs →1, ε →0);
• Type IV: true reflector (αs →0, ε →0).
Examples of typical TCC coatings are:
• Paints
• Metallic coatings (e.g. for radiators)
• Coatings for stray light reduction (e.g. black anodization)
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
4.3.4 Other metallic coatings
This class of coatings covers metallic coatings generally thicker than 1 μm. For
example, this type of coating can be used for RF applications, electrical
applications and corrosion protection.
4.4 Test philosophy
The overall test philosophy for any class of coating is depicted in Figure 4-1.
Supplier
Coating already qualified? yes
no:
evaluation needed
New Delta
Re-qualification
qualification qualification
Manufacturing of Manufacturing of delta Manufacturing of re-
qualification hardware* qualification hardware* qualification hardware*
Reduced test
Full test programme
programme
Test report
Production
Manufacturing of flight part
and in-process samples**
Lot acceptance
tests
* Representative samples or flight representative part
* Representative samples or flight representative part
** Increased control on first article produced for recurrent production
** Increased control on first article produced for recurrent production
Figure 4-1: Test philosophy for durability testing of coatings
In the Figure 4-1, the following project phases are specified:
a. Evaluation
1. First approach to characterise new coatings at TRL 1 – 3 (see ECSS-
E-AS-11)
2. Reduced test programme
- Relevant standards - Relevant standards
- Project specifications - Project specifications
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SIST EN 16602-70-17:2020
EN 16602-70-17:2020 (E)
3. Early screening to intercept weak coating befo
...

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