Road infrastructure - Automated vehicle interactions - Reference Framework Release 1

This document provides the current road equipment suppliers’ visions and their associated short term and medium-term priority deployment scenarios. Potential functional/operational standardization issues enabling a safe interaction of road equipment/infrastructure with automated vehicles in a consistent and interoperable way are identified. This is paving the way for a deeper analysis of standardization actions which are necessary for the deployment of priority short-time applications and use cases.
This deeper analysis will be done at the level of each priority application/use case by identifying existing standards to be used, standards gaps/overlaps and new standards to be developed to support this deployment.
The release 1 is focusing on short-term (2022 to 2027) and medium-term deployment. Further releases will update this initial vision according to short term deployment reality.
The objectives of this document are to:
-   Support the TC 226 and its WG12 work through the development of a common vision of the roles and responsibilities of a modern, smart road infrastructure in the context of the automated vehicle deployment from SAE level 1 to SAE level 5. The roles and responsibilities of the road infrastructure are related to its level of intelligence provided by functions and data being managed at its level.
-   Promote the road equipment suppliers and partners visions associated to their short-term and medium- term priorities to European SDOs and European Union with the goal of having available relevant, consistent standards sets enabling the identified priority deployment scenarios.
NOTE   Road equipment/infrastructure includes the physical reality as its digital representation (digital twin). Both need to present a real time consistency.

Straßeninfrastruktur - Bezugsrahmen für die Interaktion automatisierter Fahrzeuge

Interactions Infrastructure routière - Véhicule automatisé : Cadre de référence Version 1

Le présent document présente les visions actuelles des fournisseurs d’équipements de la route et leurs scénarios de déploiement prioritaires à court et moyen terme associés. Les problèmes potentiels liés à la normalisation fonctionnelle / opérationnelle permettant des interactions sûres entre les équipements de la route / l’infrastructure routière et les véhicules automatisés de manière cohérente et interopérable sont identifiés. Cela ouvre la voie à une analyse plus approfondie des actions de normalisation nécessaires au déploiement d’applications et de cas d’utilisation prioritaires à court terme.
Cette analyse plus approfondie sera réalisée au niveau de chaque application/cas d’utilisation prioritaire en identifiant les normes existantes à utiliser, les lacunes / recoupements des normes et les nouvelles normes à élaborer pour accompagner ce déploiement.
La version 1 est axée sur le déploiement à court terme (2022 à 2027) et moyen terme. D’autres versions mettront à jour cette vision initiale en fonction de la réalité du déploiement à court terme.
Les objectifs de ce rapport technique sont les suivants :
   Soutenir le comité technique TC 226 et son groupe de travail WG12 dans le développement d’une vision commune des rôles et des responsabilités d’une infrastructure routière moderne et intelligente dans le contexte du déploiement des véhicules automatisés de niveaux SAE 1 à 5. Les rôles et responsabilités de l’infrastructure routière sont liés au niveau d’intelligence que lui confèrent les fonctions et les données gérées à son niveau.
   Promouvoir les visions des partenaires et fournisseurs d’équipements de la route associées à leurs priorités à court et moyen terme auprès des SDO européens et de l’Union européenne dans le but de disposer d’ensembles de normes pertinents et cohérents permettant la mise en œuvre des scénarios de déploiement prioritaires identifiés.
Note :   Les équipements de la route et l’infrastructure routière comprennent la réalité physique sous la forme de sa représentation numérique (jumeau numérique). Les deux doivent présenter une cohérence en temps réel.

Cestna infrastruktura - Avtomatizirane interakcije vozil - Referenčni okvir, različica 1

Ta dokument podaja trenutne vizije dobaviteljev opreme za ceste ter njihove kratkoročne in srednjeročne prednostne scenarije uvajanja, povezane s tem. Opredeljene so potencialne težave s funkcionalno/operativno standardizacijo, ki omogoča varno interakcijo med opremo za ceste/cestno infrastrukturo in avtomatiziranimi vozili na skladen in interoperabilen način. To omogoča za izčrpnejšo analizo standardizacijskih ukrepov, ki so potrebni za uvedbo prednostnih kratkoročnih aplikacij in primerov uporabe.
Ta izčrpnejša analiza bo opravljena na ravni vsake prednostne aplikacije/primera uporabe z opredelitvijo obstoječih standardov, ki jih je treba uporabiti, vrzeli/prekrivanja standardov in novih standardov, ki bi jih bilo treba razviti za podporo pri tem uvajanju.
1. izdaja se osredotoča na kratkoročno (2022–2027) in srednjeročno uvajanje. Nadaljnje izdaje bodo prvotno vizijo posodobile ob upoštevanju dejanskega poteka kratkoročnega uvajanja.
Namen tega dokumenta je:
–   podpreti TC 226 in delo povezane skupine WG12 z oblikovanjem skupne vizije vlog in odgovornosti sodobne, pametne cestne infrastrukture v kontekstu uvajanja avtomatiziranih vozil od stopnje SAE 1 do stopnje SAE 5. Vloge in odgovornosti cestne infrastrukture so povezane z njeno stopnjo inteligence, ki jo zagotavljajo funkcije in podatki, ki se upravljajo na njeni ravni;
–   spodbujati vizije dobaviteljev opreme za ceste in partnerjev, povezane z njihovimi kratkoročnimi in srednjeročnimi prednostnimi nalogami, pri evropskih organizacijah za razvoj standardov in Evropski uniji, da bi zagotovili ustrezne in dosledne sklope standardov, ki bi omogočili razvoj opredeljenih prednostnih scenarijev uvajanja.
OPOMBA:   Oprema za ceste/cestna infrastruktura vključuje fizično realnost kot digitalni prikaz (digitalni dvojček). Oboje mora biti usklajeno v realnem času.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Apr-2022
Publication Date
23-Aug-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Aug-2022
Due Date
10-Oct-2022
Completion Date
24-Aug-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17828:2022
01-september-2022

Cestna infrastruktura - Avtomatizirane interakcije vozil - Referenčni okvir, različica

Road infrastructure - Automated vehicle interactions - Reference Framework Release 1

Straßeninfrastruktur - Bezugsrahmen für die Interaktion automatisierter Fahrzeuge

Interactions Infrastructure routière - Véhicule automatisé : Cadre de référence Version 1

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17828:2022
ICS:
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
prometu
43.020 Cestna vozila na splošno Road vehicles in general
93.080.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
cestnim inženiringom road engineering
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17828:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17828:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17828:2022
CEN/TR 17828
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
June 2022
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 35.240.60; 43.020; 93.080.99
English Version
Road infrastructure - Automated vehicle interactions -
Reference Framework Release 1

Interactions Infrastructures routières - Véhicules Straßeninfrastruktur - Bezugsrahmen für die

automatisés - Cadre de référence Interaktion automatisierter Fahrzeuge

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 6 June 2022. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 226.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17828:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................ 8

4 Common basic principles ........................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 Intelligent Transport System in CEN TC 226 ....................................................................................... 10

4.2 ITS interactions ............................................................................................................................................. 10

4.3 Operational Design Domain ...................................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Road infrastructure capabilities ............................................................................................................. 12

4.5 Sustainability principles ............................................................................................................................ 12

4.6 Deployment scenario ................................................................................................................................... 14

4.7 Hybrid environment .................................................................................................................................... 15

4.8 Functional safety/redundancy principles ........................................................................................... 15

5 Functional distribution and interactions ............................................................................................. 16

5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 16

5.2 Road infrastructure – Vehicles: autonomous interactions for improved road safety ......... 17

5.3 Road infrastructure – automated vehicles cooperative interactions ........................................ 20

5.4 Road infrastructure – automated vehicles model-based interactions ...................................... 22

5.5 Road infrastructure – automated vehicles interactions fusion ................................................... 23

6 Operational interactions ............................................................................................................................ 28

6.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 28

6.2 System interoperability .............................................................................................................................. 28

6.3 System performances .................................................................................................................................. 28

6.4 System functional safety ............................................................................................................................. 29

6.5 System scalability ......................................................................................................................................... 30

7 Applications and use cases under investigation. ............................................................................... 30

7.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

7.2 Accurate, complete digital map as a digital mean for automated vehicle navigation.......... 30

7.3 Dynamic navigation for automated vehicles ...................................................................................... 31

7.4 Contextual dedicated corridor management ...................................................................................... 32

7.5 Automated parking management and vehicle valet ........................................................................ 32

7.6 Road infrastructure support for VRU safety ....................................................................................... 33

7.7 Road infrastructure support for platoon management .................................................................. 33

7.8 Vehicles distribution ................................................................................................................................... 34

7.9 Intersection crossing assistance. ............................................................................................................ 35

7.10 Approaching a tolling barrier ................................................................................................................... 36

7.11 Collision avoidance consecutive to the traffic code violation ....................................................... 36

7.12 Vehicle interception ..................................................................................................................................... 37

7.13 Public road lighting control ...................................................................................................................... 37

7.14 Energy distribution for automated vehicles ....................................................................................... 37

7.15 Probe vehicles data collection.................................................................................................................. 38

7.16 Integration of C-ITS in public warning systems ................................................................................. 38

7.17 Various POI...................................................................................................................................................... 38

7.18 On demand automated vehicles .............................................................................................................. 39

8 Summary of deployment scenarios priorities .................................................................................... 39

8.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 39

8.2 A few guiding rules for the filling of the priority inquiry ............................................................... 39

8.3 Analysis of the inquiry results ................................................................................................................. 42

8.4 Synthesis of the deployment scenarios priorities result ................................................................ 43

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9 Long-term evolution .................................................................................................................................... 45

10 Economic & organizational potential impacts ................................................................................... 46

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 46

10.2 Roles and responsibilities ......................................................................................................................... 46

10.3 Organizational impacts .............................................................................................................................. 46

10.4 Economic impacts ......................................................................................................................................... 49

11 Projected standardization approaches for identified priority applications........................... 50

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 50

11.2 Contextual, dedicated corridor management .................................................................................... 50

11.3 Road infrastructure support for VRUs safety ..................................................................................... 50

11.4 Parking management .................................................................................................................................. 51

11.5 Vehicles’ distribution .................................................................................................................................. 51

11.6 Approaching a tolling barrier .................................................................................................................. 51

11.7 Accurate digital map .................................................................................................................................... 52

11.8 Dynamic navigation ..................................................................................................................................... 52

11.9 Intersection crossing assist....................................................................................................................... 52

11.10 Platooning ....................................................................................................................................................... 53

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 54

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17828:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 226 “Road

equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This document provides a pre-standardization study for the road infrastructure – automated vehicle

interactions which will be used by WG12 as a reference framework for the development of other pre-

standardization studies.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.
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Introduction

A shared general vision between the main stakeholders which are involved in the development and

deployment of automated vehicles is that their complexity requires a constant effort to converge toward

safe, interoperable solutions.

This complexity is related to the considered mobility environment, in terms of road topography, traffic

and weather conditions, human behaviour, vehicle diversity, etc.

This led these main stakeholders to think that it is necessary, in a certain number of situations, to provide

some forms of cooperation between the roadside infrastructure (road equipment) and automated

vehicles.

Such necessity is reinforced through the fact that the deployment of automated vehicles will be

progressive, leading to a heterogeneous mix of different levels of automated vehicles from not automated

in-service vehicles (SAE level 0) to fully automated vehicles (SAE levels 4 &5).

This cooperation will require different forms of interactions between the road equipment and the

embedded ADAS of automated vehicles. These interactions should be reliable and secure in such a way to

be fault tolerant during the fulfilment of the main functions of the automated vehicle. This latest

constraint means that system redundancy will be a key element ensuring the required functional safety

of the system.
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1 Scope

This document provides the current road equipment suppliers’ visions and their associated short term

and medium-term priority deployment scenarios. Potential functional/operational standardization

issues enabling a safe interaction of road equipment/infrastructure with automated vehicles in a

consistent and interoperable way are identified. This is paving the way for a deeper analysis of

standardization actions which are necessary for the deployment of priority short-time applications and

use cases.

This deeper analysis will be done at the level of each priority application/use case by identifying existing

standards to be used, standards gaps/overlaps and new standards to be developed to support this

deployment.

The release 1 is focusing on short-term (2022 to 2027) and medium-term deployment. Further releases

will update this initial vision according to short term deployment reality.
The objectives of this document are to:

— Support the TC 226 and its WG12 work through the development of a common vision of the roles and

responsibilities of a modern, smart road infrastructure in the context of the automated vehicle

deployment from SAE level 1 to SAE level 5. The roles and responsibilities of the road infrastructure

are related to its level of intelligence provided by functions and data being managed at its level.

— Promote the road equipment suppliers’ and partners’ visions associated to their short-term and

medium- term priorities to European SDOs and the European Union with the goal of having available

relevant, consistent standards sets enabling the identified priority deployment scenarios.

NOTE Road equipment/infrastructure includes the physical reality as its digital representation (digital twin).

Both need to present a real time consistency.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following terms, definitions and abbreviated terms apply.

3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
use case

specific situation describing stakeholders’ interactions which illustrate the execution of one or several

customers’ service(s) via support applications

Note 1 to entry: The stakeholders’ interactions are represented via standardized exchanges between elements

constituting the Intelligent Transport System (ITS).
3.1.2
user

equipped or un-equipped road user such as drivers, vulnerable road users and suppliers which are

themselves accessing services provided by a private or public organization
3.1.3
personal ITS-S
ITS-S in a nomadic ITS sub-system in the context of a portable device
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3.1.4
traffic scenario

possible behavioural of a use case situation in the form of a sequence of events that affect the mobility

and safety with respect to the initial situation

Note 1 to entry: Scenario is defined in terms of the positioning of a User and other road users, environmental

situations, the system equipment, and any obstacles and environmental conditions hampering the detectability of

the User, the behavioural relations and communication performance of the ITS system. Therefore, the sequence of

events includes road user activities, movement of obstacles, and changes in the conditions that affect the VRU safety

with respect to the initial situation.
3.1.5
deployment scenarios

main steps to be followed to deploy and manage a functionally and operationally specified system during

its whole life cycle, starting with the system installation and commissioning and finishing with its

recycling

Note 1 to entry: If the system is a new one, its compatibility with existing legacy systems needs to be considered.

3.1.6
manoeuvres

specific and recognized movements bringing an actor, e.g. vulnerable road user, vehicle or any other form

of transport, from one position to another with a given velocity (dynamic)
3.1.7
traffic conflict

situation involving two or more moving users or vehicles approaching each other in such a way that a

traffic collision would ensue unless at least one of the users or vehicles performs an emergency

manoeuvre
Note 1 to entry: Traffic conflicts are defined by the following parameters:
— traffic conflict point (time and space) where the trajectories intersect,

— time-to-collision, distance-to-collision, post-encroachment time, and angle of conflict.

3.1.8
road

way allowing the passage of vehicles, people and/or animals that is made of none, one or a combination

of the following lanes: driving lane, bicycle lane and sidewalk
3.1.9
vehicle

road vehicle designed to legally carry people or cargo on public roads and highways such as busses, cars,

trucks, vans, motor homes, and motorcycles

Note 1 to entry: This does not include motor driven vehicles not approved for use of the road, such as forklifts or

marine vehicles.
3.1.10
vru
non-motorized road users as well as L class of vehicles

Note 1 to entry: L class of vehicles are defined in Annex I of EU Regulation 168/2013.

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CEN/TR 17828:2022 (E)
3.1.11
vru-s

ensemble of ITS stations interacting with each other to support VRU user cases, e.g. personal ITS-S, vehicle

ITS-S, roadside ITS-S or Central ITS-S
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ACC Adaptive Cruise Control
ADAS Advanced Driving Assistance System
AEBS Advanced Emergency Braking System
CACC Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control
CAM Cooperative Awareness Message
CCAM Cooperative, Connected Automated Mobility
CDA Cooperative Driving Automation
CEDR Conférence Européenne des Directeurs de Routes
CPM Collaborative Perception Message
CPS Collaborative Perception Service
C-ITS Cooperative ITS
CMC Connected Motorcycle Consortium
C2C-CC Car to Car Communication Consortium
DENM Decentralized Environmental Notification Message
DDT Dynamic Driving Task
FMECA Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis
GLOSA Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
ISAD Infrastructure Support levels for Automated Driving
ITS Intelligent Transport System
ITS-S ITS Station
IVI In Vehicle Information
IVIM Infrastructure to Vehicle Information Message
LDM Local Dynamic Map
LTCA Long Term Certificate Administration
MANTRA Making full use of Automation for National Road Transport Authorities
MAP Map
MCO: Multi Channel Operation
MCM Manoeuvre Coordination Message
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MCS Manoeuvre Coordination Service
ODD Operational Design Domain
PAC V2X Perception Augmented by Cooperation V2X
PCA Pseudonyms Certificates Administration
POI Point Of Interest
POTI Position and Time management
ROI Return On Investment
RSU Roadside Unit
RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime services
RTCMEM RTCM Extended Message
RTK Real Time Kinematic
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SDO Standards Development Organization
SPaT Signal Phase and Timing
STF: Specialist Task Force
TCU Telematic Control Unit
TTC Time-To-Collision
TVRA Threat Vulnerability Risk Analysis
V2I Vehicle to Infrastructure
V2V Vehicle to Vehicle
V2X Vehicle to X
VAM VRU Awareness Message
VBS VRU Awareness Basic Service
VITS-S Vehicle ITS Station
VRU Vulnerable Road Users
VRU-S Vulnerable Road User System
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4 Common basic principles
4.1 Intelligent Transport System in CEN TC 226

According to the European Commission ITS Directive (2010/40/EU), Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

are advanced applications which without embodying intelligence as such aim to provide innovative

services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be

better informed and make safer, more coordinated and "smarter" use of transport networks.

ITS integrate telecommunications, electronics and information technologies with transport engineering

in order to plan, operate, maintain and manage transport systems.

The TC 226 WG12 is focusing on the road interaction- ADAS / Automated vehicles, meaning that the

considered ITS is composed of at least two elements: The road infrastructure and the automated vehicle

(including its ADAS) which are interacting together.

The inclusion of automated vehicle in ITS leads automatically to the design and development of innovative

services as such system elements are not yet deployed. The automated vehicle standardization is already

considered in CEN TC 278, ETSI TC ITS and ISO TC 204 which are all focusing on ITS.

It is then the object of this WG12 to work on the identification of these innovative services, their selection

and the associated standardization needs in strong liaisons with the on-going ITS standardization work.

4.2 ITS interactions

An ITS may exhibit several types of interactions which are relevant to all TC 226 WGs. These types of

interactions are relative of the functional distribution of the information technologies, data and

communication means:

The road may be passive, not embodying some information technology. Examples are the horizontal

marking or the vertical signs. However, even such a passive road is designed with a lot of human

intelligence. In this case, the interactions with automated vehicles' embedded ADAS are mainly achieved

by the vehicle itself using some relevant sensors (ADAS: for example, cameras, radars, lidars). In this case,

advanced applications will analyse the collected perception data of the vehicle for automatically, safely

guiding it.

Mobile objects (e.g. vehicles, Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs), obstacles, etc.) can also be passively

perceived by vehicle sensors and then processed by advanced applications for collision avoidance

purposes.

The road infrastructure and mobile objects may be equipped with electronic devices, information

processing and telecommunication technologies enabling them to interact and cooperate via standard

communication protocols and information exchanges (standard message sets).

Several interaction capabilities are existing at the level of automated vehicles (see Figure 1). These

capabilities are constituting a de-facto redundancy system which can be used to detect an ITS failure or a

cyberattack and then automatically reconfigure the system to maintain its operationality. However, this

advantage requires constantly verifying the consistency of existing interactions results which are

providing several sources of information (e.g. the consistency between the horizontal marking / vertical

signing and the digital twin, or the consistency between the vehicle autonomous perception and received

remote perception via C-ITS).

Direct interactions between the road infrastructure and the automated vehicles are made using actuators

and sensors which need to respect minimum quality requirements according to the vehicles ADASs which

are using the collected data. These autonomous interactions can be disturbed consecutively to their

quality degradation, visibility problems (obstacles or bad weather conditions) or absence.

Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) and more generally vehicles’ connectivity is achieved via radio

telecommunication (local ad-hoc networks (short range) or global networks (long range)) which of

course may be not always available.
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A local dynamic map should be accurate enough and complete, reflecting the horizontal marking and

vertical signing. The vehicles’ map matching is also requiring an accurate vehicle positioning system

which is not yet available. A positioning system or the associated digital map should be fault tolerant,

resilient in case of temporary perception problems.

Figure 1 — Three categories of interactions between the automated vehicles and its

environment

The consistency of the WG12 approach shall be maintained between Task Groups (TGs) cooperation:

— TG1 needs to consider the perception data fusion between locally collected perception data, remote

perception data received from the ITS connectivity and digital data provided by the embedded vehicle

Local Dynamic Map (LDM).

— TG4 also needs to maintain the consistency between the Local Digital Map data and the perception

data received from local vehicle’s sensors.
4.3 Operational Design Domain

Operational Design Domain (ODD) is a description of the specific operating conditions in which the

automated driving system is designed to properly operate, including but not limited to roadway types,

speed range, environmental conditions (weather, daytime / night-time, etc.), prevailing traffic law and

regulations, and other domain constraints [41]. An ODD can be very limited: for instance, a single fixed

route on low-speed public streets or private grounds (such as business parks) in temperate weather

conditions during daylight hours (Waymo 2017).

The ODD is relevant to all level of automation except for 0 (not applicable) and 5 (unlimited). Any

automation use case of level 1 to 4 is usable only in its specific ODD.
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4.4 Road infrastructure capabilities

The deployment of automated vehicles needs some evolution of the road infrastructure capabilities, as

currently, in-service road infrastructure and equipment are designed only for human driven vehicles.

However, such evolution must respect the long-term cohabitation of automated vehicles with human

driven vehicles (hybrid environment being discussed here below).

An automated vehicle needs to know if the road infrastructure offers the expected capabilities to stay in

automated mode. If it is not the case, SAE level 1 to 3 vehicles may transfer their driving control to the

human driver who is still available in the vehicle. However, this transfer decision needs to respect some

transition rules ensuring that the driver is ready to take back control of the vehicle. Driving mode transfer

is then requiring an anticipation (prediction) of the loss of the road infrastructure capability to support

automated vehicles motions.
SAE level 4 and 5 vehicles m
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17828:2022
01-april-2022

Cestna infrastruktura - Avtomatizirane interakcije vozil - Referenčni okvir, različica

Road infrastructure - Automated vehicle interactions - Reference Framework Release 1

Straßeninfrastruktur - Bezugsrahmen für die Interaktion automatisierter Fahrzeuge

Interactions Infrastructures routières - Véhicules automatisés - Cadre de référence

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17828
ICS:
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
prometu
43.020 Cestna vozila na splošno Road vehicles in general
93.080.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
cestnim inženiringom road engineering
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17828:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17828:2022
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL REPORT
FprCEN/TR 17828
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
February 2022
ICS 35.240.60; 43.020; 93.080.99
English Version
Road infrastructure - Automated vehicle interactions -
Reference Framework Release 1

Interactions Infrastructures routières - Véhicules Straßeninfrastruktur - Bezugsrahmen für die

automatisés - Cadre de référence Interaktion automatisierter Fahrzeuge

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

226.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17828:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................ 8

4 Common basic principles ........................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 Intelligent Transport System in CEN TC 226 ....................................................................................... 10

4.2 ITS interactions ............................................................................................................................................. 10

4.3 Operational Design Domain ...................................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Road infrastructure capabilities ............................................................................................................. 11

4.5 Sustainability principles ............................................................................................................................ 12

4.6 Deployment scenario ................................................................................................................................... 13

4.7 Hybrid environment .................................................................................................................................... 14

4.8 Functional safety/redundancy principles ........................................................................................... 15

5 Functional distribution and interactions ............................................................................................. 17

5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 17

5.2 Road infrastructure – Vehicles: autonomous interactions for improved road safety ......... 18

5.3 Road infrastructure – automated vehicles cooperative interactions ........................................ 20

5.4 Road infrastructure – automated vehicles model-based interactions ...................................... 22

5.5 Road infrastructure – automated vehicles interactions fusion ................................................... 23

6 Operational interactions ............................................................................................................................ 28

6.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 28

6.2 System interoperability .............................................................................................................................. 28

6.3 System performances .................................................................................................................................. 28

6.4 System functional safety ............................................................................................................................. 28

6.5 System scalability ......................................................................................................................................... 30

7 Applications and use cases under investigation. ............................................................................... 31

7.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 31

7.2 Accurate, complete digital map as a digital mean for automated vehicle navigation.......... 31

7.3 Dynamic navigation for automated vehicles ...................................................................................... 32

7.4 Contextual dedicated corridor management ...................................................................................... 32

7.5 Automated parking management and vehicle valet ........................................................................ 33

7.6 Road infrastructure support for VRU safety ....................................................................................... 33

7.7 Road infrastructure support for platoon management .................................................................. 34

7.8 Vehicles distribution ................................................................................................................................... 34

7.9 Intersection crossing assistance. ............................................................................................................ 35

7.10 Approaching a tolling barrier ................................................................................................................... 36

7.11 Collision avoidance consecutive to the traffic code violation ....................................................... 36

7.12 Vehicle interception ..................................................................................................................................... 37

7.13 Public road lighting control ...................................................................................................................... 37

7.14 Energy distribution for automated vehicles ....................................................................................... 37

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7.15 Probe vehicles data collection ................................................................................................................. 38

7.16 Integration of C-ITS in public warning systems ................................................................................. 38

7.17 Various POI ..................................................................................................................................................... 38

7.18 On demand automated vehicles .............................................................................................................. 39

8 Summary of deployment scenarios priorities .................................................................................... 39

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 39

8.2 A few guiding rules for the filling of the priority inquiry ............................................................... 39

8.3 Analysis of the inquiry results ................................................................................................................. 42

8.4 Synthesis of the deployment scenarios priorities result ............................................................... 42

9 Long-term evolution .................................................................................................................................... 45

10 Economic & organizational potential impacts ................................................................................... 46

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 46

10.2 Roles and responsibilities ......................................................................................................................... 46

10.3 Organizational impacts .............................................................................................................................. 46

10.4 Economic impacts ......................................................................................................................................... 49

11 Projected standardization approaches for identified priority applications........................... 50

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 50

11.2 Contextual, dedicated corridor management .................................................................................... 50

11.3 Road infrastructure support for VRUs safety ..................................................................................... 50

11.4 Parking management .................................................................................................................................. 51

11.5 Vehicles’ distribution .................................................................................................................................. 51

11.6 Approaching a tolling barrier .................................................................................................................. 51

11.7 Accurate digital map .................................................................................................................................... 52

11.8 Dynamic navigation ..................................................................................................................................... 52

11.9 Intersection crossing assist....................................................................................................................... 52

11.10 Platooning ....................................................................................................................................................... 53

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 54

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European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TR 17828:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 226 “Road

equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TR.

This document provides a pre-standardization study for the road infrastructure – automated vehicle

interactions which will be used by WG12 as a reference framework for the development of other pre-

standardization studies.
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Introduction

A shared general vision between the main stakeholders which are involved in the development and

deployment of automated vehicles is that their complexity requires a constant effort to converge toward

safe, interoperable solutions.

This complexity is related to the considered mobility environment, in terms of road topography, traffic

and weather conditions, human behaviour, vehicle diversity, etc.

This led these main stakeholders to think that it is necessary, in a certain number of situations, to provide

some forms of cooperation between the roadside infrastructure (road equipment) and automated

vehicles.

Such necessity is reinforced through the fact that the deployment of automated vehicles will be

progressive, leading to a heterogeneous mix of different levels of automated vehicles from not automated

in-service vehicles (SAE level 0) to fully automated vehicles (SAE levels 4 &5).

This cooperation will require different forms of interactions between the road equipment and the

embedded ADAS of automated vehicles. These interactions should be reliable and secure in such a way to

be fault tolerant during the fulfilment of the main functions of the automated vehicle. This latest

constraint means that system redundancy will be a key element ensuring the required functional safety

of the system.
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1 Scope

This document provides the current road equipment suppliers’ visions and their associated short term

and medium-term priority deployment scenarios. Potential functional/operational standardization

issues enabling a safe interaction of road equipment/infrastructure with automated vehicles in a

consistent and interoperable way are identified. This is paving the way for a deeper analysis of

standardization actions which are necessary for the deployment of priority short-time applications and

use cases.

This deeper analysis will be done at the level of each priority application/use case by identifying existing

standards to be used, standards gaps/overlaps and new standards to be developed to support this

deployment.

The release 1 is focusing on short-term (2022 to 2027) and medium-term deployment. Further releases

will update this initial vision according to short term deployment reality.
The objectives of this document are to:

— Support the TC 226 and its WG12 work through the development of a common vision of the roles and

responsibilities of a modern, smart road infrastructure in the context of the automated vehicle

deployment from SAE level 1 to SAE level 5. The roles and responsibilities of the road infrastructure

are related to its level of intelligence provided by functions and data being managed at its level.

— Promote the road equipment suppliers’ and partners’ visions associated to their short-term and

medium- term priorities to European SDOs and the European Union with the goal of having available

relevant, consistent standards sets enabling the identified priority deployment scenarios.

NOTE Road equipment/infrastructure includes the physical reality as its digital representation (digital twin).

Both need to present a real time consistency.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following terms, definitions and abbreviated terms apply.

3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
use case

specific situation describing stakeholders’ interactions which illustrate the execution of one or several

customers’ service(s) via support applications

Note 1 to entry: The stakeholders’ interactions are represented via standardized exchanges between elements

constituting the Intelligent Transport System (ITS).
3.1.2
user

equipped or un-equipped road user such as drivers, vulnerable road users and suppliers which are

themselves accessing services provided by a private or public organization
3.1.3
personal ITS-S
ITS-S in a nomadic ITS sub-system in the context of a portable device
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3.1.4
traffic scenario

possible behavioural of a use case situation in the form of a sequence of events that affect the mobility

and safety with respect to the initial situation

Note 1 to entry: Scenario is defined in terms of the positioning of a User and other road users, environmental

situations, the system equipment, and any obstacles and environmental conditions hampering the detectability of

the User, the behavioural relations and communication performance of the ITS system. Therefore, the sequence of

events includes road user activities, movement of obstacles, and changes in the conditions that affect the VRU safety

with respect to the initial situation.
3.1.5
deployment scenarios

main steps to be followed to deploy and manage a functionally and operationally specified system during

its whole life cycle, starting with the system installation and commissioning and finishing with its

recycling

Note 1 to entry: If the system is a new one, its compatibility with existing legacy systems needs to be considered.

3.1.6
manoeuvres

specific and recognized movements bringing an actor, e.g. vulnerable road user, vehicle or any other form

of transport, from one position to another with a given velocity (dynamic)
3.1.7
traffic conflict

situation involving two or more moving users or vehicles approaching each other in such a way that a

traffic collision would ensue unless at least one of the users or vehicles performs an emergency

manoeuvre
Note 1 to entry: Traffic conflicts are defined by the following parameters:
— traffic conflict point (time and space) where the trajectories intersect,

— time-to-collision, distance-to-collision, post-encroachment time, and angle of conflict.

3.1.8
road

way allowing the passage of vehicles, people and/or animals that is made of none, one or a combination

of the following lanes: driving lane, bicycle lane and sidewalk
3.1.9
vehicle

road vehicle designed to legally carry people or cargo on public roads and highways such as busses, cars,

trucks, vans, motor homes, and motorcycles

Note 1 to entry: This does not include motor driven vehicles not approved for use of the road, such as forklifts or

marine vehicles.
3.1.10
vru
non-motorized road users as well as L class of vehicles

Note 1 to entry: L class of vehicles are defined in Annex I of EU Regulation 168/2013.

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3.1.11
vru-s

ensemble of ITS stations interacting with each other to support VRU user cases, e.g. personal ITS-S, vehicle

ITS-S, roadside ITS-S or Central ITS-S
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ACC Adaptive Cruise Control
ADAS Advanced Driving Assistance System
AEBS Advanced Emergency Braking System
CACC Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control
CAM Cooperative Awareness Message
CCAM Cooperative, Connected Automated Mobility
CDA Cooperative Driving Automation
CEDR Conférence Européenne des Directeurs de Routes
CPM Collaborative Perception Message
CPS Collaborative Perception Service
C-ITS Cooperative ITS
CMC Connected Motorcycle Consortium
C2C-CC Car to Car Communication Consortium
DENM Decentralized Environmental Notification Message
DDT Dynamic Driving Task
FMECA Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis
GLOSA Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
ISAD Infrastructure Support levels for Automated Driving
ITS Intelligent Transport System
ITS-S ITS Station
IVI In Vehicle Information
IVIM Infrastructure to Vehicle Information Message
LDM Local Dynamic Map
LTCA Long Term Certificate Administration
MANTRA Making full use of Automation for National Road Transport Authorities
MAP Map
MCO: Multi Channel Operation
MCM Manoeuvre Coordination Message
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MCS Manoeuvre Coordination Service
ODD Operational Design Domain
PAC V2X Perception Augmented by Cooperation V2X
PCA Pseudonyms Certificates Administration
POI Point Of Interest
POTI Position and Time management
ROI Return On Investment
RSU Roadside Unit
RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime services
RTCMEM RTCM Extended Message
RTK Real Time Kinematic
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SDO Standards Development Organization
SPaT Signal Phase and Timing
STF: Specialist Task Force
TCU Telematic Control Unit
TTC Time-To-Collision
TVRA Threat Vulnerability Risk Analysis
V2I Vehicle to Infrastructure
V2V Vehicle to Vehicle
V2X Vehicle to X
VAM VRU Awareness Message
VBS VRU Awareness Basic Service
VITS-S Vehicle ITS Station
VRU Vulnerable Road Users
VRU-S Vulnerable Road User System
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4 Common basic principles
4.1 Intelligent Transport System in CEN TC 226

According to the European Commission ITS Directive (2010/40/EU), Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

are advanced applications which without embodying intelligence as such aim to provide innovative

services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be

better informed and make safer, more coordinated and "smarter" use of transport networks.

ITS integrate telecommunications, electronics and information technologies with transport engineering

in order to plan, operate, maintain and manage transport systems.

The TC 226 WG12 is focusing on the road interaction- ADAS / Automated vehicles, meaning that the

considered ITS is composed of at least two elements: The road infrastructure and the automated vehicle

(including its ADAS) which are interacting together.

The inclusion of automated vehicle in ITS leads automatically to the design and development of innovative

services as such system elements are not yet deployed. The automated vehicle standardization is already

considered in CEN TC 278, ETSI TC ITS and ISO TC 204 which are all focusing on ITS.

It is then the object of this WG12 to work on the identification of these innovative services, their selection

and the associated standardization needs in strong liaisons with the on-going ITS standardization work.

4.2 ITS interactions

An ITS may exhibit several types of interactions which are relevant to all TC 226 WGs. These types of

interactions are relative of the functional distribution of the information technologies, data and

communication means:

The road may be passive, not embodying some information technology. Examples are the horizontal

marking or the vertical signs. However, even such a passive road is designed with a lot of human

intelligence. In this case, the interactions with automated vehicles' embedded ADAS are mainly achieved

by the vehicle itself using some relevant sensors (ADAS: for example, cameras, radars, lidars). In this case,

advanced applications will analyse the collected perception data of the vehicle for automatically, safely

guiding it.

Mobile objects (e.g. vehicles, Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs), obstacles, etc.) can also be passively

perceived by vehicle sensors and then processed by advanced applications for collision avoidance

purposes.

The road infrastructure and mobile objects may be equipped with electronic devices, information

processing and telecommunication technologies enabling them to interact and cooperate via standard

communication protocols and information exchanges (standard message sets).

Several interaction capabilities are existing at the level of automated vehicles (see Figure 1). These

capabilities are constituting a de-facto redundancy system which can be used to detect an ITS failure or a

cyberattack and then automatically reconfigure the system to maintain its operationality. However, this

advantage requires constantly verifying the consistency of existing interactions results which are

providing several sources of information (e.g. the consistency between the horizontal marking / vertical

signing and the digital twin, or the consistency between the vehicle autonomous perception and received

remote perception via C-ITS).

Direct interactions between the road infrastructure and the automated vehicles are made using actuators

and sensors which need to respect minimum quality requirements according to the vehicles ADASs which

are using the collected data. These autonomous interactions can be disturbed consecutively to their

quality degradation, visibility problems (obstacles or bad weather conditions) or absence.

Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) and more generally vehicles’ connectivity is achieved via radio

telecommunication (local ad-hoc networks (short range) or global networks (long range)) which of

course may be not always available.
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A local dynamic map should be accurate enough and complete, reflecting the horizontal marking and

vertical signing. The vehicles’ map matching is also requiring an accurate vehicle positioning system

which is not yet available. A positioning system or the associated digital map should be fault tolerant,

resilient in case of temporary perception problems.

Figure 1 — Three categories of interactions between the automated vehicles and its

environment

The consistency of the WG12 approach shall be maintained between Task Groups (TGs) cooperation:

— TG1 needs to consider the perception data fusion between locally collected perception data, remote

perception data received from the ITS connectivity and digital data provided by the embedded vehicle

Local Dynamic Map (LDM).

— TG4 also needs to maintain the consistency between the Local Digital Map data and the perception

data received from local vehicle’s sensors.
4.3 Operational Design Domain

Operational Design Domain (ODD) is a description of the specific operating conditions in which the

automated driving system is designed to properly operate, including but not limited to roadway types,

speed range, environmental conditions (weather, daytime / night-time, etc.), prevailing traffic law and

regulations, and other domain constraints [41]. An ODD can be very limited: for instance, a single fixed

route on low-speed public streets or private grounds (such as business parks) in temperate weather

conditions during daylight hours (Waymo 2017).

The ODD is relevant to all level of automation except for 0 (not applicable) and 5 (unlimited). Any

automation use case of level 1 to 4 is usable only in its specific ODD.
4.4 Road infrastructure capabilities

The deployment of automated vehicles needs some evolution of the road infrastructure capabilities, as

currently, in-service road infrastructure and equipment are designed only for human driven vehicles.

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However, such evolution must respect the long-term cohabitation of automated vehicles with human

driven vehicles (hybrid environment being discussed here below).

An automated vehicle needs to know if the road infrastructure offers the expected capabilities to stay in

automated mode. If it is not the case, SAE level 1 to 3 vehicles may transfer their driving control to the

human driver who is still available in the vehicle. However, this transfer decision needs to respect some

transition rules ensuring that the driver is ready to take back control of the vehicle. Driving mode transfer

...

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