The purpose of this document is to provide technical guidance for tests on generating units and interface protection to evaluate their electrical characteristics. NOTE 1 Mechanical issues are taken into account as far as they influence the electrical characteristics. The evaluation results are intended to be used to demonstrate conformity of generating units to technical requirements for grid connection. In this context the evaluation results can also be used as part of a certification programme. NOTE 2 Besides the type test results of the generating unit all additional elements for connection to the grid (e.g. transformer, cabling, multiple units) are considered in the evaluation of the final installation of a generating plant. The requirements to be evaluated are covered in the following standardization documents: – EN 50549 1:2019: Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks - Part 1: connection to a LV distribution network - Generating plants up to and including Type B – EN 50549 2:2019: Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks - Part 2: Connection to a MV distribution network - Generating plants up to and including Type B If grid connection requirements are dealt with in other documents or for other generating module types, where no specific testing procedure is provided, testing methods of this document can be used if applicable. This document provides evaluation criteria for the conformity assessment of generating units with respect to the abovementioned standardization documents, based on type testing. However, some requirements are applicable on the generating plant level. The assessment of the conformity to these plant requirements are out of the scope of this document. Nevertheless, this document may be used to show the capabilities of a generating unit to be used in a plant. As a consequence, it is possible that the conformity assessment of a generating unit does not cover all aspects of the above-mentioned standardization documents, typically when a requirement is evaluated on a plant level. Therefore, the conformity assessment report indicates clearly which clauses of this document are covered and which clauses are not covered. This document recognizes the existence of specific technical test requirements within several member states that must be complied with.

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IEC 62934:2021 provides terms and definitions in the subject area of grid integration of renewable energy generation. The technical issues of grid integration mainly focus on the issues caused by renewable energy generation with variable sources and/or converter based technology, such as wind power and photovoltaic power generation. Some renewable energy generations such as hydro power and biomass power with a relatively continuously available primary energy source and a rotating generator are conventional sources of generation, and are therefore not covered in this document. The intention of this document is to answer the question "what do the words mean" and not "under what conditions do the terms apply".

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1.1 General These Guidelines and Parameter Lists to Functional Specifications describe specific functional requirements for HVDC Grid Systems. The terminology "HVDC Grid Systems" is used here describing HVDC systems for power transmission having more than two converter stations connected to a common DC circuit. While this document focuses on requirements, that are specific for HVDC Grid Systems, some requirements are considered applicable to all HVDC systems in general, i.e. including point-to-point HVDC systems. Existing IEC, Cigré or other documents relevant have been used for reference as far as possible. Corresponding to electric power transmission applications, this document is applicable to high voltage systems, i.e. having typically nominal DC voltages higher than 50 kV with respect to earth are considered in this document. NOTE: While the physical principles of DC networks are basically voltage independent, the technical options for designing equipment get much wider with lower DC voltage levels, e.g. in case of converters or switchgear. Both parts have the same outline and headlines to aid the reader. 1.2 About the Present Release The present release of the Guidelines and Parameter Lists for Functional Specifications describes technical guidelines and specifications for HVDC Grid Systems which are characterized by having exactly one single connection between two converter stations, often referred to as radial systems. When developing the requirements for radial systems, care is taken not to build up potential showstoppers for meshed systems. Meshed HVDC Grid Systems can be included into this specification at a later point in time. The Guidelines and Parameter List to the Functional Specification of HVDC Grid Systems cover technical aspects of: - coordination of HVDC grid and AC systems - HVDC Grid System characteristics - HVDC Grid System control - HVDC Grid System protection - AC/DC converter stations - HVDC Grid System installations, including DC switching stations - models and validation - HVDC Grid System integration tests Beyond the present scope, the following content is proposed for future work: - transmission lines and transition stations - DC/DC converter stations - DC line power flow controllers

  • Technical specification
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1.1 General These Guidelines and Parameter Lists to Functional Specifications describe specific functional requirements for HVDC Grid Systems. The terminology "HVDC Grid Systems" is used here describing HVDC systems for power transmission having more than two converter stations connected to a common DC circuit. While this document focuses on requirements, that are specific for HVDC Grid Systems, some requirements are considered applicable to all HVDC systems in general, i.e. including point-to-point HVDC systems. Existing IEC, Cigré or other documents relevant have been used for reference as far as possible. Corresponding to electric power transmission applications, this document is applicable to high voltage systems, i.e. only nominal DC voltages equal or higher than 50 kV with respect to earth are considered in this document. NOTE While the physical principles of DC networks are basically voltage independent, the technical options for designing equipment get much wider with lower DC voltage levels, e.g. in case of converters or switchgear. Both parts have the same outline and headlines to aid the reader. 1.2 About the present release The present release of the Guidelines and Parameter Lists for Functional Specifications describes technical guidelines and specifications for HVDC Grid Systems which are characterized by having exactly one single connection between two converter stations, often referred to as radial systems. When developing the requirements for radial systems, care is taken not to build up potential showstoppers for meshed systems. Meshed HVDC Grid Systems can be included into this specification at a later point in time. The Guidelines and Parameter List to the Functional Specification of HVDC Grid Systems cover technical aspects of: - coordination of HVDC grid and AC systems - HVDC Grid System characteristics - HVDC Grid System control - HVDC Grid System protection - AC/DC converter stations - HVDC Grid System installations, including DC switching stations - models and validation - HVDC Grid System integration tests Beyond the present scope, the following content is proposed for future work: - transmission lines and transition stations - DC/DC converter stations - DC line power flow controllers

  • Technical specification
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These standards provide technical requirements for the connection of generating plants up to and including Type A (-1-1)/ Type B (-1-2) which can be operated in parallel with a public LV distribution network. They are intended to be used as a technical reference for connection agreements between DNOs and electricity producers and to demonstrate compliance with COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/631 (Requirements for Generators).

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This Technical Report applies to HVDC Systems having more than two converter stations connected to a common DC network, also referred to as HVDC Grid Systems. Serving the near term applications, this report describes radial HVDC network structures as well as pure VSC based solutions. Both grounded and ungrounded DC circuits are considered. Based on typical requirements applied to state of the art HVDC converter stations today this report addresses aspects that are specifically related to the design and operation of converter stations and DC circuits in HVDC Grid Systems. The requirements from the AC systems as known today are included. Secondary effects associated with changing the AC systems, e.g. the replacement of rotating machines by power electronic devices, are not within the scope of the present report. The report summarises applications and concepts of HVDC Grid Systems with the purpose of preparing the ground for standardization of such systems. The interface requirements and functional specifications given in this document are intended to support the specification and purchase of multi vendor multiterminal HVDC Grid Systems.

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This Technical Report provides an overview of the technical contents and regulatory arrangements of some 32 of the many Smart Grid projects that are currently in operation, or under construction, within Europe ). This Technical Report is intended to provide useful information to those organisations and individuals that are currently engaged or about to become engaged in developing Smart Grids. It is also intended that this Technical Report will be used to support the development of relevant standards by presenting the key learning points from early Smart Grid projects – it is widely accepted that the publication of relevant standards will accelerate the development of Smart Grids. It is recognised that this Technical Report only covers a sample of the Smart Grid projects within Europe; it would be impractical to attempt to include every project. It is assessed that the 32 projects shown in this Technical Report are sufficiently representative to provide information and draw early conclusions. Clause 2 of this Technical Report provides a brief overview of all 32 projects, Annex A contains details of the 32 projects as supplied by the countries that participated in the drafting of this Technical Report. NOTE 1 In order to avoid losing potentially useful information, the details presented in Annex A are very close to the raw data provided by the different countries, with only minor editorial amendments made in the drafting of this Technical Report. One of the key objectives of this Technical Report is to identify the learning objectives for each of the Smart Grid projects, i.e. why is the project is being carried out and how the success of the project in meeting these objectives will be determined. NOTE 2 It is intended that the learning contained in this Technical Report, in particular the learning around what type of standards are required to support the development of Smart Grids, will provide useful input to the joint CEN/Cenelec/ETSI Smart Grid Co-ordination Group (SGCG). The SGCG has been established to support the requirements set out in the European Commission Smart Grid Mandate M/490, March 2011. NOTE 3 In drafting this Technical Report the working group were made aware of a report with a similar scope to this Technical Report that was being produced by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) ). The JRC report is now published and publically available. It is assessed that this Technical Report and the JRC report are complementary documents; the JRC report provides a high-level view on 220 projects that are being conducted across Europe whereas this Technical Report provides more detailed information on 32 projects. This Technical Report presents the situation for the 32 projects as they are at the time of writing; as time moves on, it might be necessary to update this Technical Report or to produce a second edition containing information on more recent projects and learning from existing projects, such as those documented in this Technical Report.

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The aim of this Technical Report is to provide background information and explanations on EN 50160 with regard to the history of its development as well as to its correct application.

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Corrigendum issued December 2012 (on French version only)

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IEC 60038:2009 specifies standard voltage values which are intended to serve as preferential values for the nominal voltage of electrical supply systems, and as reference values for equipment and system design. This seventh edition supersedes the sixth edition (1993), its Amendment 1 (1994) and its Amendment 2 (1997). It constitutes a technical revision. The significant technical changes are: - the addition of the values of 230 V (50 Hz) and 230/400 V (60 Hz) to Table 1; - the replacement of the utilization voltage range at LV by a reference to the relevant standard and an informative annex; - the addition of the value of 30 kV to Table 3; - the replacement of the value of 1 050 kV by 1 100 kV in Table 5. It has the status of a horizontal standard in accordance with IEC Guide 108.

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D138/C037: Corrigendum to CLC/TR 50555:2010 (PR=22110) to add the words "in cooperation with CEER" in the foreword

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This Technical Report provides guidance on how to calculate continuity of supply indices. These recommended indices are more particularly given for European benchmarking of distribution network performance. For transmission network performance, more representative indices ) may be used. It presents – an overview of practices in Europe on long and short interruptions, – definition of physical interruptions in a harmonized way, – philosophy and criteria for recommending indices, – a suggested common approach to continuity indices. The fact that the networks in different parts of any particular country will be subject to different conditions (e.g. weather and customer density) mean that it is not viable to apply common performance standards to all networks within any one country or any group of countries without making these targets so weak that there is a good prospect of them being achieved in all areas. The present situation where national regulators set performance targets within their own countries is widely regarded as being the most effective mechanism for achieving optimal socio-economic performance. For these reasons this Technical Report does not provide common targets for the number and duration of interruptions that should not be exceeded. This Technical Report is designed to be a first step towards benchmarking the interruption performance of European countries. Rules on the aggregation of interruptions, in particular short interruptions, have not been considered in this Technical Report, however it is recognised that it might be necessary to describe aggregation rules in a second version of the Technical Report.

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This report aims to define the existing major interactions and to identify aspects suitable for standardization in the near future.

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New values for the 15th and 21st harmonic

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3 rather small amendments A note 2 will solve the issue of the different approaches in frequency Flagged data idea (IEC TS 62749) will be integrated in EN 50160 A new chapter “Frequency range 2-150kHz” will be integrated

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These standards provide technical requirements for the connection of generating plants up to and including Type A (-1-1)/ Type B (-1-2) which can be operated in parallel with a public LV distribution network. They are intended to be used as a technical reference for connection agreements between DNOs and electricity producers and to demonstrate compliance with COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/631 (Requirements for Generators).

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This standard provides technical requirements for the connection of generating plants up to and including Type B which can be operated in parallel with a public MV distribution network. They are intended to be used as a technical reference for connection agreements between DSOs and electricity producers and to demonstrate compliance with COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/631 (Requirements for Generators).

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IEC 62559-3:2017 defines the core concepts and their serialization into XML syntactic format of a use case template, an Actor list and list for detailed requirements This provides a common XML format for importing/exporting use case information between a variety of modelling software and repositories. For complex systems, the use case methodology supports a common understanding of functionalities, Actors and processes across different technical committees or even different organizations. Developed as software engineering tool, the methodology can be used to support the development of standards as it facilitates the analysis of requirements in relation to new or existing standards. Further arguments for the use case methodology and background information are available in IEC 62559-1. This part of IEC 62559 establishes the interfaces between the different use case repositories and/or UML engineering software tools. Once this level of interoperability is achieved, IEC 62559 can provide a reliable mechanism to interpret those XML data in order to represent graphically UML use cases.

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IEC 62559-2:2015 defines the structure of a use case template, template lists for actors and requirements, as well as their relation to each other. In this document, a standardized template for the description of use cases is defined for various purposes like the use in standardization organizations for standards development or within development projects for system development. This document was developed for general application in various domains and systems. The energy system/smart grid is used as example in this document as it was one of the first usage areas for this use case template, but this general template can be applied in other usage areas different from energy systems as well (e.g. smart home or electro-mobility). The motivation, background information on use cases, recommendations for the handling of use cases and the processes for the description of use cases inside standardization and in relation to a central use case repository is described in IEC 62559-1. This first edition cancels and replaces IEC PAS 62559:2008 which had been published together with EPRI. Main content of the former PAS will be transferred to the new IEC 62559-4.

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1.1 General These Guidelines and Parameter Lists to Functional Specifications describe specific functional requirements for HVDC Grid Systems. The terminology "HVDC Grid Systems" is used here describing HVDC systems for power transmission having more than two converter stations connected to a common d.c. circuit. While this document focuses on requirements, that are specific for HVDC Grid Systems, some requirements are considered applicable to all HVDC systems in general, i.e. including point-to-point HVDC systems. Existing IEC, Cigré or other documents relevant have been used for reference as far as possible. Corresponding to electric power transmission applications, this document is applicable to high voltage systems, i.e. .only nominal d.c. voltages equal or higher than 50 kV with respect to earth are considered in this document. NOTE While the physical principles of d.c. networks are basically voltage independent, the technical options for designing equipment get much wider with lower d.c. voltage levels, e.g. in case of converters or switchgear. Both parts have the same outline and headlines to aid the reader. 1.2 About the present release The present release of the Guidelines and Parameter Lists for Functional Specifications describes technical guidelines and specifications for HVDC Grid Systems which are characterized by having exactly one single connection between two converter stations, often referred to as radial systems. When developing the requirements for radial systems, care is taken not to build up potential show-stoppers for meshed systems. Meshed HVDC Grid Systems can be included into this specification at a later point in time. The Guidelines and Parameter List to the Functional Specification of HVDC Grid Systems cover technical aspects of - Coordination of HVDC Grid and a.c. Systems - HVDC Grid System Characteristics - HVDC Grid System Control - HVDC Grid System Protection - Models and Validation - Beyond the present scope, the following aspects are proposed for future work: - AC/DC converter stations - HVDC Grid System Equipment - HVDC Grid System Integration Tests

  • Technical specification
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1.1 General These Guidelines and Parameter Lists to Functional Specifications describe specific functional requirements for HVDC Grid Systems. The terminology "HVDC Grid Systems" is used here describing HVDC systems for power transmission having more than two converter stations connected to a common d.c. circuit. While this document focuses on requirements, that are specific for HVDC Grid Systems, some requirements are considered applicable to all HVDC systems in general, i.e. including point-to-point HVDC systems. Existing IEC, Cigré or other documents relevant have been used for reference as far as possible. Corresponding to electric power transmission applications, this document is applicable to high voltage systems, i.e. .only nominal d.c. voltages equal or higher than 50 kV with respect to earth are considered in this document. NOTE While the physical principles of d.c. networks are basically voltage independent, the technical options for designing equipment get much wider with lower d.c. voltage levels, e.g. in case of converters or switchgear. Both parts have the same outline and headlines to aid the reader. 1.2 About the Present Release The present release of the Guidelines and Parameter Lists for Functional Specifications describes technical guidelines and specifications for HVDC Grid Systems which are characterized by having exactly one single connection between two converter stations, often referred to as radial systems. When developing the requirements for radial systems, care is taken not to build up potential show-stoppers for meshed systems. Meshed HVDC Grid Systems can be included into this specification at a later point in time. The Guidelines and Parameter List to the Functional Specification of HVDC Grid Systems cover technical aspects of - Coordination of HVDC Grid and a.c. Systems - HVDC Grid System Characteristics - HVDC Grid System Control - HVDC Grid System Protection - Models and Validation - Beyond the present scope, the following aspects are proposed for future work: - AC/DC converter stations - HVDC Grid System Equipment - HVDC Grid System Integration Tests

  • Technical specification
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Amendment to cover Norwegian A-deviation.

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The purpose of this Technical Specification is to provide technical guidance on the requirements for generating plants which can be operated in parallel with a distribution network. For practical reasons, this Technical Specification refers to the distribution system operator in case settings have to be defined and/or provided, even when these settings are to be defined and/or provided by another actor according to national and European legal framework. NOTE 1 This includes European network codes and their national implementation, as well as further national regulations. NOTE 2 Further national requirements especially for the connection to the distribution network and the operation of the generating plant can apply. The requirements of this Technical Specification apply to all generating plants, electrical machinery and electronic equipment, irrespective of the kind of primary energy source and irrespective of the presence of loads in the producer’s network that meet all of the following conditions: - converting any primary energy source into AC electricity; - connected to a MV distribution network; - intended to operate in parallel with this distribution network under normal network operating conditions. NOTE 3 Generating plants connected to a LV distribution network fall into the scope of EN 50438 (up to 16 A) and CLC/TS 50549-1 (above 16 A). Unless stated differently by the DSO, a generating plant with a maximum apparent power up to 100 kVA can, as alternative to the requirements of this Technical Specification, comply with CLC/TS 50549-1. A different threshold may be defined by the DSO. This Technical Specification defines connection requirements. This Technical Specification recognizes the existence of National Standards, Network Codes, and specific technical requirements of the DSOs. These should be complied with. Excluded from the scope are: - the selection and evaluation of the point of connection; - power system impact assessment; - connection assessment; - island operation of generating plants, both intentional and unintentional, where no part of the distribution network is involved; - active front ends of drives feeding energy back into the distribution network for short duration; - requirements for the safety of personnel as they are already adequately covered by existing European Standards.

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The purpose of this Technical Specification is to provide technical guidance on the requirements for generating plants which can be operated in parallel with a distribution network. For practical reasons, this Technical Specification refers to the distribution system operator in case settings have to be defined and/or provided, even when these settings are to be defined and/or provided by another actor according to national and European legal framework. NOTE 1 This includes European network codes and their national implementation, as well as further national regulations. NOTE 2 Further national requirements especially for the connection to the distribution network and the operation of the generating plant can apply. The requirements of this Technical Specification apply to all generating plants, electrical machinery and electronic equipment, irrespective of the kind of primary energy source and irrespective of the presence of loads in the producer’s network that meet all of the following conditions: - converting any primary energy source into AC electricity; - connected to a LV distribution network and rated at more than 16 A per phase; - intended to operate in parallel with this distribution network under normal network operating conditions. NOTE 3 Generating plants rated up to and including 16 A per phase are covered by EN 50438. NOTE 4 Generating plants connected to a MV distribution network fall into the scope of CLC/TS 50549-2. Unless stated differently by the DSO generating plants connected to a medium voltage distribution network with a maximum apparent power up to 100 kVA can comply with this Technical Specification as alternative to the requirements of CLC/TS 50549-2. A different threshold may be defined by the DSO. This Technical Specification defines connection requirements. This Technical Specification recognizes the existence of National Standards, Network Codes, and specific technical requirements of the DSOs. These should be complied with. Excluded from the scope are: - the selection and evaluation of the point of connection; - power system impact assessment; - connection assessment; - island operation of generating plants, both intentional and unintentional, where no part of the distribution network is involved; - active front ends of drives feeding energy back into the distribution network for short duration; - requirements for the safety of personnel as they are already adequately covered by existing European Standards.

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This European Standard specifies technical requirements for the protection functions and the operational capabilities of micro-generating plants, designed for operation in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks. This European Standard applies irrespectively of the micro-generating plants’ primary source of energy, where micro-generation refers to equipment with nominal currents up to and including 16 A per phase, single or multi phase 230/400 V or multi phase 230 V (phase-to-phase nominal voltage). For practical reasons, this European Standard refers to the distribution system operator in case settings have to be defined and/or provided, even when these settings are to be defined and/or provided by another actor according to national and European legal framework. NOTE 1 This includes European network codes and their national implementation, as well as further national regulations. NOTE 2 Further national requirements especially for the connection to the grid and the operation of the micro-generator can apply as long as they are not in conflict with this EN. In some countries, this document may be applied to generators with higher nominal currents used mostly in domestic and small commercial installations. These countries are listed in Annex G. The provisions of this European Standard are not intended to ensure by themselves the safety of DSO personnel or their contracted parties. The following aspects are included in the scope: • all micro-generation technologies are applicable. The following aspects are excluded from the scope: • multiple units that for one installation, in aggregate, exceed 16 A; • issues of revenue rebalancing, metering or other commercial matters; • requirements related to the primary energy source e.g. matters related to gas fired generator units; • island operation of generating plants, both intentional and unintentional, where no part of the public distribution network is involved; • active front ends of drives feeding energy back into the distribution network for short duration.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard defines, describes and specifies the main characteristics of the voltage at a network user's supply terminals in public low voltage, medium and high voltage AC electricity networks under normal operating conditions. This standard describes the limits or values within which the voltage characteristics can be expected to remain at any supply terminal in public European electricity networks and does not describe the average situation usually experienced by an individual network user. NOTE 1 For the definitions of low, medium and high voltage see 3 (Definitions). This European Standard does not apply under abnormal operating conditions, including the following: a) a temporary supply arrangement to keep network users supplied during conditions arising as a result of a fault, maintenance and construction work, or to minimize the extent and duration of a loss of supply; b) in the case of non-compliance of a network user's installation or equipment with the relevant standards or with the technical requirements for connection, established either by the public authorities or the network operator, including the limits for the emission of conducted disturbances; NOTE 2 A network user’s installation may include load and generation. c) in exceptional situations, in particular, 1) exceptional weather conditions and other natural disasters; 2) third party interference; 3) acts by public authorities; 4) industrial actions (subject to legal requirements); 5) force majeure; 6) power shortages resulting from external events. The voltage characteristics given in this standard are not intended to be used as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) levels or user emission limits for conducted disturbances in public electricity networks. The voltage characteristics given in this standard are not intended to be used to specify requirements in equipment product standards and in installation standards. NOTE 3 The performance of equipment might be impaired if it is subjected to supply conditions which are not specified in the equipment product standard. This standard may be superseded in total or in part by the terms of a contract between the individual network user and the network operator. NOTE 4 The sharing of complaint management and problem mitigation costs between the involved parties is outside the scope of EN 50160. Measurement methods to be applied in this standard are described in EN 61000-4-30.

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IEC 60196:2009 specifies the standard frequencies. The standard frequencies are the frequencies to be adopted for single-phase and three-phase a.c. systems, for installations in ships, for a.c. traction systems, for tools and for aircraft. This standardization is limited to frequencies up to 10 000 Hz. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1965. It constitutes a technical revision. The main change is the removal of the standard frequencies for the rayon industry. It has the status of a horizontal standard in accordance with IEC Guide 108.

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  • Standard – translation
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Gives standard current ratings in the range 1 A to 200 000 A.

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This European Standard defines, describes and specifies the main characteristics of the voltage at a network user's supply terminals in public low voltage and medium voltage electricity distribution networks under normal operating conditions. This standard describes the limits or values within which the voltage characteristics can be expected to remain over the whole of the public distribution network and does not describe the average situation usually experienced by an individual network user. NOTE 1 For the definitions of low and medium voltage see 3.7 and 3.8. The European Standard does not apply under abnormal operating conditions including the following: – a temporary supply arrangement to keep the network users supplied during condition arising as a result of a fault, maintenance and construction work or to minimize the extent and duration of a loss of supply; – in case of non-compliance of a network user's installation or equipment with the relevant standards or with the technical requirements for connection, established either by the public authorities or the distribution network operator (DNO) including the limits for the emission of conducted disturbances; NOTE 2 A network user’s installation may include load as well as generation. – in exceptional situations, in particular, – exceptional weather conditions and other natural disasters, – third party interference, – acts by public authorities, – industrial actions (subject to legal requirements), – force majeure, – power shortages resulting from external events. The voltage characteristics given in this standard are not intended to be used as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) levels or user emission limits for conducted disturbances in public distribution networks. The voltage characteristics given in this standard are not intended to be used to specify requirements in equipment product standards and in installation standards. NOTE 3 The performance of equipment might be impaired if it is subjected to supply conditions which are not specified in the equipment product standard. This standard may be superseded in total or in part by the terms of a contract between the individual network user and the DNO.

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This European Standard specifies technical requirements for connection and operation of fixed installed micro-generators and their protection devices, irrespective of the micro-generators primary source of energy, in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks, where micro-generation refers to equipment rated up to and including 16 A per phase, single or multi phase 230/400 V or multi phase 230 V (phase-to-phase voltage). This European Standard is intended for installation mainly in the domestic market.

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Gives standard current ratings in the range 1 A to 200 000 A.

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This standard gives the main characteristics of the voltage at the customer's supply terminals in public low voltage and medium voltage electricity distribution systems under normal operating conditions This standard gives the limits or values within which any customer can expect the voltage characyteristics to remain, and does not describe the typical situation for a customer connected to a public supply network

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Implementation dates changed

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Applies to: a.c. transmission, distribution and utilization systems and equipment with standard frequencies 50 Hz and 60 Hz and a nominal voltage above 100 V; a.c. and d.c. traction systems; a.c. and d.c. equipment with nominal voltages below 120 V a.c. or below 750 V d.c.

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