Characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes (ISO 18557:2017)

ISO 18557 presents guidelines for sampling strategies and characterization processes to assess the contamination of soils, buildings and infrastructures, prior to remediation and/or to check that the remediation objectives have been met (final release surveys). The principles presented need to be appropriately graded as regards the specific situations concerned (size, level of contamination?). It can be used in conjunction with each country's key documentation.
ISO 18557 deals with characterization in relation to site remediation. It applies to sites contaminated after normal operation of older nuclear facilities. It could also apply to site remediation after a major accident, and in this case the input data will be linked to the accident involved.
ISO 18557 complements existing standards, notably concerning sampling, sample preservation and their transport, treatment and laboratory measurements, but also those related to in situ chemical and radiological measurements. References in the Bibliography contain links to appropriate documentation and techniques as required by individual member countries.
ISO 18557 does not apply to the following issues: execution of clean-up works, sampling and characterization of waste (conditioned or unconditioned) or to waste packages.
It does not apply to groundwater characterization (saturated zone).
Given the case-by-case nature of site remediation and decommissioning, the principles and guidance communicated in ISO 18557 are intended as general guidance only, not prescriptive requirements.

Charakterisierungsgrundsätze für mit Radionukliden kontaminierte Böden, Gebäude und Infrastrukturen zu Sanierungszwecken (ISO 18557:2017)

Dieses Dokument enthält Richtlinien für Probenahmestrategien und Charakterisierungsverfahren zur Beurteilung der Kontamination von Böden, Gebäuden und Infrastrukturen vor der Sanierung und/oder zur Überprüfung, ob die Sanierungsziele erreicht wurden (Abschlussuntersuchung zur Freigabe). Die dargelegten Grundsätze müssen in Bezug auf die jeweiligen spezifischen Gegebenheiten (Größe, Kontaminationsniveau…) angemessen eingestuft werden. Es kann in Verbindung mit den wesentlichen Regulierungen jedes Landes verwendet werden.
Dieses Dokument befasst sich mit der Charakterisierung in Bezug auf die Standortsanierung. Es gilt für Standorte, die nach dem normalen Betrieb älterer kerntechnischer Anlagen kontaminiert sind. Es könnte auch für die Standortsanierung nach einem schweren Unfall gelten. In diesem Fall werden die Eingangsdaten mit dem entsprechenden Unfall verknüpft.
Das Dokument ergänzt die bestehenden Normen, insbesondere in Bezug auf Probenahme, Probenkonservierung, -transport, -behandlung und Labormessungen, aber auch jene in Bezug auf chemische und radiologische Vor-Ort-Messungen. Die Verweisungen in den Literaturhinweisen enthalten Links zu geeigneten Unterlagen und Techniken, wie sie von den einzelnen Mitgliedsländern gefordert werden.
Das Dokument gilt nicht für die folgenden Punkte: Durchführung von Sanierungsarbeiten, Probenahme und Charakterisierung von Abfällen (konditioniert oder nicht konditioniert) oder für Abfallgebinde.
Sie gilt nicht für die Grundwassercharakterisierung (gesättigte Zone).
Da die Sanierung und Stilllegung von Standorten auf Fallbasis erfolgt, sind die in diesem Dokument kommunizierten Grundsätze und Leitlinien nur als allgemeine Anleitung und nicht als normative Anforderungen zu verstehen.

Principes de caractérisation des sols, bâtiments et infrastructures contaminés par des radionucléides, à des fins de réhabilitation (ISO 18557:2017)

L'ISO 18557 décrit les principes applicables à une stratégie d'échantillonnage et à un processus de caractérisation visant à évaluer la contamination des sols, bâtiments et infrastructures avant la réhabilitation et/ou à s'assurer que les objectifs de réhabilitation ont bien été atteints (études finales préalables à la libération). Les principes qu'elle énonce doivent être appliqués en rapport avec les situations confrontées (surface contaminée, niveau de contamination, etc.). Ce document peut être utilisé conjointement avec la documentation de référence de chaque pays.
L'ISO 18557 traite de la caractérisation liée à la réhabilitation de site. Il s'applique aux sites contaminés après un soutien opérationnel normal des installations nucléaires plus vieilles. L'ISO 18557 pourra également s'appliquer à une situation de réhabilitation de site consécutive à un accident majeur, auquel cas les données d'entrée seront directement corrélées à l'accident.
L'ISO 18557 vient compléter les normes existantes, notamment en ce qui concerne l'échantillonnage, la conservation et le transport des échantillons, leurs traitements et les mesures en laboratoire, mais aussi en ce qui concerne les mesures chimiques et radiologiques in situ. Les références indiquées à la Bibliographie comportent des liens vers la documentation et les techniques appropriées, conformément aux exigences des différents États membres.
L'ISO 18557 ne s'applique pas aux sujets suivants: réalisation des travaux de réhabilitation, échantillonnage et à caractérisation des déchets (conditionnés ou non conditionnés) ni des colis de déchets.
L'ISO 18557 ne s'applique pas non plus à la caractérisation des eaux souterraines (zone saturée).
En raison de la diversité des situations que recouvrent l'assainissement et le déclassement des sites les principes et les directives communiqués dans ce document relèvent plutôt de directives générales que d'exigences prescriptives.

Načela za opisovanje lastnosti zemljin, zgradb in infrastruktur, kontaminiranih z radionuklidi, za potrebe sanacije (ISO 18557:2017)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Feb-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
26-Feb-2020
Completion Date
26-Feb-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
01-maj-2020

Načela za opisovanje lastnosti zemljin, zgradb in infrastruktur, kontaminiranih z

radionuklidi, za potrebe sanacije (ISO 18557:2017)

Characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by

radionuclides for remediation purposes (ISO 18557:2017)

Charakterisierungsgrundsätze für mit Radionukliden kontaminierte Böden, Gebäude und

Infrastrukturen zu Sanierungszwecken (ISO 18557:2017)

Principes de caractérisation des sols, bâtiments et infrastructures contaminés par des

radionucléides, à des fins de réhabilitation (ISO 18557:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18557:2020
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
EN ISO 18557
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.020.40; 27.120.30
English Version
Characterisation principles for soils, buildings and
infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for
remediation purposes (ISO 18557:2017)

Principes de caractérisation des sols, bâtiments et Charakterisierungsgrundsätze für mit Radionukliden

infrastructures contaminés par des radionucléides, à kontaminierte Böden, Gebäude und Infrastrukturen zu

des fins de réhabilitation (ISO 18557:2017) Sanierungszwecken (ISO 18557:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 January 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18557:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
EN ISO 18557:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
EN ISO 18557:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 18557:2017 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85 "Nuclear energy,

nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” of the International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 18557:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 430 “Nuclear

energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18557:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18557:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18557
First edition
2017-09
Characterisation principles for
soils, buildings and infrastructures
contaminated by radionuclides for
remediation purposes
Principes de caractérisation des sols, bâtiments et infrastructures
contaminés par des radionucléides, à des fins de réhabilitation
Reference number
ISO 18557:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Strategy applied to the remediation of contaminated sites .................................................................................... 6

4.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Characterization and remediation objectives .............................................................................................................. 8

4.3 Historical analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.4 Documents .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.5 Interviews ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6 Functional analysis ...........................................................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Preliminary characterization ...................................................................................................................................................10

4.8 Definition of the zones of interest and contamination tracers ...................................................................10

4.9 Surface and/or volumetric characterization program ......................................................................................11

4.10 Data processing and contamination assessment ...................................................................................................12

4.11 Conf ormity of the results to the characterization objectives .......................................................................13

4.12 Remediation programme ............................................................................................................................................................13

4.13 Final characterization ....................................................................................................................................................................15

5 Surface characterization programme ..........................................................................................................................................16

5.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Non-destructive analysis .............................................................................................................................................................18

5.2.1 Characterization programme: Determination of the sampling design and

the number of data points ....................................................................................................................................18

5.2.2 Implementation .............................................................................................................................................................19

5.3 Destructive analysis .........................................................................................................................................................................19

5.3.1 Characterization programme .............................................................................................................................19

5.3.2 Implementation and laboratory analyses ...............................................................................................19

5.4 Preliminary consolidation ..........................................................................................................................................................20

5.5 Data processing ...................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.5.1 Spatial structure of the phenomenon .........................................................................................................20

5.5.2 Data processing in the case of spatially structured contaminations ...............................20

5.5.3 Result mapping in the case of spatially structured contaminations ................................20

5.5.4 Statistical processing in the case of non-structured contaminations .............................20

5.6 Conf ormity of the results with the characterization objective ...................................................................21

5.7 Surface characterization file .....................................................................................................................................................21

6 Volumetric characterization programme ................................................................................................................................21

6.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2 Volumetric investigations ...........................................................................................................................................................24

6.2.1 Characterization programme .............................................................................................................................24

6.2.2 Implementation and laboratory analyses ...............................................................................................24

6.3 Preliminary consolidation ..........................................................................................................................................................24

6.4 Volumetric Data processing ......................................................................................................................................................25

6.4.1 Case of structured contaminations ...............................................................................................................25

6.4.2 Case of non-structured contaminations ...................................................................................................25

6.5 Compatibility of the results with the objectives .....................................................................................................25

6.6 Volumetric characterization file ............................................................................................................................................25

7 Final characterization programme ................................................................................................................................................27

7.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2 Final characterization programme .....................................................................................................................................27

7.3 Processing the final characterization results .............................................................................................................28

7.4 Final characterization file ...........................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)

8 Final report .............................................................................................................................................................................................................29

Annex A (informative) Geostatistical data processing and examples of good practices .............................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies,

and radiological protection, Sub-committee SC 5, Nuclear fuel cycle.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
Introduction

The remit of WG 13 covers all aspects of the decommissioning phase, and thus it interfaces with other

Sub-Committees and Working Groups whose work intersects with this phase.

Figure 1 below indicates some of the topics that could be included in SC 5 and/or WG 13. It provides a

view of how the scope of this ISO Standard links with both generic and more detailed topics.

This document contains both guidance and references to documents which may be useful in relation

to this work area. Read in conjunction with the supporting references, it gives a generic approach

to the topic. It also may have connections with many other blocks across the whole diagram (e.g.

Decommissioning strategy, Waste Management, Site remediation, Dismantling/Demolition, Cost issues,

Safety).

Moreover, it was not intended to establish this document as a stand-alone document. When a member

country already has national tools in this field (e.g. regulatory requirements, national standards), these

requirements and national standards are applicable in conjunction with this document.

Figure 1 — Indicative chart of the topics included in WG 13, showing how this document is

linked to other topics

This work stream structure can be used to clarify the scope of WG publications and to ensure that areas

of joint interest between ISO teams and working groups are coordinated. The ISO shadow committee for

a member body identifies proposals for further work and, if appropriate, submits them to the Working

Group for international consideration as potential new work items. Figure 1 can be a useful prompt

in this process. This document is part of an overall decommissioning and environmental remediation

strategy including, for example, the monitoring and/or remediation of groundwater which might be

addressed in a new work item.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)

Since the discovery of radioactivity at the end of the 19th century, numerous laboratories and facilities

have dealt with radioactive substances (notably radium). In addition, the development and considerable

expansion of the nuclear industry, both civilian and defence, has generated many nuclear facilities built

since the 1940s, resulting today in legacy sites.

More recently, nuclear operators and state organisations have intensively undertaken the dismantling

and remediation of shutdown nuclear facilities. Remediation projects also concern former mining

sites, other legacy sites and industrial sites having produced NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive

Material) and TENORM (Technologically Enhanced NORM) waste, where the main issue is the large

volume of waste involved. The aim is primarily to demonstrate that the entire nuclear cycle is well

managed. A large number of issues need to be considered:

— The nuclear regulatory framework did not exist at the beginning and it has evolved over time

(release procedures, health and safety, environmental considerations…). In addition, there is more

and more stakeholder involvement today, and this needs to be considered at the early stages of any

project.

— The availability of waste management facilities and disposal sites varies between countries and

through time. The classification based on activity levels: e.g. very low level waste (VLLW), low level

waste (LLW), intermediate level waste (ILW), high level waste (HLW) and nuclide half-lives (short-

lived or long-lived radionuclides) impacts remediation projects. These factors sometimes result in

the partial clean-up of sites, due to the absence of a final solution for waste disposal. Waste may also

have had to be temporarily stored on site for economic reasons.

— Remediation costs and schedules are optimized and rationalized using a graded approach, as these

projects are generally expensive and time consuming. They also need to be securely funded and

planned.

— In order to optimize waste categories, volumes and costs, characterization is a crucial issue enabling

the best knowledge of the radiological state of the site (soils, buildings and infrastructures) to be

obtained before making project decisions.

Lessons learned from the first sites to be remediated have demonstrated that poor characterization

(based on incomplete historical information and too limited a number of data points or samples)

strongly impacts the success of a remediation project, with inappropriate choices having been made

(over-estimation of volumes and over-categorization of waste, unexpected contamination).

As a consequence, it is now recognized that accurate characterization is the key to successful

dismantling and remediation projects. There are many characterization steps necessary throughout a

project, each with specific objectives.

The main potential improvement concerns the sampling effort, sample representativeness and

assessment of activity levels assessments. Combined with data analysis and processing, all the

uncertainties involved are combined to deliver a result with a corresponding confidence interval.

Therefore the characterization strategy and programme should be set well before the actual

measurements, to ensure efficiency.

The preparation of any nuclear facility’s remediation programme requires knowledge of its operational

history. This covers the entire period from design, licensing and through to final shutdown, in order

to establish the nature and location of potential or known radioactive contamination, together with

possible associated chemical products, with the appropriate accuracy. The overall remediation strategy

requires an estimation of the quantity and the volume of waste to be produced, and an assessment of its

level of contamination. This enables appropriate optimized waste management.

In addition, a final characterization is compulsory for sites to be released and/or re-used in order to

demonstrate compliance with remediation objectives (clearance levels, if any, or a release threshold set

by, or agreed with, the regulatory body).

This document outlines the principles of characterization for remediation purposes of soils, buildings

and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides and possible associated chemical pollutants.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)

As the preparation of a sampling plan is an iterative process, decision-taking steps will be defined

throughout this document taking into account constraints imposed by operations, budgets and

regulations, while respecting the ALARA and ALARP principles.

The application of this methodology will aid the user to obtain the information necessary for compiling

the files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is

applicable to each of the steps necessary for the remediation of sites, depending on the objectives

(release into the public domain, re-use). It can enable an assessment to be established for contaminated

soils, or in preparing to carry out post-remediation checks (even including the facility’s civil engineering

structures), in order to confirm that the remediation objectives have been met.

With regards to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a graded

approach should be considered for the characterization of soils, buildings and infrastructures

for remediation purposes. The characterization strategy, programme and planning should be

commensurate with the complexity of the remediation problem and with the established end state. A

graded approach can limit occupational exposure for workers, as well as saving time and money [ref.

IAEA = DeSa project (Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using

Radioactive Material)].
viii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18557:2017(E)
Characterisation principles for soils, buildings and
infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for
remediation purposes
1 Scope

This document presents guidelines for sampling strategies and characterization processes to assess

the contamination of soils, buildings and infrastructures, prior to remediation and/or to check that

the remediation objectives have been met (final release surveys). The principles presented need to be

appropriately graded as regards the specific situations concerned (size, level of contamination…). It can

be used in conjunction with each country’s key documentation.

This document deals with characterization in relation to site remediation. It applies to sites

contaminated after normal operation of older nuclear facilities. It could also apply to site remediation

after a major accident, and in this case the input data will be linked to the accident involved.

The document complements existing standards, notably concerning sampling, sample preservation and

their transport, treatment and laboratory measurements, but also those related to in situ chemical and

radiological measurements. References in the Bibliography contain links to appropriate documentation

and techniques as required by individual member countries.

The document does not apply to the following issues: execution of clean-up works, sampling and

characterization of waste (conditioned or unconditioned) or to waste packages.
It does not apply to groundwater characterization (saturated zone).

Given the case-by-case nature of site remediation and decommissioning, the principles and guidance

communicated in this document are intended as general guidance only, not prescriptive requirements.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
characterization

determination of the nature, concentration and spatial extent of radiological and chemical contents

present in a specified place
Note 1 to entry: See also radiological and chemical survey.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
3.2
clean-up work

actions taken to reduce the exposure to radiological and chemical substances from existing

contamination through actions applied to the contamination itself (the source) or to the exposure

pathways to humans and the environment
Note 1 to entry: See also remediation (3.22).
3.3
clearance level
release threshold

value, or a set of values, established by a regulatory body and expressed in terms of activity concentration

and/or total activity, at or below which a source of radiation may be released from regulatory control

3.4
contaminant

radioactive or chemical substance or agent present in a medium which due to its properties, amount or

concentration may have impacts on the environment and human health
3.5
contamination
presence of radioactive or chemical
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
01-maj-2020

Načela za opisovanje lastnosti zemljin, zgradb in infrastruktur, kontaminiranih z

radionuklidi, za potrebe sanacije (ISO 18557:2017)

Characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by

radionuclides for remediation purposes (ISO 18557:2017)

Charakterisierungsgrundsätze für mit Radionukliden kontaminierte Böden, Gebäude und

Infrastrukturen zu Sanierungszwecken (ISO 18557:2017)

Principes de caractérisation des sols, bâtiments et infrastructures contaminés par des

radionucléides, à des fins de réhabilitation (ISO 18557:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18557:2020
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
EN ISO 18557
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.020.40; 27.120.30
English Version
Characterisation principles for soils, buildings and
infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for
remediation purposes (ISO 18557:2017)

Principes de caractérisation des sols, bâtiments et Charakterisierungsgrundsätze für mit Radionukliden

infrastructures contaminés par des radionucléides, à kontaminierte Böden, Gebäude und Infrastrukturen zu

des fins de réhabilitation (ISO 18557:2017) Sanierungszwecken (ISO 18557:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 January 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18557:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
EN ISO 18557:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
EN ISO 18557:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 18557:2017 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85 "Nuclear energy,

nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” of the International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 19361:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 430 “Nuclear

energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18557:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18557:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18557
First edition
2017-09
Characterisation principles for
soils, buildings and infrastructures
contaminated by radionuclides for
remediation purposes
Principes de caractérisation des sols, bâtiments et infrastructures
contaminés par des radionucléides, à des fins de réhabilitation
Reference number
ISO 18557:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Strategy applied to the remediation of contaminated sites .................................................................................... 6

4.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Characterization and remediation objectives .............................................................................................................. 8

4.3 Historical analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.4 Documents .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.5 Interviews ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6 Functional analysis ...........................................................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Preliminary characterization ...................................................................................................................................................10

4.8 Definition of the zones of interest and contamination tracers ...................................................................10

4.9 Surface and/or volumetric characterization program ......................................................................................11

4.10 Data processing and contamination assessment ...................................................................................................12

4.11 Conf ormity of the results to the characterization objectives .......................................................................13

4.12 Remediation programme ............................................................................................................................................................13

4.13 Final characterization ....................................................................................................................................................................15

5 Surface characterization programme ..........................................................................................................................................16

5.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Non-destructive analysis .............................................................................................................................................................18

5.2.1 Characterization programme: Determination of the sampling design and

the number of data points ....................................................................................................................................18

5.2.2 Implementation .............................................................................................................................................................19

5.3 Destructive analysis .........................................................................................................................................................................19

5.3.1 Characterization programme .............................................................................................................................19

5.3.2 Implementation and laboratory analyses ...............................................................................................19

5.4 Preliminary consolidation ..........................................................................................................................................................20

5.5 Data processing ...................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.5.1 Spatial structure of the phenomenon .........................................................................................................20

5.5.2 Data processing in the case of spatially structured contaminations ...............................20

5.5.3 Result mapping in the case of spatially structured contaminations ................................20

5.5.4 Statistical processing in the case of non-structured contaminations .............................20

5.6 Conf ormity of the results with the characterization objective ...................................................................21

5.7 Surface characterization file .....................................................................................................................................................21

6 Volumetric characterization programme ................................................................................................................................21

6.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2 Volumetric investigations ...........................................................................................................................................................24

6.2.1 Characterization programme .............................................................................................................................24

6.2.2 Implementation and laboratory analyses ...............................................................................................24

6.3 Preliminary consolidation ..........................................................................................................................................................24

6.4 Volumetric Data processing ......................................................................................................................................................25

6.4.1 Case of structured contaminations ...............................................................................................................25

6.4.2 Case of non-structured contaminations ...................................................................................................25

6.5 Compatibility of the results with the objectives .....................................................................................................25

6.6 Volumetric characterization file ............................................................................................................................................25

7 Final characterization programme ................................................................................................................................................27

7.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2 Final characterization programme .....................................................................................................................................27

7.3 Processing the final characterization results .............................................................................................................28

7.4 Final characterization file ...........................................................................................................................................................29

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8 Final report .............................................................................................................................................................................................................29

Annex A (informative) Geostatistical data processing and examples of good practices .............................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies,

and radiological protection, Sub-committee SC 5, Nuclear fuel cycle.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)
Introduction

The remit of WG 13 covers all aspects of the decommissioning phase, and thus it interfaces with other

Sub-Committees and Working Groups whose work intersects with this phase.

Figure 1 below indicates some of the topics that could be included in SC 5 and/or WG 13. It provides a

view of how the scope of this ISO Standard links with both generic and more detailed topics.

This document contains both guidance and references to documents which may be useful in relation

to this work area. Read in conjunction with the supporting references, it gives a generic approach

to the topic. It also may have connections with many other blocks across the whole diagram (e.g.

Decommissioning strategy, Waste Management, Site remediation, Dismantling/Demolition, Cost issues,

Safety).

Moreover, it was not intended to establish this document as a stand-alone document. When a member

country already has national tools in this field (e.g. regulatory requirements, national standards), these

requirements and national standards are applicable in conjunction with this document.

Figure 1 — Indicative chart of the topics included in WG 13, showing how this document is

linked to other topics

This work stream structure can be used to clarify the scope of WG publications and to ensure that areas

of joint interest between ISO teams and working groups are coordinated. The ISO shadow committee for

a member body identifies proposals for further work and, if appropriate, submits them to the Working

Group for international consideration as potential new work items. Figure 1 can be a useful prompt

in this process. This document is part of an overall decommissioning and environmental remediation

strategy including, for example, the monitoring and/or remediation of groundwater which might be

addressed in a new work item.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)

Since the discovery of radioactivity at the end of the 19th century, numerous laboratories and facilities

have dealt with radioactive substances (notably radium). In addition, the development and considerable

expansion of the nuclear industry, both civilian and defence, has generated many nuclear facilities built

since the 1940s, resulting today in legacy sites.

More recently, nuclear operators and state organisations have intensively undertaken the dismantling

and remediation of shutdown nuclear facilities. Remediation projects also concern former mining

sites, other legacy sites and industrial sites having produced NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive

Material) and TENORM (Technologically Enhanced NORM) waste, where the main issue is the large

volume of waste involved. The aim is primarily to demonstrate that the entire nuclear cycle is well

managed. A large number of issues need to be considered:

— The nuclear regulatory framework did not exist at the beginning and it has evolved over time

(release procedures, health and safety, environmental considerations…). In addition, there is more

and more stakeholder involvement today, and this needs to be considered at the early stages of any

project.

— The availability of waste management facilities and disposal sites varies between countries and

through time. The classification based on activity levels: e.g. very low level waste (VLLW), low level

waste (LLW), intermediate level waste (ILW), high level waste (HLW) and nuclide half-lives (short-

lived or long-lived radionuclides) impacts remediation projects. These factors sometimes result in

the partial clean-up of sites, due to the absence of a final solution for waste disposal. Waste may also

have had to be temporarily stored on site for economic reasons.

— Remediation costs and schedules are optimized and rationalized using a graded approach, as these

projects are generally expensive and time consuming. They also need to be securely funded and

planned.

— In order to optimize waste categories, volumes and costs, characterization is a crucial issue enabling

the best knowledge of the radiological state of the site (soils, buildings and infrastructures) to be

obtained before making project decisions.

Lessons learned from the first sites to be remediated have demonstrated that poor characterization

(based on incomplete historical information and too limited a number of data points or samples)

strongly impacts the success of a remediation project, with inappropriate choices having been made

(over-estimation of volumes and over-categorization of waste, unexpected contamination).

As a consequence, it is now recognized that accurate characterization is the key to successful

dismantling and remediation projects. There are many characterization steps necessary throughout a

project, each with specific objectives.

The main potential improvement concerns the sampling effort, sample representativeness and

assessment of activity levels assessments. Combined with data analysis and processing, all the

uncertainties involved are combined to deliver a result with a corresponding confidence interval.

Therefore the characterization strategy and programme should be set well before the actual

measurements, to ensure efficiency.

The preparation of any nuclear facility’s remediation programme requires knowledge of its operational

history. This covers the entire period from design, licensing and through to final shutdown, in order

to establish the nature and location of potential or known radioactive contamination, together with

possible associated chemical products, with the appropriate accuracy. The overall remediation strategy

requires an estimation of the quantity and the volume of waste to be produced, and an assessment of its

level of contamination. This enables appropriate optimized waste management.

In addition, a final characterization is compulsory for sites to be released and/or re-used in order to

demonstrate compliance with remediation objectives (clearance levels, if any, or a release threshold set

by, or agreed with, the regulatory body).

This document outlines the principles of characterization for remediation purposes of soils, buildings

and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides and possible associated chemical pollutants.

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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
ISO 18557:2017(E)

As the preparation of a sampling plan is an iterative process, decision-taking steps will be defined

throughout this document taking into account constraints imposed by operations, budgets and

regulations, while respecting the ALARA and ALARP principles.

The application of this methodology will aid the user to obtain the information necessary for compiling

the files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is

applicable to each of the steps necessary for the remediation of sites, depending on the objectives

(release into the public domain, re-use). It can enable an assessment to be established for contaminated

soils, or in preparing to carry out post-remediation checks (even including the facility’s civil engineering

structures), in order to confirm that the remediation objectives have been met.

With regards to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a graded

approach should be considered for the characterization of soils, buildings and infrastructures

for remediation purposes. The characterization strategy, programme and planning should be

commensurate with the complexity of the remediation problem and with the established end state. A

graded approach can limit occupational exposure for workers, as well as saving time and money [ref.

IAEA = DeSa project (Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using

Radioactive Material)].
viii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18557:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18557:2017(E)
Characterisation principles for soils, buildings and
infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for
remediation purposes
1 Scope

This document presents guidelines for sampling strategies and characterization processes to assess

the contamination of soils, buildings and infrastructures, prior to remediation and/or to check that

the remediation objectives have been met (final release surveys). The principles presented need to be

appropriately graded as regards the specific situations concerned (size, level of contamination…). It can

be used in conjunction with each country’s key documentation.

This document deals with characterization in relation to site remediation. It applies to sites

contaminated after normal operation of older nuclear facilities. It could also apply to site remediation

after a major accident, and in this case the input data will be linked to the accident involved.

The document complements existing standards, notably concerning sampling, sample preservation and

their transport, treatment and laboratory measurements, but also those related to in situ chemical and

radiological measurements. References in the Bibliography contain links to appropriate documentation

and techniques as required by individual member countries.

The document does not apply to the following issues: execution of clean-up works, sampling and

characterization of waste (conditioned or unconditioned) or to waste packages.
It does not apply to groundwater characterization (saturated zone).

Given the case-by-case nature of site remediation and decommissioning, the principles and guidance

communicated in this document are intended as general guidance only, not prescriptive requirements.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
characterization

determination of the nature, concentration and spatial extent of radiological and chemical contents

present in a specified place
Note 1 to entry: See also radiological and chemical survey.
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ISO 18557:2017(E)
3.2
clean-up work

actions taken to reduce the exposure to radiological and chemical substances from existing

contamination through actions applied to the contamination itself (the source) or to the exposure

pathways to humans and the environment
Note 1 to entry: See also remediation (3.22).
3.3
clearance level
release threshold

value, or a set of values, established by a regulatory body and expressed in terms of activity concentration

and/or total activity, at or below which a source of radiation may be released from regulatory control

3.4
contaminant

radioactive or chemical substance or agent present in a medium which due to its properties, amount or

concentration may have impacts on the environment and human health
3.5
contamination
presence of radioactive or chemical
...

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