Safety of machinery - Human body measurements - Part 2: Principles for determining the dimensions required for access openings

This European Standard specifies the dimensions of openings for access as applied to machinery as defined in EN 292-1. It provides the dimensions to which the values given in EN 547-3 are applicable. Values for additional space requirements are given in annex A. This European Standard has been prepared primarily for non-mobile machinery, there may be additional specific requirements for mobile machinery.
Dimensions for access openings are based on the values for the 95th percentile, whereas reach distances are based on the values for the 5th percentile, in each case the least favourable body dimension of the expected user population being used as a basis. The same considerations apply to the location of access openings.
The anthropometric data given in EN 547-3 originate from static measurements of nude persons and do not take into account body movements, clothing, equipment, machinery operating conditions or environmental conditions.
This European Standard shows how to combine the anthropometric data with suitable allowances to take these factors into account.
Situations where people are to be prevented from reaching a hazard are dealt with in EN 294.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Körpermaße des Menschen - Teil 2: Grundlagen für die Bemessung von Zugangsöffnungen

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Maße von Öffnungen für Zugänge an Maschinenarbeitsplätzen fest, wie sie in EN 292-1 definiert sind. Sie gibt Abmessungen an, für die die in EN 547-3 enthaltenen Werte anwendbar sind. Werte für zusätzliche Raumanforderungen sind im Anhang A angegeben. Diese Europäische Norm wurde primär für stationäre Maschinenarbeitsplätze erarbeitet, für mobile Maschinen können sich zusätzliche Anforderungen ergeben.
Maße für Zugänge beruhen auf Werten für das 95.  Perzentil, Reichweiten hingegen basieren auf Werten für das 5.  Perzentil; in jedem Fall ist das ungünstigste Körpermaß für die zu erwartende Benutzerpopulation zugrunde zu legen. Dieselben Überlegungen gelten für die Lage von Zugängen.
Die Körpermaße in EN 547-3 stammen aus statischen Messungen an unbekleideten Menschen und berücksichtigen weder Körperbewegungen, Kleidung, Ausrüstung, maschinenspezifische Bedingungen oder die jeweiligen Umgebungsbedingungen.
Diese Europäische Norm zeigt, wie die anthropometrischen Daten mit geeigneten Zuschlägen kombiniert werden können, damit diese Faktoren berücksichtigt werden.
Situationen, in denen Menschen daran gehindert werden sollen, Gefahrstellen zu erreichen, werden in EN 294 behandelt.

Sécurité des machines - Mesures du corps humain - Partie 2: Principes de détermination des dimensions requises pour les orifices d'accès

La présente norme européenne spécifie les dimensions des orifices d'accès telles qu'appliquées aux machines
suivant la définition de l'EN 292-1. Elle offre des dimensions auxquelles les valeurs données dans l'EN 547-3 sont
applicables. Les valeurs d'espaces supplémentaires figurent dans l'annexe A. La présente norme européenne a été
préparée en priorité pour les machines non mobiles, il peut y avoir lieu d'y ajouter certaines exigences spécifiques
pour les machines mobiles.
Les dimensions des orifices d'accès sont basées sur les valeurs correspondant au 95e percentile alors que les
distances d'atteinte sont fondées sur les valeurs du 5e percentile, soit dans chaque cas, la dimension du corps la
moins favorable de la population d'utilisateurs concernée servant de base. Les mêmes principes s'appliquent à
l'emplacement des ouvertures d'accès.
Les données anthropométriques de l'EN 547-3 sont issues de mesures statiques de personnes dévêtues et ne
tiennent donc pas compte des mouvements du corps, des vêtements, de l'équipement, des conditions de
fonctionnement de la machine ni des conditions environnementales.
La présente norme européenne explique comment combiner les données anthropométriques aux espaces
supplémentaires correspondants pour prendre ces facteurs en considération.
Les situations dans lesquelles il est nécessaire d'éviter l'accès des zones dangereuses aux personnes sont traitées
dans l'EN 294.

Varnost strojev - Mere človeškega telesa - 2. del: Načela določanja priporočenih mer za dostopne odprtine

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Sep-2008
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9020 - Submission to 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
15-Jan-2022
Completion Date
15-Jan-2022

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Sicherheit von Maschinen - Körpermaße des Menschen - Teil 2: Grundlagen für die Bemessung von ZugangsöffnungenSécurité des machines - Mesures du corps humain - Partie 2: Principes de détermination des dimensions requises pour les orifices d'accèsSafety of machinery - Human body measurements - Part 2: Principles for determining the dimensions required for access openings13.180ErgonomijaErgonomics13.110Varnost strojevSafety of machineryICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008en,fr01-december-2008SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 547-2:1996+A1
September 2008 ICS 13.110; 13.180 Supersedes EN 547-2:1996 English Version

Safety of machinery - Human body measurements - Part 2: Principles for determining the dimensions required for access openings

Sécurité des machines - Mesures du corps humain -Partie 2: Principes de détermination des dimensions requises pour les orifices d'accès

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Körpermaße des Menschen - Teil 2: Grundlagen für die Bemessung von Zugangsöffnungen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 November 1996 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 14 August 2008.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels © 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008: ESIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008

EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................4 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................4 3 General requirements............................................................................................................................5 4 Access openings...................................................................................................................................5 Annex A (normative)

Application of the measurements in practice............................................................11 A.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................11 A.1 Principles for determining additional space.....................................................................................11 A.2 Additional space requirements for access openings......................................................................12 A.2.1 Access opening for the upper body and arms (see 4.1)..................................................................12 A.2.2 Access opening for the head up to the shoulders for inspection tasks (see 4.2)........................12 A.2.3 Access opening for both arms (see 4.3)...........................................................................................12 A.2.4 Access opening for both lower arms up to elbow (see 4.4)............................................................12 A.2.5 Access opening to the side for one arm up to shoulder joint (see 4.5).........................................13 A.2.6 Access opening for a lower arm up to the elbow (see 4.6).............................................................13 A.2.7 Access opening for fist (see 4.7)........................................................................................................13 A.2.8 Access opening for flat hand to wrist, including thumb (see 4.8)..................................................13 A.2.9 Access opening for flat hand (four fingers) to base of thumb (see 4.9)........................................13 A.2.10 Access opening for index finger, restricted by the other fingers (see 4.10).................................14 A.2.11 Access opening for one foot to ankle bone (see 4.11)....................................................................14 A.2.12 Access opening for forefoot operated controls (see 4.12)..............................................................14 Annex B (informative)

Position of access openings.....................................................................................15 B.1 This Annex gives information on the position of access openings to facilitate access for the intended user population.............................................................................................................15 B.2 Provision for adjustability...................................................................................................................15 B.3 Conditions to be met with in location of access openings.............................................................15 B.3.1 Access opening for the upper body and arms (see 4.1)..................................................................16 B.3.2 Access opening for the head as far as the shoulders for inspection tasks (see 4.2)..................17 B.3.3 Access opening for both arms (either forward or downward) (see 4.3)........................................18 B.3.4 Access opening for both lower arms up to the elbow, either forward or downward (see 4.4).........................................................................................................................................................19 B.3.5 Opening for access to the side for one arm up to the shoulder joint (see 4.5).............................20 B.3.6 Access opening for one lower arm up to the elbow (see 4.6).........................................................21 B.3.7 Access opening for fist (see 4.7)........................................................................................................22 B.3.8 Access opening for flat hand to wrist, including thumb (see 4.8)..................................................22 B.3.9 Access opening for flat hand (four fingers) to base of thumb (see 4.9)........................................22 B.3.10 Access opening for index finger, restricted by the other fingers (see 4.10).................................22 B.3.11 Access opening for one foot to ankle bone (see 4.11)....................................................................22 B.3.12 Access opening for forefoot operated controls (see 4.12)..............................................................22 Annex C (informative)

Notations for dimensions and anthropometric body measurements...................23 Annex ZA (informative)

!!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC""""...............................................25 Annex ZB (informative)

!!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC""""...................................................................................26 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................27 SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008

EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 3

Foreword This document (EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2009. This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2008-08-14. This document supersedes EN 547-2:1996. The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags ! ". This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). !For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA and ZB, which are integral parts of this document." According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008

EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 4 Introduction This European Standard is one of several ergonomics standards for the safety of machinery. EN 614-1 "Safety of machinery – Ergonomic design principles – Part 1: Terminology and general principles" describes the principles designers should adopt in order to take account of ergonomic factors. This European Standard describes how these principles should be applied to the design of access openings. This standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard in the sense of the Machinery Directive and associated EFTA regulations. 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the dimensions of openings for access as applied to machinery as defined in EN 292-1. It provides the dimensions to which the values given in EN 547-3 are applicable. Values for additional space requirements are given in annex A. This European Standard has been prepared primarily for non-mobile machinery, there may be additional specific requirements for mobile machinery. Dimensions for access openings are based on the values for the 95th percentile, whereas reach distances are based on the values for the 5th percentile, in each case the least favourable body dimension of the expected user population being used as a basis. The same considerations apply to the location of access openings. The anthropometric data given in EN 547-3 originate from static measurements of nude persons and do not take into account body movements, clothing, equipment, machinery operating conditions or environmental conditions. This European Standard shows how to combine the anthropometric data with suitable allowances to take these factors into account. Situations where people are to be prevented from reaching a hazard are dealt with in EN 294. 2 Normative references This European standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies. EN 292-1, Safety of Machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology. EN 294, Safety of Machinery - Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs. EN 547-3, Safety of Machinery – Human body measurements – Part 3: Anthropometric data. EN 614-1, Safety of Machinery - Ergonomic design principles – Part 1: Terminology and general principles. SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008

EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 5 3 General requirements Operations requiring reach through minimum access openings are likely to be less efficient, less safe and less healthy than working with unrestricted access. Therefore, before installing access openings other options should be considered, e.g. possibility to open machinery, withdrawal of parts for repair. This is particularly important where the task demands frequent access. When access openings cannot be avoided the following criteria are of particular significance: a) Ease of access is influenced by:  The demands of the task, e.g. posture, nature and speed of movement, lines of sight, application of force;  The location of the access opening relative to the position of the person, e.g. convenient height above floor, within easy reach, sufficient space outside to allow adoption of a comfortable posture, sufficient space inside to allow performance of the task;  Frequency and duration of task;  Whether tools are being carried, e.g. for maintenance or repair purposes;  Length of access openings e.g. through a relatively thin wall (wall of a vessel) or through a channel type opening;  Whether additional equipment such as personal protective equipment (including protective clothing), or portable lighting, is being carried or worn;  The type of clothing, e.g. light or heavy clothing, bare hands or thick gloves, bare headed or wearing a helmet; b) Environmental conditions (e.g. darkness, heat, noise, moisture); c) Level of risk during the task. Therefore, in addition to the anthropometric data in each case, allowances shall be provided for the respective opening dimensions and reach distances, taking into account the above criteria. The applications on how to apply this European Standard in practice is contained in Annex A concerning allowances and in Annex B concerning position of access openings. Annex C gives information on the use of notations for dimensions and anthropometric measurements. 4 Access openings An access opening is an opening through which a person can lean forward, reach forward, or extend the upper body, head, arm, hand, a finger or several fingers, leg or foot, to be able to carry out measures during work procedures, such as operating of control actuators, repair duties or monitoring of processes or displays. This European Standard does not specify optimum dimensions, but minimum dimensions for the size of the opening and maximum dimensions for reach. Wherever possible, the basic dimensions for the openings should be increased, and the maximum dimensions for reach should be decreased.

SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008
EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 6
Notations Explanation of measurement
4.1
Access opening for the upper body and
arms
A = a1 (P951)) + x
Opening diameter
Elbow to elbow breadth
Allowance
4.2
Access opening for the head as far as the shoulders for inspection tasks
This type of access should be avoided wherever possible
A = c3 (P95) + x
Opening diameter
Head length from tip of nose
Allowance
4.3
Access opening for both arms (either forward or downward)
A = a1 (P95) + x B = d1 (P95) + y C = t1 (P5)

1) P95: 95th percentile of the expected user population SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008

EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 7
A B C
a1 d1 t1
x y
Opening breadth Opening width Opening depth
Elbow-to-elbow breadth Upper arm diameter Operating arm length
Breadth allowance Width allowance
4.4
Access opening for both lower arms up to elbow (either forward or downward)
A B C
d2 t2
x y
A = 2d2 (P95) + x B = d2 (P95) + y C = t2 (P5)
Opening breadth Opening width Opening depth
Lower arm diameter Forearm reach
Breadth allowance Width allowance
SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008
EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 8 No
Notations Explanation of measurement
4.5
Opening for access to the side for one arm up to shoulder joint
A B
d1 t3
A = d1 (P95) + x B = t3 (P5)
Opening diameter Opening depth
Upper arm diameter Arm reach to the side
Allowance
4.6
Access opening for one lower arm up to the elbow
A B
a3 t2
A = a3 (P95) + x B = t2 (P5)
Opening diameter Opening depth
Hand breadth at thumb Forearm reach
Allowance
4.7
Access opening for fist
A = d3 (P95) + x
Opening diameter
Fist diameter
Allowance
SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008
EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 9 No
Notations Explanation of measurement
4.8
Access opening for flat hand to wrist, including thumb
A B C
a3 b4 t4
x y
A = b4 (P95) + x B = a3 (P5) + y C = t4 (P5)
Opening width Opening height Opening depth
Hand breadth with thumb Hand depth at thumb Hand length
Width allowance Height allowance
4.9
Access opening for flat hand (four fingers) to base of thumb
A B C
a4 b3 t5
x y
A = b3 (P95) + x B = a4 (P95) + y C = t5 (P5)
Opening width Opening height Opening depth
Hand breadth at metacarpals Hand depth at palm Hand length to thumb
Width allowance Height allowance
4.10
Access opening for index finger, restricted by the other fingers
A B
a5 t6
A = a5 (P95) + x B = t6 (P5)
Opening diameter Opening depth
Index finger breadth, proximal Index finger length
Allowance
4.11
Access opening for one foot to ankle bone
A = a6 (P95) + x B = c2 (P95) + y SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008
EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 10
A B
a6 c2
x y
Opening width Opening length
Foot breadth Foot length
Width allowance Length allowance
4.12
Access opening for fore-foot operated control actuators
A B C
h8 a6 c2
x y
A = a6 (P95) + x B = h8 (P95) + y C ≤ 0,74 × c2 (P5)
Opening width Opening height Opening length (depth)
Ankle height Foot breadth Foot length
Width allowance Height allowance
SIST EN 547-2:1998+A1:2008
EN 547-2:1996+A1:2008 (E) 11 Annex A (normative)

Application of the measurements in practice A.0 Introduction The purpose of this annex is to explain how to apply the anthropometric measurements given in this European Standard according to ergonomic and safety and health principles. This European Standard describes minimum dimensions for access openings based on anthropometric measurements, i.e. static measurements of nude persons. The opening dimensions including allowances in this European Standard do not always take into consideration for example:  Aspects of health and safety arising from contact with the access opening itself;  Whether the body positions and movements that must be used in the access opening mean any risk to the user's safety and health, e.g. in relation to how often or how long the person has to use the access opening;  Whether the person has to adopt a certain body position in order to meet the force demands of the task without becoming overloaded;  The space required for transportation of equipment and tools through the access opening;  The space required for using equipment and tools in the access opening in a proper ergonomic way, e.g. cleaning, repair and maintenance work;  Personal protective equipment the user might wear when reaching through the access opening;  The speed reduction caused by a too narrow space;  Whether the task puts special visual demands on the user;  Any mental load factor, e.g. whether the task must be completed within a specific period of time;  The space requirements for entrance to and exit from the access opening. The design of an access opening that takes ergonomic pri

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