Sustainable integrated water use & treatment in process industries - a practical guidance (SustainWATER)

The objective of the CEN workshop is to describe a framework for a practical approach on measures to achieve "a sustainable water use and treatment in chemical industry (and related process industry sectors)" considering technological and non-technological issues.
In the CEN Workshop Agreement "SustainWATER" the results and experiences on how to come to an efficient and sustainable water use and treatment are brought together out of the E4Water case studies to provide a guidance document on this approach The main objective of the E4Water project is to develop, test and validate new integrated approaches, methodologies and process technologies for a more efficient and sustainable use and treatment of water in chemical industry with transfer potential to other sectors.

Trajnostna integrirana uporaba in obdelava vode v industrijskih procesih - Praktični napotki (uporabna VODA)

Cilj delavnice CEN je opis okvira za praktičen pristop k meritvam za namene doseganja »trajnostne uporabe in obdelave vode v kemični industriji (in povezanih obdelovalnih industrijskih sektorjih)« ob upoštevanju tehnoloških in netehnoloških vprašanj.
Dogovor »SustainWATER« v okviru delavnice CEN zajema povzetek rezultatov in izkušenj glede iskanja načinov učinkovite in trajnostne uporabe in obdelave vode na podlagi študij primerov E4Water ter podaja navodilo za ta pristop. Glavni cilj projekta E4Water je razvoj, preskušanje in potrditev novih integriranih pristopov, metodologij ter tehnologij obdelave za učinkovito in trajnostno uporabo in obdelavo vode v kemični industriji z možnostjo uporabe v drugih sektorjih.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-May-2016
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
22-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST CWA 17031:2016
01-september-2016
7UDMQRVWQDLQWHJULUDQDXSRUDEDLQREGHODYDYRGHYLQGXVWULMVNLKSURFHVLK
3UDNWLþQLQDSRWNL XSRUDEQD92'$

Sustainable integrated water use & treatment in process industries - a practical guidance

(Sustain WATER)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CWA 17031:2016
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
13.060.25 Voda za industrijsko uporabo Water for industrial use
SIST CWA 17031:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST CWA 17031:2016
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SIST CWA 17031:2016
CEN
CWA 17031
WORKSHOP
May 2016
AGREEMENT
ICS 13.060.25; 13.060.30; 71.020
English version
Sustainable integrated water use & treatment in process
industries - a practical guidance (SustainWATER)

This CEN Workshop Agreement has been drafted and approved by a Workshop of representatives of interested parties, the

constitution of which is indicated in the foreword of this Workshop Agreement.

The formal process followed by the Workshop in the development of this Workshop Agreement has been endorsed by the

National Members of CEN but neither the National Members of CEN nor the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre can be held

accountable for the technical content of this CEN Workshop Agreement or possible conflicts with standards or legislation.

This CEN Workshop Agreement can in no way be held as being an official standard developed by CEN and its Members.

This CEN Workshop Agreement is publicly available as a reference document from the CEN Members National Standard Bodies.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No.:CWA 17031:2016 E
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Content Page

European foreword ......................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 7

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 7

4 Drivers for sustainable integrated water use and treatment .............................................. 10

4.1 Incentives/leverages of companies as driver (process industry) ................................... 10

4.2 Other stakeholder as drivers (municipalities, technology providers etc.) .................. 12

5 Non-technical aspects ......................................................................................................................... 12

5.1 Framework ........................................................................................................................................... 12

5.1.1 Global strategies and local water challenges........................................................................... 13

5.1.2 Broad acceptance and support of the chosen solutions ...................................................... 13

5.2 Integrated water use and treatment: Set up of new systems and integration in

existing concepts ................................................................................................................................ 13

5.2.1 General approach and local solutions ........................................................................................ 13

5.2.2 Acceptance of solutions by different stakeholders ............................................................... 15

6 Technical aspects at industrial scale ............................................................................................. 16

6.1 Definition phase ................................................................................................................................. 16

6.2 Technology selection ........................................................................................................................ 17

6.3 Validation of the technology .......................................................................................................... 17

6.4 Lessons learned from E4Water case studies ........................................................................... 18

7 Assessment and decision aspects ................................................................................................... 19

7.1 Risk assessment and opportunities ............................................................................................ 20

7.1.1 Drivers ................................................................................................................................................... 20

7.1.2 Definition of the time frame........................................................................................................... 20

7.1.3 Assessment of risks ........................................................................................................................... 21

7.1.4 Opportunities ...................................................................................................................................... 22

7.1.5 Common hurdles to overcome ...................................................................................................... 22

7.2 Costs ........................................................................................................................................................ 24

7.3 Life cycle assessment (LCA) ........................................................................................................... 26

7.4 Strategies .............................................................................................................................................. 27

7.5 Process - Modelling ........................................................................................................................... 27

8 On site implementation ..................................................................................................................... 28

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................... 30

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European foreword

The present Workshop has been proposed by the E4Water consortium, which is conducting a

Collaborative Project on Economically and Ecologically Efficient Water Management in the

European Chemical Industry (E4Water; www.e4water.eu) [1]. E4Water is supported under the

7th Framework Programme of the EU, Theme NMP.2011.3.4-1, Eco-efficient management of

industrial water.

CWA SustainWATER was developed in accordance with CEN-CENELEC Guide 29 “CEN/CENELEC

Workshop Agreements – The way to rapid agreement” [2] and with the relevant provisions of

CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations - Part 2. It was agreed on 2016-03-23 in an online meeting

by representatives of interested parties, approved and supported by CEN following a public call

for participation made on 2016-01-22. It does not necessarily reflect the views of all

stakeholders that might have an interest in its subject matter.
CWA 79 SustainWATER is a technical agreement, developed and approved by an open,
independent Workshop structure within the framework of the CEN-CENELEC system.

CWA SustainWATER reflects the agreement only of the registered participants responsible for

its content, and was developed in accordance with the CEN-CENELEC rules and practices for the

development and approval of CEN/CENELEC Workshop Agreements.

CWA SustainWATER does not have the status of a European Standard (EN) developed by CEN

and its national Members. It does not represent the wider level of consensus and transparency

required for a European Standard (EN) and is not intended to support legislative requirements

or to address issues with significant health and safety implications. For these reasons, CEN are

not accountable for the technical content of CWA SustainWATER or for any possible conflicts

with national standards or legislation.

The final text of CWA SustainWATER was submitted to CEN for publication on 2016-04-05. It

was developed and approved by:
• CEFIC, Brussels/Belgium
Steven van de Broeck; Antonia Morales Perez
• DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main/Germany
Thomas Track, Christina Jungfer, Katja Wendler
• Dow Benelux BV, Terneuzen/Netherlands
Niels Groot
• DTU - Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby/Denmark
Davide De Francisci
• EVIDES, Rotterdam/Netherlands
Wilbert van den Broek
• INOVYN Manufacturing Belgium, Lillo Site, Antwerp/Belgium
Sabine Thabert
• IVL - Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm/Sweden
Uwe Fortkamp
• Kalundborg Kommune/Denmark
Per Møller
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• Procter and Gamble, Strombeek-Bever/Belgium
Eddy Linclau
• SOLVAY; Brussels, Belgium
Nathalie Swinnen
• TNO, The Hague/Netherlands
Raymond Creusen
• TOTAL, Harfleure/France
Alexandre Muller
• TUB - Technical University of Berlin, Berlin/Germany
Sven Geißen
• UCM - Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid/Spain
Angeles Blanco
• VITO, Mol/Belgium
Peter Cauwenberg

It is possible that some elements of CWA SustainWATER may be subject to patent rights. The

CEN-CENELEC policy on patent rights is set out in CEN-CENELEC Guide 8 “Guidelines for

Implementation of the Common IPR Policy on Patents (and other statutory intellectual property

rights based on inventions)”. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

The Workshop participants have made every effort to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the

technical and non-technical content of CWA SustainWATER, but this does not guarantee, either

explicitly or implicitly, its correctness. Users of CWA SustainWATER should be aware that

neither the Workshop participants, nor CEN can be held liable for damages or losses of any kind

whatsoever which may arise from its application. Users of CWA SustainWATER do so on their

own responsibility and at their own risk.
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Introduction
This CWA aims to provide guidance primarily for company stakeholders to support

implementation of sustainable integrated water use and treatment. While the whole procedure

might be relevant for some stakeholders, only parts might be for others. Such sustainable

integrated water system is essential for an efficient water use and treatment in any plant,

including chemical and process industries. In its most advanced form it can also be described as

an integrated industrial water management or even as an integrated water management when

urban and industrial waters are managed together. This industrial approach has various

dimensions starting from measures directly linked to single production processes up to

measures and cooperation that go far beyond one industrial unit or even site. With an increasing

range of scale to be considered in the industrial water management, the number of actors to be

involved is growing (e.g. neighbourhood industrial sites, municipal wastewater treatment units,

water resources management institutions up to catchment scale) and technology options are

getting manifold. So there is a clear need to consider them in an integrated way.

To improve the management of water resources, water uses and final effluent disposal, for the

companies in the chemical sector, multiple drivers exist. In many cases more than a single driver

applies for each company, and frequently inter correlation between different drivers exists.

Companies located in water stressed areas (as assessed by various neat tools developed over the

past years) will definitely identify the risk from various sides to reduce their water footprint by

reducing the fresh water intake. Minimizing discharge to sensitive water bodies, not already

regulated by local legislation implementation of the Water Framework Directive is also an

important driver since it will require measures to ensure “good ecological quality” in each river

water basin throughout Europe by 2027 latest.

Where competition with other users exists, typical governance foresees prioritization in water

distribution where the industrial activities will come after, respectively, citizens and agriculture.

The industry can look for alternative, although usually more expensive, water sources or it can

reduce its dependency on fresh water. The latter can reduce in a sustainable way the risk of

disruption in production. Moreover, the likelihood to see a pricing increase in such areas is a

high risk, enhancing the pay back of water reuse.

Anticipating these developments many companies, ranging from SME’s to multinationals, have

included sound water management in their corporate and business strategies. Many have

already defined clear objectives in setting targets for managing their water resources and some

have applied tools to assess their sustainable water use in the expectation that taking voluntary

action at an early stage provides the operating flexibility to achieve these goals when new and

strict legislation is issued.

The overall process to move towards a sustainable integrated industrial water use and

treatment can be described in the following way:
1. Clear definition of the conditions for implementation:
a. Intention, drivers, issues to be addressed.

b. Identification and description of the detailed non-technical framework to be considered,

like financing, regulations, etc.

c. 1st screening for the solution framework, to determine the scale that needs to be

considered as boundary conditions and to analyse the surrounding environment

2. Developing a 1st set of technical options/solutions in combination with non-technical

measures (where appropriate)
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3. Assessment of applicability, efficiency and prove of compliance with technical and non-

technical requirements (e.g. societal, administrative, regulative). Internal pre-assessment of

sustainable water use.
4. Refinement and optimization of the selected? solution(s)
Note: there might be several iteration steps between point 2 to 4
5. Final decision for a solution and implementation
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1 Scope

The objective of the CEN workshop is to describe a framework for a practical approach on

measures to achieve “a sustainable water use and treatment in chemical industry (and related

process industry sectors)” considering technological and non-technological issues.

In the CEN Workshop Agreement “SustainWATER” the results and experiences on how to come

to an efficient and sustainable water use and treatment are brought together out of the E4Water

case studies to provide a guidance document on this approach The main objective of the

E4Water project is to develop, test and validate new integrated approaches, methodologies and

process technologies for a more efficient and sustainable use and treatment of water in chemical

industry with transfer potential to other sectors.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
DIN EN 1085:2007: Wastewater treatment – Vocabulary; Trilingual version

ISO/TS 21929-2:2015(en): Sustainability in building construction - Sustainability indicators -

Part 2: Framework for the development of indicators for civil engineering works

ISO 14044:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and

guidelines

ISO 14040:2006(en): Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and

framework

ISO 14046:2014(en): Environmental management, Water footprint, Principles, requirements

and guidelines

ISO 15663-3:2001(en): Petroleum and natural gas industries - Life-cycle costing - Part 3:

Implementation guidelines

ISO 16075-1:2015(en): Guidelines for treated wastewater use for irrigation projects, Part 1: The

basis of a reuse project for irrigation

ISO 18311:2016(en): Soil quality - Method for testing effects of soil contaminants on the feeding

activity of soil dwelling organisms - Bait-lamina test
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the terms and definitions apply.
3.1
BREF documents
Best Available Techniques (BAT) reference documents
[SOURCE: http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/]
3.2
capital expenditures (CAPEX)
money used to purchase, install and commission a capital asset
[SOURCE: ISO 15663-3:2001(en), 2.1.3]
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3.3
economies of scope
efficiencies wrought by variety, not volume

[SOURCE: Joel D. Goldhar; Mariann Jelinek (Nov 1983). “Plan for Economies of Scope”. Harvard

Business Review, https://hbr.org/1983/11/plan-for-economies-of-scope]
3.4
ecosystem services

benefits that humans recognise as obtained from ecosystems that support, directly or indirectly,

their survival and quality of life

Note 1 to entry: These include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly benefit people

and the supporting services needed to maintain the direct services.
[SOURCE: ISO 18311:2016(en), 3.9]
3.5
integrated water use and treatment

considering interactions, interdependencies and synergy potentials between different measures

of water use and water/wastewater treatment in and across various scales: process – plant – site

– local - regional
3.6
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or

generation from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14044:2006, 3.1]
3.7
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a

product system throughout its life cycle
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006(en). 3.3.4]
3.8
life cycle cost
LCC

cost of an asset or its parts throughout its life cycle, while fulfilling its performance (3.28)

requirements
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 21929-2:2015(en), 3.25]
3.9
operating expenditure
OPEX

money used to operate and maintain, including associated costs such as logistics and spares

[SOURCE: ISO 15663-3:2001(en), 2.1.12]
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3.10
Sustainable Water Management

meeting the present water needs and handling without compromising the ability of future

generations to meet their own needs, incorporating environmental, societal and economic

considerations to come to a robust water system

[SOURCE: based on the UN sustainable development definition: United Nations, 1987, “Report of

the World Commission on Environment and Development” General Assembly Resolution
42/187, 11 December 1987. Retrieved: 2007-04-12]
3.11
Total Cost of Ownership
TCO
The CAPEX and OPEX are used to calculate the TCO (Total Costs of Ownership)
3.12
wastewater

water composed of any combination of water discharged from domestic, industrial or

commercial premises, surface run-off and accidentally any sewer infiltration water

[SOURCE: DIN EN 1085:2007, 1010]
3.13
water-fit-for-purpose
providing water in a quality appropriate to the requirements of a specific use
3.14
water footprint
metric(s) that quantifies the potential environmental impacts related to water

Note 1 to entry: If water related potential environmental impacts have not been comprehensively

assessed, then the term “water footprint” can only be applied with a qualifier. A qualifier is one or several

additional words used in conjunction with the term “water footprint” to describe the impact

category/categories studied in the water footprint assessment, e.g. “water scarcity footprint”, “water

eutrophication footprint”, “non-comprehensive water footprint”.
[SOURCE: ISO14046:2014(en), 3.5.14]
3.15
water related risks

risk of negative impact to process industry or an industrial process induced by water

3.16
water reuse
use of treated wastewater for beneficial use
Note 1 to entry: Synonymous also to water reclamation and water recycling.
[SOURCE: ISO 16075-1:2015(en), 3.1.23]
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4 Drivers for sustainable integrated water use and treatment
4.1 Incentives/leverages of companies as driver (process industry)

In a challenging economic environment with growing international competition and natural

resource scarcity, efficient resource management has become a strategic imperative for any

resource-intensive industry. Water plays a crucial role in this equation, as it is not only the single

most important chemical compound for human survival, but also a vital element of the

manufacturing process as well as for the development of the Bio Based Economy. Furthermore

water is also important in the development of a circular economy. There is a variety of driving

forces why a company works on sustainable water use:

• ‘To do the right thing‘: Many companies have established their own sustainability program

via which they commit themselves to improve their water efficiency. Several companies will

also join forces at national, international or industry federation level (e.g. U.N. Global

Compact CEO Water Mandate, WBCSD, etc.) to share experiences. Cooperation within the

same watershed is done to protect the common ‘water as raw material‘ or because this gives

additional efficiency opportunities (e.g. symbiosis where wastewater from one partner is

becoming the raw water for another partner) as part of the circular economy concept).

Some companies demonstrate their water responsibility by the application of water

stewardship schemes (e.g. European Water Stewardship or Alliance for Water Stewardship

at international level).

• Protection against water related risks: Manufacturing sites can face a variety of water

related risks with a huge impact if they are not well understood. Working to improve water

efficiency will typically be a first step of any mitigation plan. Water related risks can be very

diverse, changing over time and can depend heavily on external factors:

o Limits/Reduction in available water quantity due to fewer water supplies (e.g. linked

with global warming), growing water needs by others and/or changing priorities of

water allocations.

o Loss in water quality due to pollution (by others) or impact by e.g. climate change (e.g.

higher silt index in dam reservoirs, growth of tidal areas due to sea water level rise

causing more chloride in raw water, etc.).

o Non-technical: for example, press coverage on water related topics, non-governmental

organization (NGO) activities, public perception, and engagement, etc. can change the

way water needs to be looked at in a certain location.
• Legislation controlling the water intake:

o In several cases, companies see that the continuation of their activity is submitted to a

tendency to a lower water uptake at equivalent production capacity or an unchanged

water uptake is considered for an increased capacity.

o In other cases, manufacturing sites are getting water efficiency targets in their permits

specifying the maximum water intake to produce 1 ton of product.
• Legislation controlling the water discharge:

o While it is very common to have permit requirements on the water quality which is

discharged (with limits determined by the river basin approach directed in the EU

Water Framework Directive [3]), there are more and more permit requirements which

are limiting discharged volumes; sometimes with lower targets for ‘dry periods’ to

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ensure that the total of industrial discharges will stay low relative to the water volume

in the receiving water body.
• Lack of reliable water supply infrastructure:

o Some companies face a public water supply infrastructure which is limited in capacity

and/or is not reliable over time.
• Lack of water discharge capability:
o Some sites, that depend on wastewater treatment by public wastewater treatment

plants (WWTP) can only discharge limited volumes of wastewater into the public sewer

system, or are located in areas where there is no public sewer system available. For

sites with direct discharge (performing their own treatment of wastewater) surface

water bodies eligible for discharge may not be easy to reach.
• Cost of water: direct and indirect:

o In most places, the price of water is trending up and there is no reason why this trend

will change. So the raising price of water on itself can be sufficient to justify water

saving investments.

o But also the indirect water costs can be very significant: Operating expenses for the

internal fresh water treatment (quality and temperature), wastewater treatments and

the public fee to discharge the water, needs to be included and can make water savings

even more attractive.

• Business opportunities: In a world where fresh water is more and more scarce, it can be a

competitive advantage to be water efficient and/or to have water efficient products on the

market:
o In business-to-business (B2B) environment: More and more, big cooperations/
multinationals look for water efficiency through their supply chain and make

sourcing/purchase decisions in which water efficiency plays a role. This may be part of

their internal sustainability program or they do it to protect their business against

water related risks.
o Towards the consumers:

▪ Consumers which face in their private life water scarcity will most likely take water

efficiency of products into consideration when doing their purchases. They will be

willing to pay a higher price for water efficient product forms.

▪ Other consumers, not confronted with water scarcity, will in several cases also

choose for water efficient solutions if they can do this at equal cost and
performance.

▪ Although customers will typically look to the performance of the products they buy,

they will assume that these products are produced in a water efficient way.

Producers of the products will therefore work also on the water efficiency of their

production process.
▪ Recent initiatives by big retailers (e.g. Walmart in USA) or governmental

organizations (e.g. France) are trying to communicate the environmental footprint

of products to the consumers. As such, more information becomes available to them

and will more and more influence their purchase habits.
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• General expectation to be water efficient by the external world, the image of the company:

The recent droughts in several countries across the globe, the public concern on pollution of

water, the growing water needs by the growing global population and the impact of climate

change on water availability has created a general public concern on water availability.

• Proudness of the company/ general expectation to be water efficient by own employees:

Especially the younger generations in some countries are very sensitive to the way their

employer acts on sustainability and even has become a criterion to accept employment.

Having sustainability programs can play a role to attract, motivate, and retain qualified

people.
4.2 Other stakeholder as drivers (municipalities, technology providers etc.)

Stakeholders other than industry themselves can also act as drivers for improving managing

water resources.

It is increasingly recognized that public private partnerships are able to facilitate a structural

approach for managing water resources beyond the strict boundaries of a single user. Especially

in water stressed areas we see municipalities, provinces, country states, etc taking the initiative

to call for a broad regional collaboration to develop a sustainable and robust system that allows

multiple stakeholders to benefit from an integrated approach. Successful examples exist, where

regional approaches have been established in Spain (Catalonia), United States (Orange County),

The Netherl
...

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