Guide for the selection, application and use of flame arresters

This Technical Report is aimed primarily at persons who are responsible for the safe design and operation of installations and equipment using flammable liquids, vapours or gases.
This document applies to both industrial and mining applications
This document describes possible risks and gives proposals for the protection against these risks by the use of flame arresters.
This document gives some guidance to choice of flame arresters according to EN ISO 16852 for different common scenarios and it gives best practice for the installation and maintenance of these flame arresters.

Richtlinie für die Auswahl, die Anwendung und den Einsatz von Flammendurchschlagssicherungen

Dieser Technische Bericht ist vorrangig für Personen bestimmt, die für die sichere Ausführung und den sicheren Betrieb von Installationen und Anlagen verantwortlich sind, in denen brennbare Flüssigkeiten, Dämpfe oder Gase verwendet werden.
Dieses Dokument gilt sowohl für Industrieanwendungen als auch für Anwendungen im Bergbau.
In diesem Dokument sind mögliche Risiken beschrieben sowie Vorschläge für den Schutz gegen diese Risiken durch den Einsatz von Flammendurchschlagsicherungen enthalten.
Dieses Dokument enthält  Richtlinien für die Auswahl von Flammendurchschlagsicherungen entsprechend EN ISO 16852 für verschiedene übliche Szenarien und bewährte Vorgehensweisen für den Einbau und die Instandhaltung dieser Flammendurchschlagsicherungen.

Guide pour la sélection, l'application et l'utilisation des arrête-flammes

Le présent Rapport Technique s'adresse principalement aux personnes responsables de la conception et de l'exploitation en toute sécurité d'installations et d'équipements utilisant de liquides, de vapeurs et de gaz inflammables.
Le présent document concerne à la fois les applications industrielles et les applications minières.
Le présent document décrit les risques éventuels et propose des solutions pour la protection contre ces risques à l’aide d’arrête-flammes.
Le présent document fournit des conseils concernant le choix d'arrête-flammes conformes à l'EN ISO 16852 pour différents scénarios courants et indique les bonnes pratiques pour l'installation et la maintenance des arrête-flammes.

Smernice za izbiro in uporabo plamenskih zapor

To tehnično poročilo je namenjeno zlasti osebam, odgovornim za varno oblikovanje ter upravljanje inštalacij in opreme z vnetljivimi tekočinami, hlapi ali plini.
Ta dokument se uporablja tako v industriji kot rudarstvu.
V tem dokumentu so opisana možna tveganja ter podani predlogi za zaščito pred temi tveganji z uporabo plamenskih zapor.
V tem dokumentu je navedenih nekaj smernic za izbiro plamenskih zapor skladno s standardom EN ISO 16852 za različne običajne scenarije, poleg tega pa v njem najdete tudi informacije o najboljši praksi za namestitev in vzdrževanje teh plamenskih zapor.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Mar-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Jan-2016
Due Date
28-Mar-2016
Completion Date
02-Mar-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16793:2016
01-april-2016
Smernice za izbiro in uporabo plamenskih zapor
Guide for the selection, application and use of flame arresters
Richtlinie für die Auswahl, die Anwendung und den Einsatz von
Flammendurchschlagssicherungen
Guide pour la sélection, l'application et l'utilisation des arrête-flammes
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16793:2016
ICS:
13.220.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi z Other standards related to
varstvom pred požarom protection against fire
23.060.40 7ODþQLUHJXODWRUML Pressure regulators
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16793:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16793:2016
CEN/TR 16793
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
January 2016
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 23.060.40; 13.220.99
English Version
Guide for the selection, application and use of flame
arresters

Guide pour la sélection, l'application et l'utilisation des Richtlinie für die Auswahl, die Anwendung und den

arrête-flammes Einsatz von Flammendurchschlagssicherungen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 22 December 2014. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

305.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16793:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Explosion risks ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5 Technical measures for explosion protection ................................................................................... 11

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Mitigation of the effects of explosion .................................................................................................... 11

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.2 Prevention of explosion propagation – explosion decoupling .................................................... 11

5.3 Safety concept ................................................................................................................................................ 11

6 Flame arresters ............................................................................................................................................. 13

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 Principle of operation of flame arresters ............................................................................................ 14

6.3 Types of flame arresters ............................................................................................................................ 15

6.3.1 End-of-line deflagration flame arrester ............................................................................................... 15

6.3.2 In-line deflagration flame arrester ........................................................................................................ 15

6.3.3 In-line detonation flame arrester .......................................................................................................... 15

6.3.4 Stabilized burning ........................................................................................................................................ 15

6.3.5 Pre-volume flame arresters ..................................................................................................................... 16

6.4 Selection of flame arresters ...................................................................................................................... 16

6.5 Application limits ......................................................................................................................................... 20

6.6 Installation limits ......................................................................................................................................... 21

6.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

6.6.2 Arrangement of flame arresters at pipe branches [5] .................................................................... 22

6.6.3 In-line deflagration flame arrester ........................................................................................................ 23

6.6.4 End-of-line deflagration flame arrester ............................................................................................... 24

6.6.5 Liquid seal flame arrester ......................................................................................................................... 25

6.6.6 Foot valve flame arrester .......................................................................................................................... 26

6.6.7 Hydraulic flame arrester ........................................................................................................................... 26

6.6.8 High velocity valves ..................................................................................................................................... 26

6.7 Insulation and heating ............................................................................................................................... 26

7 Application of flame arresters ................................................................................................................. 27

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 27

7.2 Protection of process units, containments and tanks [5] .............................................................. 27

7.2.1 Necessity of flame arresters ..................................................................................................................... 27

7.2.2 Protection against flame transmission during deflagration or detonation ............................ 27

7.2.3 Protection against flame transmission during endurance burning .......................................... 28

7.2.4 Operating conditions [5] ........................................................................................................................... 29

7.3 Changing the process .................................................................................................................................. 29

8 Installation, operating and maintenance ............................................................................................ 29

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 29

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8.2 Safety information ........................................................................................................................................ 30

8.3 Checking and installing .............................................................................................................................. 30

8.4 Inspection and maintenance intervals ................................................................................................. 31

8.5 Liquid seal flame arrester ......................................................................................................................... 31

9 Commissioning checklist ........................................................................................................................... 32

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 33

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16793:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 305

“Potentially explosive atmospheres - Explosion prevention and protection”, the secretariat of which is

held by DIN.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
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Introduction

The document provided is general in nature and for specific applications further expert advice should

be sought.

In addition to the content of operating manuals from manufacturers, the local accident prevention

regulations, environmental protection and general safety provisions for the devices’ area of use, as well

as relevant laws and national directives, this paper will support the user for a proper use of flame

arresters.

In Europe, the “Directive 2014/34/EU on equipment and protective systems intended for use in

potentially explosive atmospheres” (ATEX – Atmosphères Explosibles) is mandatory for the production

and test intended for use of products in potentially explosive atmospheres. Flame arresters are defined

as a Protective System.

Flame arresters should be tested according to EN ISO 16852, Flame arresters – Performance

requirements, test methods and limits for use, to fulfill the health and safety requirements of this

directive.

Flame arresters are subjected to an EC type examination and are designed for use in areas at risk from

explosion.

The Directive 1999/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1999 on

minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk

from explosive atmospheres - gives the minimum requirements for the improvement of health

protection and safety of employers who could be endangered by explosive atmospheres. The main

issues are assessment of explosion risk, zone classification and the explosion protection documents

(including requirements for personnel to do engineering, equipment selection, installation,

maintenance, repair, etc.).

National regulations and/or codes relating to specific industries or applications may exist which have to

followed.

Flame arresters are required to protect against many types of explosion events within equipment.

The safety obtained depends heavily upon correct choice, installation and maintenance of the flame

arrester. This cannot be achieved without responsible, informed management.
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1 Scope

This Technical Report is aimed primarily at persons who are responsible for the safe design and

operation of installations and equipment using flammable liquids, vapours or gases.

This document applies to both industrial and mining applications

This document describes possible risks and gives proposals for the protection against these risks by the

use of flame arresters.

This document gives some guidance to choice of flame arresters according to EN ISO 16852 for different

common scenarios and it gives best practice for the installation and maintenance of these flame

arresters.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 60079-20-1, Explosive atmospheres — Part 20-1: Material characteristics for gas and vapour

classification — Test methods and data (IEC 60079-20-1)

EN ISO 16852:2010, Flame arresters — Performance requirements, test methods and limits for use (ISO

16852:2008, including Cor 1:2008 and Cor 2:2009)

EN ISO 28300:2008, Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Venting of atmospheric and

low-pressure storage tanks (ISO 28300:2008)
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
atmospheric condition

pressure ranging from 80 kPa to 110 kPa (0,8 bar to 1,1 bar); temperatures ranging from -20 °C to

+60 °C
3.1.2
end-of-line flame arrester
flame arrester that is fitted with one pipe connection only
3.1.3
explosion

abrupt oxidation or decomposition reaction producing an increase in temperature, pressure, or in both

simultaneously
3.1.4
explosion group
Ex.G
ranking of flammable gas-air mixtures with respect to the MESG
Note 1 to entry: See EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.12.2.
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3.1.5
explosion-pressure-resistant

property of vessels and equipment designed to withstand the expected explosion pressure without

becoming permanently deformed
3.1.6
explosion-pressure-shock resistant

property of vessels and equipment designed to withstand the expected explosion pressure without

rupturing, but allowing permanent deformation
3.1.7
deflagration
explosion propagating at subsonic velocity
[SOURCE: EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.8]
3.1.8
detonation
explosion propagating at supersonic velocity and characterized by a shock wave
[SOURCE: EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.9]
3.1.9
stable detonation

detonation progressing through a confined system without significant variation of velocity and pressure

characteristics

Note 1 to entry: For the atmospheric conditions, test mixtures and test procedures of this International

Standard, typical velocities range between 1 600 m/s and 2 200 m/s.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.10]
3.1.10
unstable detonation

detonation during the transition of a combustion process from a deflagration into a stable detonation

Note 1 to entry: The transition occurs in a limited spatial zone, where the velocity of the combustion wave is not

constant and where the explosion pressure is significantly higher than in a stable detonation. The position of this

transition zone depends, amongst other factors, on pipe diameter, pipe configuration, test gas and explosion

group.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.11]
3.1.11
flame arrester

device fitted to the opening of an enclosure, or to the connecting pipe work of a system of enclosures,

and whose intended function is to allow flow but prevent the transmission of flame

[SOURCE: EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.1]
3.1.12
flame arrester element

part of a flame arrester whose principal function is to prevent flame transmission

[SOURCE: EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.3]
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3.1.13
in-line flame arrester

flame arrester that is fitted with two pipe connections, one on each side of the flame arrester

[SOURCE: EN ISO 16852:2010, 3.22]
3.1.14
mixture
used to represent any mixtures of gas and/or product vapour/air
3.1.15
product
equipment, protective systems, safety devices, components and their combinations
3.1.16
protected side
side of the plant component to be protected
3.1.17
protective system

autonomous devices to stop an explosion immediately and/or limit the effects of explosion flames and

pressures
3.1.18
stabilized burning

steady burning of a flame stabilized at, or close to, the flame arrester element [short time (max. 30

minutes) or endurance burning (for unlimited time)
3.1.19
unprotected side
ignition source side
3.1.20
restriction
reduction of the diameter of the pipe on the protected side of a flame arrester
Note 1 to entry: For example, a restriction can be a not fully opened valve.
3.2 Abbreviated terms
DN nominal size of the connection of a device or pipe fitting
LEL lower explosion limit of the explosion range
L pipe length between flame arrester and restriction

L pipe length on the unprotected side, maximum allowable run-up length for installation

p0 maximum operational pressure
T maximum operational temperature

MESG maximum experimental safe gap – safe gap measured in accordance with EN 60079-20-1

p/v valve pressure and vacuum relief vent valve
UEL upper explosion limit of the explosion range
NPSH net positive suction head
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Z minimum operational water seal immersion depth when the mixture flow displaces the water

0min
from the immersion tubes, where Z > Z
0min Rmin

Z operational immersion depth, corresponding to Z plus the manufacturer's recommended safety

0 0min
margin

Z minimum water seal immersion depth at rest above the outlet openings of the immersion tubes

Rmin

Z immersion depth at rest, corresponding to Z plus the manufacturer's recommended safety

R Rmin
margin
safe volume flow rate
max
safe volume flow rate including a safety margin
4 Explosion risks

The following content is a summary of the non-binding guide to good practice for implementing the

European Parliament and Council Directive 1999/92/EC [1].

Three components are necessary at the same time for an explosion to occur. These are visualized in the

so-called explosion triangle (see Figure 1).
1) Air (oxidizer)
2) Fuel (flammable gas)
3) Ignition Source (e.g. spark, hot surface, etc.)
Figure 1 — Explosion triangle

Fuel mixed with air in a suitable ratio (above LEL and below UEL) is called explosive atmosphere.

Assessment of explosion risks is focused on:
— the likelihood that an explosive atmosphere will occur,
and subsequently on
— the likelihood that sources of ignition will be present and become effective.

Suitable methods for assessing the explosion risks associated with work processes or plant are those

which lend themselves to a systematic approach to checking plant and process safety. An analysis is

made of the existing sources of hazardous explosive atmospheres and the effective sources of ignition

which could occur at the same time. Explosion risks can in practice be assessed by means of

seven questions:
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1) Are flammable substances present?
2) Can sufficient dispersal in air give rise to an explosive atmosphere?
3) Where can explosive atmospheres occur?
4) Is the formation of a hazardous explosive atmosphere possible?
5) Is the formation of hazardous explosive atmospheres reliably prevented?

6) To what zones can the places with hazardous explosive atmospheres be assigned?

7) Is the ignition of hazardous explosive atmospheres reliably prevented?

Depending on the answers of these questions, it could be necessary to apply adequate explosion

protection measures. "Explosion protection measures" mean all measures that prevent the formation of

hazardous explosive atmospheres, avoid the ignition of hazardous explosive atmospheres or mitigate

the effects of explosions. One of the possible measures is to use flame arresters.

An idealized representation of the flame acceleration process is presented in Figure 2.

Key
X pipe L/D 3 deflagration IIB - IIC
Y1 flame speed in m ∙ s 4 deflagration IIA – IIB3
Y2 pressure in bar 5 deflagration to detonation transition
1 flame speed 6 stable detonation
2 pressure
Figure 2 — Development of an explosion in a pipeline
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5 Technical measures for explosion protection
5.1 General

Priority shall be given to the prevention of the formation of hazardous explosive atmospheres. This can

be done by avoiding or reducing the use or by limiting the concentration of flammable substances.

Preventing of hazardous explosive atmospheres can also be realized by inerting.

If it is not possible to prevent the formation of a hazardous explosive atmosphere, its ignition shall be

avoided. This can be achieved by protective measures which avoid or reduce the probability of ignition

sources.

The probability that a hazardous explosive atmosphere and a source of ignition will be present at the

same place and time is estimated and the extent of the measures required is determined accordingly.

This is done on the basis of the zone concept, from which the necessary precautions are derived.

NOTE It is, however, recognized that there can be sources of ignition that cannot be determined with a high

degree of accuracy (e.g. an electrostatic discharge within a pipe or a lightning strike).

5.2 Mitigation of the effects of explosion
5.2.1 General

In many cases, it is not possible to avoid explosive atmospheres and sources of ignition with a sufficient

degree of certainty. Measures shall then be taken to limit the effects of an explosion to an acceptable

extent. Such measures are:
— explosion-resistant design;
— explosion relief;
— explosion suppression;
— prevention of flame and explosion propagation.

These explosion protection measures generally relate to mitigation of the hazardous effects of

explosions.
5.2.2 Prevention of explosion propagation – explosion decoupling

An explosion occurring in one part of a plant can propagate to upstream and downstream parts, where

it may cause further explosions. Acceleration caused by plant fittings or propagation in pipes may

intensify the explosion effects. The explosion pressures can be much higher than the maximum

explosion pressure under normal conditions and may destroy items of plant even if they are of

explosion pressure resistant or explosion pressure shock resistant design. It is therefore important to

limit possible explosions to single parts of the plant. This is achieved by explosion decoupling. Explosion

decoupling can be performed, e.g. by isolation valves or flame arresters.
5.3 Safety concept

Hazardous areas are classified in zones by the operator of a facility according to the frequency and

duration of the explosive atmosphere as given in Table 1.
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Table 1 — Hazardous areas
Definition Explosive atmosphere Example

zone 0 constantly, for a long period or frequently interior of a tank, pipe, device containing

present an explosive mixture
zone 1 sometimes present the immediate vicinity of zone 0, the
surrounding area of loading and unloading
stations, the immediate vicinity of the
outlet openings of vent pipes

zone 2 rare and during a short time of period areas which surround zone 0 and zone 1

present areas, the immediate vicinity of detachable
pipe connections

Openings of explosion-pressure-resistant or explosion-pressure-shock resistant plant components

where explosions can occur internally have to be equipped with pre-volume deflagration flame

arresters to prevent an explosion transmission from the inside to the outside if they are connected to

other plants which are not explosion-pressure-resistant or explosion-pressure-shock resistant.

The safety concept depends on the likelihood of adverse events (e.g. flame transmission from ignition

source), and the extent of the consequences (e.g. range of devastating explosion pressures).

The number of independent measures against flame transmission when facing high-level consequences

is shown in Table 2.
Table 2 — Number of independent measures – zone concept
Number of independent measures
Explosive atmosphere
Ignition source
permanent sometimes rare never
zone 0 zone 1 zone 2 (non-hazardous
area)
permanent 3 2 1 0
sometimes 2 1 0 0
rare 1 0 0 0
never 0 0 0 0

Depending on the hazardous area classification and the likelihood of ignition sources, flame arresters in

series can be used, as well as measures for concentration control and for ignition source control.

If flame arresters are to be used in series it has to be ensured that they function as independent

measures and are not subject to common mode failure, for example deflagration flame arresters in

series may not be independent measures.

If flammable mixtures are emitted or processed during operation in relatively large volumes and over a

relatively long period (e.g. when filling a tank or vapour processed to a vapour destruction unit), it shall

be anticipated that after any ignition there may be stabilized burning at the flame arrester element. In

such cases, suitable additional measures need to be taken to protect the plants, if the installed flame

arrester is not designed / approved for stabilized burning.
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6 Flame arresters
6.1 General

The purpose of a flame arrester is to allow gas to pass through but stop a flame in order to prevent an

explosion or fire propagation. There are many different situations in which flame arresters are applied.

Flame arresters are designed to meet specific requirements of applications.

The severity of explosion depends on the operating conditions, the physical piping conditions, and

environmental factors. Flame arresters are designed for specific applications. Therefore, a wide variety

of flame arrester types are available.

The user shall ensure that a flame arrester has been tested for conditions that match or exceed the

intended application.
Figure 3 shows possible and typical locations of flame arresters, for example:
— tanks;
— processing systems;
— vapour combustion systems, incinerators, flares;
— ships, offshore platforms, vehicles and loading systems;
— vapour recovery units;
— as integrated components of pumps, blowers and other rotating machines.
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Figure 3 — Typical locations for flame arresters
6.2 Principle of operation of flame arresters

Depending on the selected technical solution to prevent flame transmission flame arrester types

according to Table 3 are available.
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Table 3 — Flame arrester principle
Types of flame arresters Remark Safeguard principle
Static flame arrester measurable type; flame arrester Flame quenching
element with quenching gaps that
can be drawn, measured and
controlled
non-measurable type; flame
arrester element with quenching
gaps that cannot be drawn,
measured or controlled

Liquid product detonation flame liquid seal flame arrester; Prevention of flame transmission at

arrester a barrier formed by the liquid
foot valve flame arrester
product
Hydraulic flame arrester — Prevention of flame transmission at
a barrier formed by water

Dynamic flame arrester high-velocity pressure relief valve Nominal flow velocity at the outlet

exceed flame velocity thus prevent
flame transmission
Flame arresters can be distinguished in several ways.
6.3 Types of flame arresters
6.3.1 End-of-line deflagration flame arrester

End of line deflagration flame arresters are used to stop flames coming from outside and avoid

explosion entering the pipe work or tank.
6.3.2 In-line deflagration flame arrester
In-line deflagra
...

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