Bio-based products - Bio-based content - Part 1: Determination of the bio-based content using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis

This European Standard specifies a method of determining the bio-based content in products, based on the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis.
This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous product containing carbon element, provided that a statement giving the composition and the origin of the product is available.
This method is not needed for the determination of the bio based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass.

Biobasierte Produkte - Biobasierter Gehalt - Teil 1: Bestimmung des biobasierten Gehalts unter Verwendung der Radiokarbon- und Elementaranalyse

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung des biobasierten Gehalts in Produkten auf der Grundlage der Radiokarbon- und Elementaranalyse fest.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für alle festen, flüssigen und gasförmigen Produkte, die das Element Kohlenstoff enthalten, vorausgesetzt, es steht eine Erklärung zur Verfügung, in der die Zusammensetzung und die Herkunft des Produkts aufgeführt sind.
Dieses Verfahren wird nicht zur Bestimmung des biobasierten Gehalts in Naturprodukten benötigt, die vollständig von Biomasse abgeleitet sind.

Produits biosourcés - Teneur biosourcée - Partie 1: Détermination de la teneur biosourcée par une analyse au radiocarbone et une analyse élémentaire

La présente Norme européenne spécifie une méthode de détermination de la teneur biosourcée dans les produits, par une analyse au radiocarbone et une analyse élémentaire.
Elle s’applique à n’importe quel produit solide, liquide et gazeux contenant du carbone, à condition qu’une déclaration indiquant la composition et l’origine du produit soit disponible.
Cette méthode n’est pas nécessaire pour déterminer la teneur biosourcée des produits naturels entièrement issus de la biomasse.

Bioizdelki - Biodelež - 1. del: Ugotavljanje biodeleža v izdelkih z radioogljično analizo in elementno analizo

Ta evropski standard določa metodo za ugotavljanje biodeleža v izdelkih z radioogljično in elementno analizo.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za vse trdne, tekoče in plinaste izdelke, ki vsebujejo ogljik, če je na voljo deklaracija o sestavi in poreklu izdelka.
Ta metoda se ne uporablja za ugotavljanje biodeleža v naravnih izdelkih, v celoti proizvedenih iz biomase.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Dec-2014
Publication Date
25-Jan-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Jan-2016
Due Date
11-Mar-2016
Completion Date
26-Jan-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Biobasierte Produkte - Biobasierter Gehalt - Teil 1: Bestimmung des biobasierten Gehalts unter Verwendung der Radiokarbon- und ElementaranalyseProduits biosourcés - Teneur biosourcée - Partie 1: Détermination de la teneur biosourcée par une analyse au radiocarbone et une analyse élémentaireBio-based products - Bio-based content - Part 1: Determination of the bio-based content using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis71.040.40Kemijska analizaChemical analysis13.020.60Življenjski ciklusi izdelkovProduct life-cyclesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16785-1:2015SIST EN 16785-1:2016en,fr,de01-marec-2016SIST EN 16785-1:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16785-1:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16785-1
December
t r s w ICS
s uä r t rä x râ
y sä r v rä v r English Version
Bioæbased products æ Bioæbased content æ Part

sã Determination of the bioæbased content using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis Produits biosourcés æ Teneur biosourcée æ Partie

sã Détermination de la teneur biosourcée par une analyse au radiocarbone et une analyse élémentaire

Biobasierte Produkte æ Biobasierter Gehalt æ Teil

sã Bestimmung des biobasierten Gehalts unter Verwendung der Radiokarbonæ und ElementaranalyseThis European Standard was approved by CEN on

s r October
t r s wä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey andUnited Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s w CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x y z wæ sã t r s w ESIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 6 4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 6 4.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 7 5 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 7 5.1 Product groups ................................................................................................................................................. 7 5.2 Group I products .............................................................................................................................................. 7 5.3 Group II products ............................................................................................................................................ 7 5.4 Natural products ............................................................................................................................................. 8 6 Rules for allocation of elements ................................................................................................................ 8 7 Group I products .............................................................................................................................................. 8 7.1 Statement ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 7.2 Sampling ............................................................................................................................................................. 9 7.3 Determination of the bio-based carbon content and elemental composition .......................... 9 7.3.1 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................... 9 7.3.2 Variability of test results .............................................................................................................................. 9 7.4 Validation criteria of the bio-based content ...................................................................................... 10 7.5 Examples of application of the decision scheme .............................................................................. 12 7.6 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 13 8 Group II products ......................................................................................................................................... 13 8.1 Statement ........................................................................................................................................................ 13 8.2 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 14 8.3 Determination of the bio based carbon content ............................................................................... 14 8.3.1 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 14 8.3.2 Variability of test results ........................................................................................................................... 14 8.4 Validation criteria of the bio-based content ...................................................................................... 14 8.5 Example of application of the decision scheme ................................................................................ 15 8.6 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 Annex A (informative)

Standardized sampling methods ............................................................................ 17 Annex B (informative)

Example of format for reporting results for Group I products ................... 18 Annex C (normative)

Calculation of the bio-based carbon content and bio-based content for Group II products ......................................................................................................................................... 19 C.1 Calculation of the bio-based carbon content ...................................................................................... 19 C.2 Calculation of the bio-based content ..................................................................................................... 19 Annex D (informative)

Example of format for reporting results for Group II products .................. 20 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 21 SIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 3

European foreword This document (EN 16785-1:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based products”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2016. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. EN 16785 consists of the following parts: — EN 16785-1, Bio-based products — Bio-based content — Part 1: Determination of the bio-based content using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis (the present document) — EN 16785-2, Bio-based products — Bio-based content — Part 2: Determination of the bio-based content using the material balance method This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 4 Introduction Bio-based products from forestry and agriculture have a long history of application, such as paper, board and various chemicals and materials. The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based products in the market. Some of the reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’ benefits in relation to the depletion of fossil resources and climate change. Bio-based products may also provide additional product functionalities. This has triggered a wave of innovation with the development of knowledge and technologies allowing new transformation processes and product development. Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, the European Commission issued Mandate M/492 1), resulting in a series of standards developed by CEN/TC 411, with a focus on bio-based products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications. The standards of CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based products” provide a common basis on the following aspects: — Common terminology; — Bio-based content determination; — Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); — Sustainability aspects; — Declaration tools. It is important to understand what the term bio-based product covers and how it is being used. The term ‘bio-based’ means 'derived from biomass'. Bio-based products (bottles, insulation materials, wood and wood products, paper solvents, chemical intermediates, composite materials, etc.) are products which are wholly or partly derived from biomass. It is essential to characterize the amount of biomass contained in the product by, for instance, its bio-based content or bio-based carbon content. The bio-based content of a product does not provide information on its environmental impact or sustainability, which may be assessed through LCA and sustainability criteria. In addition, transparent and unambiguous communication within bio-based value chains is facilitated by a harmonized framework for certification and declaration. The purpose of this European Standard is to provide a method of determining the bio-based content of solid, liquid and gaseous products using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis. Element carbon, C, has an isotope, 14C, which allows for a clear distinction between carbon based substances in present living organisms and carbon based substances from fossil sources. Due to its radioactive decay, it is almost absent from fossil products older than 20 000 years to 30 000 years. Consequently, if the 14C is present in chemicals, then it originates from recent atmospheric CO2.The 14C content may thus be considered as a tracer of chemicals recently synthesized from atmospheric CO2 particularly of recently produced products, and it is used in CEN/TS 16640 for determining the bio-based carbon content. The applied approach for carbon to determine the bio-based content of a sample based on isotopic measurements, cannot be used for other elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen or hydrogen. However the content of each element can be determined by an elemental analysis which leads to the total content of each element. It does not differentiate the element according to its origin from bio-

1) A mandate is a standardization task embedded in European trade laws. Mandate M/492 is addressed to the European Standardization bodies, CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, for the development of horizontal European Standards for bio-based products. SIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 5 based resources or fossil resources. Therefore, the combination of the 14C content determination and an elemental analysis does not give the bio-based content of a sample. To circumvent this difficulty, the method as given in this European Standard is proposed consisting in a statement from the manufacturer, whose values have to be validated by the combined results of the radiocarbon and the elemental analysis. SIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 6 1 Scope This part of EN 16785 specifies a method of determining the bio-based content in products, based on the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis. As a direct analytical determination is not feasible, this method consists in requiring from the producer or his representative some data given in a statement, and comparing these data with the results of the radiocarbon and elemental analysis. This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous product containing carbon, provided that a statement is available about the elemental composition and the bio-based content of the product(s). This method is not needed for the determination of the bio-based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 16575:2014, Bio-based products —Vocabulary CEN/TS 16640:2014, Bio-based products — Determination of the bio based carbon content of products using the radiocarbon method 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16575:2014 and CEN/TS 16640:2014 apply. 4 Symbols and abbreviations 4.1 Symbols 14C carbon isotope with an atomic mass of 14 C symbol for element carbon H symbol for element hydrogen N symbol for element nitrogen O symbol for element oxygen mB bio-based content, expressed as a percentage of the total mass of sample xB bio-based carbon content, expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the sample xTC total carbon content, expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the sample xTH total hydrogen content, expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the sample xTN total nitrogen content, expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the sample xTO total oxygen content, expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the sample W mass of a sample, expressed in grams SIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 7 4.2 Abbreviations CL confidence level TC total carbon TH total hydrogen TN total nitrogen TO total oxygen 5 Principle 5.1 Product groups For the purpose of this European Standard, two groups of products are distinguished depending on whether they are obtained by chemical synthesis (Group I) or without chemical synthesis (Group II). Group I products are obtained by chemical or biological reaction(s). Group II products are obtained by mixing Group I products without chemical or biological reaction. Natural products (5.4) can be used to produce Group I products or as constituent(s) of Group II products. 5.2 Group I products This method, supported by rules described in Clause 6, consists in: a) the determination of the bio-based carbon content and elemental composition of the product by using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis respectively (7.3), and b) the comparison between: 1) the data of the statement (7.1) comprising the composition and the origin (bio-based and/or fossil resources) of the product, and 2) the data resulting from the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis of the product (7.3). 5.3 Group II products This method consists in: a) the determination of the bio-based carbon content of the product by using the radiocarbon analysis (8.3), and b) the comparison between: 1) the data of the statement (8.1) comprising the composition and the origin (bio-based and/or fossil resources) of the product, and 2) the data resulting from the radiocarbon analysis of the product (8.3). NOTE The “statement” in the sense of this document is not to be confused with the “declaration” of the bio-based content resulting of this method. SIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 8 5.4 Natural products It is not needed to apply this method for the determination of the bio-based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass [e.g. wood (including pulp), flax, hemp, bamboo, sisal, coconut, rice]. The bio-based content of a natural product/constituent of a product is equal to 100 %. The bio-based carbon content of a natural product/constituent of a product, expressed as a percentage of the total carbon content is equal to 100 %. 6 Rules for allocation of elements NOTE 1 According to the current state of the art, it is not possible by isotopic measurements to establish a distinction between elements originating from biomass and elements originating from non-biomass, for elements such as oxygen, hydrogen or nitrogen. For a product/constituent of a product obtained by chemical synthesis (Group I), the following rule shall be applied: a) if the reactants are exclusively derived from biomass, the bio-based content of the product/constituent of the product is 100 %; b) if none of the reactants is derived from biomass, the bio-based content of the product/constituent of the product is 0 %, and c) if the reactants are derived from both biomass and non-biomass, the following convention applies: If oxygen (O) and/or hydrogen (H) and/or nitrogen (N) element(s) is(are) bound to a carbon structure derived from biomass, its(their) fraction is(are) considered to be part(s) of the bio-based content. NOTE 2 Element(s) other than C, H, O and N elements are not considered in this European Standard. 7 Group I products 7.1 Statement The statement to be provided with the product as an input for the determination of its bio-based content shall include: a) information related to the relevant chemical reaction(s) and the raw materials/chemicals from which the product is made; b) a complete elemental composition of the product (1TCx, 1THx, 1TOxand 1TNx), and c) the bio-based carbon content (1Bx), and bio-based content (1Bm), of the product, obtained by calculation, following the rules defined in Clause 6. For products which contain water, the bio-based content (1Bm) is expressed by mass of dry matter. EXAMPLE Bio-ethyl acetate obtained by esterification between bio-ethanol from fermentation of sugar and acetic acid from fossil resources. See Table 1. SIST EN 16785-1:2016

EN 16785-1:2015 (E) 9 Table 1 — Example of calculation for bio-ethyl acetate Fraction C % H % O % Total % Fossil fraction (from acetic acid) 27,3 3,4 18,2 48,9 Bio-based fraction (from ethanol) 27,2 5,7 18,2 51,1 Total 54,5 9,1 36,4 100,0 1TCx = 54,5 % 1THx = 9,1 % 1TOx = 36,4 % 1Bx = 27,2 % 1Bm = 51,1 % 7.2 Sampling The samples shall be representative of the product under consideration. If available, product sampling procedures for the determination of the bio-based carbon content and elemental composition shall be used and the details shall be documented. A list of suitable standardized sampling methods is given in Annex A. 7.3 Determination of the bio-based carbon content and elemental composition 7.3.1 Procedure Determine the bio-based carbon content of the sample according to CEN/TS 16640. Express the bio-based carbon content (2Bx), as a percentage of the total mass of the sample. Determine the contents of total carbon (2TCx), hydrogen

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